Oviposition Behavior (oviposition + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Necrophagous Dipterans in Kelantan, Malaysia,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2009
Helmi Mohd Hadi Pritam B.Sc.
Abstract:, The likelihood of dipteran maggots colonizing a corpse due to nocturnal oviposition can be used to challenge the postmortem interval (PMI) estimated assuming diurnal oviposition. Earlier experiments tested nocturnal oviposition behavior by exposing fresh baits once during a single night. In this pilot study, oviposition behavior was studied using beef baits, which, simulating the decay of the body seen in case situations, decomposed inside cages designed to open and close at scheduled intervals during consecutive night or twilight periods. Freshly hatched maggots from diurnally oviposited eggs emerged in control baits on the third day, while a limited number of maggots attributable to nocturnal or twilight oviposition were observed in experimental baits only on the fifth or sixth day, indicating a categorical delay. These results suggest that such delayed and limited nocturnal oviposition is not forensically significant since the larger maggots deriving from diurnal oviposition would be the ones considered when estimating PMI. [source]


Predatory hoverflies select their oviposition site according to aphid host plant and aphid species

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2007
Raki Almohamad
Abstract The hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae) is an abundant and efficient aphid-specific predator. Several aphidophagous parasitoids and predators are known to respond positively to aphid-infested plants. Semiochemicals from the latter association usually mediate predator/parasitoid foraging behavior toward sites appropriate for offspring fitness. In this study, we investigated the effect of aphid host plant and aphid species on foraging and oviposition behavior of E. balteatus. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer v. 5.0, which allows observed insect behavior to be subdivided into different stages. Additionally, the influence of aphid species and aphid host plant on offspring fitness was tested in a second set of experiments. Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris and Megoura viciae Buckton were equally attractive for E. balteatus whereas Aphis fabae Scopoli (all Homoptera: Aphididae) were less attractive. These results were correlated with (i) the number of eggs laid, which was significantly higher for the two first aphid species, and (ii) the fitness of hoverfly larvae, pupae, and adults. Two solanaceous plant species, Solanum nigrum L. and Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), which were infested with Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae), were also compared using the same approach. Discrimination between these two M. persicae host plants was observed, with S. tuberosum being preferred as an oviposition site by the predatory hoverfly. Larval and adult fitness was correlated with the behavioral observations. Our results demonstrated the importance of the prey,host plant association on the choice of the oviposition site by an aphid predator, which is here shown to be related to offspring fitness. [source]


The effect of travel time on oviposition behavior and spatial egg aggregation: experiments with Drosophila

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 3 2007
Kazuo H. Takahashi
Abstract A higher degree of spatial egg aggregation is often observed in environments where resource patches are more sparsely distributed. This suggests a higher probability of species coexistence when resource distribution is sparse. However, it is still unclear how the degree of spatial egg aggregation increases. I propose a model to explain this phenomenon, which assumes that (i) egg load (the number of mature eggs in ovaries) increases in the travel period between resource patches and (ii) the retention of eggs in the ovaries is harmful (egg load pressure). With these assumptions, a female would lay accumulated eggs on arrival at a new resource patch, resulting in a higher degree of spatial egg aggregation. Laboratory experiments with three drosophilid species, Drosophila simulans Surtevant, Drosophila auraria Peng, and Drosophila immigrans Sturtevant, support the model. This study provides evidence that host availability affects the spatial egg aggregation via egg load. [source]


Searching and oviposition behavior of a mymarid egg parasitoid, Anagrus nigriventris, on five host plant species of its leafhopper host, Circulifer tenellus

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 1 2000
A.K. Al-Wahaibi
Abstract Searching and oviposition behavior and parasitization ability of Anagrus nigriventris Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), were examined on five host plant species of beet leafhopper: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), red stem filaree (Erodium cicutarium[L.]), peppergrass (Lepidium nitidum Nuttall), desert plantain (Plantago ovata Forsskal), and London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Beet leafhopper embeds its eggs in the tissues of these plant species. For each plant species, A. nigriventris behavior was examined on plants with and without beet leafhopper eggs. Experimental design was a 5 (plant species) by 2 (host eggs present/absent) factorial. Additionally within each treatment, parasitoid behavior was observed over a 22-h period at five different observation periods: t=0, 3, 6, 9, and 22 h where t=0 h represents initial exposure of the insect with the plant. The behavioral events observed were: ,fast walking' (general searching), ,slow walking' (intensive searching), ovipositor probing, grooming, feeding, and resting. Significant differences (,=0.05) among plant species in time spent on the plant, percentage of host eggs parasitized, and behavioral variables associated with intensive searching and oviposition all indicated that the plant species fell into two groups: ,preferred' plants (sugar beet, London rocket, and peppergrass), and ,unpreferred' plants (filaree and plantago). These variables also indicated that the parasitoids spent more time on, searched more, probed more, and oviposited more in plants with host eggs than plants without host eggs. Consistent effects of time (over the observation periods from t=0 to t=22 h) generally were detected only in the preferred plant species that had host eggs present. In these cases, intensive searching and probing decreased as time advanced, while variables related to general searching (,fast walking') and abandoning host egg patches (leaving the plant) tended to increase over time. [source]


Biology of Anagrus atomus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of the grape leafhopper Arboridia kermanshah (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
Shahram HESAMI
Abstract Biology, morphology and oviposition behavior of Anagrus atomus (Linnaeus), an egg parasitoid of the grape leafhopper Arboridia kermanshah Dlabola in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Adults were smaller than those so far reported from other regions. Females continuously drummed on plant surfaces with their antennae to search for host eggs. Parasitoid eggs hatched 2,3 days after oviposition, and A. atomus had two larval instars. First instar larvae were sacciform and immobile. Second instar larvae appeared 4 days after oviposition and were very active, and doubled their body length. The prepupal and pupal stages lasted for 1 and 5,6 days, respectively. Adult emergence began 16 days after oviposition, and peaked on day 17. [source]


Effect of metanotal secretion ingestion on oviposition in a tree cricket, Truljalia hibinonis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2004
Tomohiro ONO
Abstract The female Truljalia hibinonis ingests metanotal secretions of the male during copulation. The effect of ingestion on oviposition behavior was compared between three female groups: females that copulated once with an intact male (a male that had not been manipulated; M group); females that copulated once with a male from which most of the metanotal secretion had been removed (NO group); and females that copulated once with an intact male followed by being artificially supplied with metanotal secretion three times (MS group). There were no obvious differences in female fecundity across the three groups. However, within the MS group, intake of an optimal amount of metanotal secretion increased the number of eggs laid. This effect appeared quickly after ingestion and was most effective on the first bout (eggs laid during the first few days after copulation) after ingestion of the metanotal secretion. In contrast, the number of eggs laid had a negative correlation with the amount of metanotal secretion ingested when the amount exceeded the optimal in this experimental arrangement. [source]


Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Necrophagous Dipterans in Kelantan, Malaysia,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 5 2009
Helmi Mohd Hadi Pritam B.Sc.
Abstract:, The likelihood of dipteran maggots colonizing a corpse due to nocturnal oviposition can be used to challenge the postmortem interval (PMI) estimated assuming diurnal oviposition. Earlier experiments tested nocturnal oviposition behavior by exposing fresh baits once during a single night. In this pilot study, oviposition behavior was studied using beef baits, which, simulating the decay of the body seen in case situations, decomposed inside cages designed to open and close at scheduled intervals during consecutive night or twilight periods. Freshly hatched maggots from diurnally oviposited eggs emerged in control baits on the third day, while a limited number of maggots attributable to nocturnal or twilight oviposition were observed in experimental baits only on the fifth or sixth day, indicating a categorical delay. These results suggest that such delayed and limited nocturnal oviposition is not forensically significant since the larger maggots deriving from diurnal oviposition would be the ones considered when estimating PMI. [source]


Importance of Silene latifolia ssp. alba and S. dioica (Caryophyllaceae) as host plants of the parasitic pollinator Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

OIKOS, Issue 2 2004
Sigrun Bopp
With regards to pollination there exist several mutualistic relationships between Hadena -species and Caryophyllaceae. As mutualists have both negative and positive effects on their partners, mutualism is often betoken as reciprocative exploitation which may shift to parasitism if the exploitation of one partner becomes prevalent. Several Silene - and Saponaria -species are considered to be larval host plants of Hadena bicruris. Although Silene latifolia ssp. alba and S. dioica are frequently cited as hosts of the seed eating larvae, field and laboratory observations at Ulm were suggestive for only S. latifolia ssp. alba being a suitable host. Records of the oviposition behavior of H. bicruris made it evident that in fact a considerable number of eggs could be found in planted stands of both species. On the other hand, phenological data of the flowering periods and of the oviposition behavior of H. bicruris showed that S. latifolia ssp. alba is clearly preferred for oviposition if host selection is possible due to contemporaneous flowering of individuals of both plant species growing at close range. In addition, the flowering periods of S. latifolia ssp. alba and the periods of moth activity overlap to a large extent. This is not the case in S. dioica. Feeding experiences first indicated that the caterpillars may not prefer one of the species to the other, but comparison of the pupal weight of the animals reared on fruits of exclusively one of the species showed that the seeds of S. latifolia ssp. alba were more profitable for nutrition than those of S. dioica; the pupal weight of animals reared on seeds of the former species significantly exceeded that of animals reared on seeds of the latter one. The question arises if the symbiosis of H. bicruris and its hosts constitutes a stable situation or if an evolutionary shift to mutualism or parasitism will take place. [source]


Plant-insect interactions: what can we learn from plant lectins?

ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2010
Katrien Michiels
Abstract Many plant lectins have high anti-insect potential. Although the effects of most lectins are only moderately influencing development or population growth of the insect, some lectins have strong insecticidal properties. In addition, some studies report a deterrent activity towards feeding and oviposition behavior. Transmission of plant lectins to the next trophic level has been investigated for several tritrophic interactions. Effects of lectins with different sugar specificities can vary substantially with the insect species under investigation and with the experimental setup. Lectin binding in the insect is an essential step in exerting a toxic effect. Attempts have been made to study the interactions of lectins in several insect tissues and to identify lectin-binding receptors. Ingested lectins generally bind to parts of the insect gut. Furthermore, some lectins such as the Galanthus nivalus agglutinin (GNA) cross the gut epithelium into the hemolymph and other tissues. Recently, several candidate lectin-binding receptors have been isolated from midgut extracts. To date little is known about the exact mechanism for insecticidal activity of plant lectins. However, insect glycobiology is an emerging research field and the recent technological advances in the analysis of lectin carbohydrate specificities and insect glycobiology will certainly lead to new insights in the interactions between plant lectins and insects, and to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]