Ovipositing Females (ovipositing + female)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni in the coastal waters of eastern Australia

D. M. Powter
The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni was investigated at three locations on the central and southern coast of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from January 2002 to December 2005 using underwater visual census surveys and samples obtained from a commercial fishery. Adults displayed sexual dimorphism in total length (LT) at sexual maturity, with males maturing between 762 and 772 mm LT and females between 902 and 905 mm LT. The mean ovarian fecundity was estimated at 16 offspring per female but was unrelated to female LT. Male gonado-somatic (IG) and hepato-somatic (IH) indices and female IG declined from July to November as did maximum ovarian follicle diameter and the diameter of the three largest follicles. Adults were absent from inshore reefs between December and July. Hence, H. portusjacksoni has a synchronous annual breeding season in NSW, which occurs between July and November (the austral winter to spring), with a peak in oviposition from August to October. Heterodontus portusjacksoni copulatory and ovipository behaviour are reported for the first time. Copulation was observed and involved oral grasping of the female's pectoral fin by a single male, which wrapped his body around hers to insert one clasper. Ovipositing females appeared to search crevices in the reef prior to delivering a single capsule, which was washed into the crevice by water movement, with the female departing very soon after oviposition. This study represents the first rigorously quantitative analysis of H. portusjacksoni reproductive biology and ecology in NSW waters. [source]

Interactions between the stem-mining weevils Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. and Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in oilseed rape

Georg Dechert
Abstract 1,The rape stem weevil Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. and the cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.) share the same habitat and food resource within the stems of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. var. oleifera. Interactions occurring between these two sympatric species on this host were studied under both field and laboratory conditions. 2,The oviposition preference of C. pallidactylus and the within-plant distribution of eggs and larvae were examined in field plots of oilseed rape. Female C. pallidactylus tended to lay their eggs in plants already infested by eggs and larvae of C. napi rather than in uninfested plants. The within-plant distribution of the egg batches of C. pallidactylus did not differ significantly between uninfested plants and those preinfested by C. napi. Ovipositing females of C. napi and C. pallidactylus generally showed a significant preference for plants with larger stem diameter. 3,Laboratory choice tests provided further evidence for the oviposition preference of C. pallidactylus. Females laid significantly more eggs in leaves of plants that had been previously infested by C. napi than in leaves of previously uninfested plants. 4,Larvae of C. pallidactylus showed a significant shift of their feeding niche towards the stem base when feeding in individual plants attacked by both species. This possibly indicates ressource partitioning between C. pallidactylus and C. napi. The within-plant distribution of C. napi larvae was not affected by the simultaneous attack of C. pallidactylus. 5,The size of the head capsule of full-grown larvae of C. napi and C. pallidactylus was not significantly correlated with the diameter of the stem of their host plant or with the number of conspecific larvae within individual plants. [source]

Pheromones in relation to aggregation and reproduction in desert locusts

Hans-Jörg Ferenz
Abstract. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), exhibit a population density-dependent phase polymorphism which includes the gradual change of many morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics. Many volatiles associated with desert locusts have been identified recently and it is assumed that they are involved in pheromonal control of behaviour and development of locusts. Ovipositing females deposit with their egg pods several volatiles that appear to be attractive to other females resulting , possibly in combination with environmental factors , in an aggregated oviposition. Mature males release several volatiles, among them phenylacetonitrile, which are reported to accelerate sexual maturation in young males. Also, aggregation pheromone systems for hoppers and adults have been described. However, recent studies and publications shed a new light on the postulated effects of some of these volatiles. Gregarious behaviour can undoubtedly be induced by mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, the main component of the adult aggregation pheromone system, phenylacetonitrile, is found to be a repellent obviously not involved in aggregation. Comprehensive studies have demonstrated that phenylacetonitrile is used by mature gregarious males as a courtship inhibition pheromone to enhance mate guarding. Recent progress, contradictory results and perspectives in desert locust pheromone research related to reproduction are summarized and discussed in this paper. [source]

Oviposition decreased in response to enriched water: a field study of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

Abstract 1.,Environmental cues are known to influence oviposition behaviour in mosquitoes, with important consequences for larval survival and insect population dynamics. Enriched microhabitats have been shown to be preferred oviposition sites. 2.,In a field experiment designed to determine whether ovipositing mosquitoes are sensitive to different levels of nutrient enrichment, new pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves were opened and enriched with 0, 2, or 20 dead ants, and the number of pitcher-plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii) larvae resulting from subsequent oviposition were measured. 3.,Oviposition rates were higher in leaves with low levels of enrichment (0 and 2 ants per leaf), although larval development was enhanced at the highest enrichment level. 4.,Results suggest that, although these mosquito larvae are nutrient limited, ovipositing females preferentially avoid highly enriched leaves. This counterintuitive result may be due to low oxygen concentrations or a masked cue in enriched leaves, and contrasts with other oviposition studies. [source]

Parental care in the whitefly Aleyrodes singularis

Moshe Guershon
Summary 1. Patches of Aleyrodes singularis nymphs are characterised by a distinctive phenotype composed of the nymphs' exuviae, which are piled on the nymph, and by a covering layer of wax secreted by the adults; these characteristics have been found to confer defensive properties against natural enemies. 2. In contrast to the behaviour typical for ovipositing females of other aleyrodids, A. singularis females tend to remain near the patch of their progeny throughout their development. These mothers were therefore tested to show whether they exhibited active defensive behaviour towards natural enemies, beyond their contribution to passive defence achieved through the secretion of wax on the immatures. 3. The behaviour of whitefly adults differed significantly when performed in the presence of conspecific adults from their behaviour in the presence of natural enemies (either a parasitoid or a predator). The differences were expressed in the mean time devoted to some behavioural events, the frequency at which events were performed, and the number of transitions between pairs of events. 4. Most of the recorded behavioural differences were associated with departure of the natural enemies, facilitating immature survival. 5. This is the first report of active behavioural changes that convey defence of immature offspring for the family Aleyrodidae. Conditions characterising these findings and their relationship with those in which parental care is expected are discussed. [source]


INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
OmkarArticle first published online: 28 JUN 200
Abstract, Reproductive behaviour of two aphidophagous ladybeetles, Cheilomenes sexmaculata and Coccinella transversalis was studied. A premating period of 5.0±0.5 and 11.7±0.4 days and a pre-oviposition period of 5.5±0.7 and 12.7±0.5 days was observed for C. sexmaculata and C. transversalis, respectively. Males of both the species exhibited courtship in five steps, viz. approach, watch, examine, mount and attempt. Sexually immature, recently mated and ovipositing females rejected male advances in both the species. Chemical, visual and behavioural cues probably play a role in mate recognition. Quiescent mating occurred in C. sexmaculata, whereas abdominal shakings in the form of bouts and strokes were characteristic in C. transversalis. C. sexmaculata had a relatively prolonged mating duration (133.4±z8.9 min) than C. transversalis (37.9±2.0 min), possibly due to the absence of active processes, i.e., bouts and strokes. The active processes in C. transversalis decreased with multiple matings in a day. Unmated adults of both the species mated more vigorously than the mated ones. Reproductive performance of both the species was best after multiple matings. [source]


INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
Abstract The population of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), does not increase on pear from spring to mid-summer but thereafter increases abruptly. To elucidate this phenomenon, we compared the performance of the mites on pear leaves with that on citrus leaves, at different time throughout the pear-growing season. No significant difference was detected between the oviposition rate on pear and that on citrus throughout the season. However, the survival rate of ovipositing females that had fed on pear and the hatch rate of eggs laid by those females were significantly lower than those for females that had fed on citrus, until August. However, no significant difference was observed thereafter. The results showed that the decline of the population of citrus red mite before autumn is due to the high mortality of adult females that had fed on pear leaves and the low hatch rate of the eggs produced by those females. [source]

Qualitative aspects of sperm stock in males and females from Eupelmus orientalis and Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) as revealed by dual fluorescence

David Damiens
Abstract The quality of a sperm population can be characterized physiologically and its fecundity predicted by its viable : non-viable sperm ratio. To improve the knowledge of reproductive strategies in two ectoparasitoid hymenopteran species, Eupelmus orientalis Crawford (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) and Dinarmus basalis Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), the assessment of sperm viability using the dual fluorescence staining procedure SYBR-14 : propidium iodide was developed. The aim of the study was to provide a comparative test in vitro applicable to both sexes to study the evolution of sperm quality at various stages of the reproductive processes. The reliability of propidium iodide to detect non-viable sperm (stained in red) was confirmed in both species on the basis of two stress tests (ethanol and Triton X-100) but our study also revealed that propidium iodide concentrations must be adequately adjusted for each single species. This experiment also demonstrated the physiological heterogeneity of sperm populations in E. orientalis and D. basalis males and females. In both species, 40% of the sperm in the seminal vesicles was found to be non-viable. By contrast with E. orientalis, the populations of non-viable sperm estimated from the seminal vesicles of D. basalis were found to be strongly different from those observed in the spermatheca. From the present results, the population of viable sperm detected in the spermatheca of females from both species proved a reliable predictor of fertilization achieved in ovipositing females. [source]

Pollination by deceit in Paphiopedilum barbigerum (Orchidaceae): a staminode exploits the innate colour preferences of hoverflies (Syrphidae)

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
J. Shi
Abstract Paphiopedilum barbigerum T. Tang et F. T. Wang, a slipper orchid native to southwest China and northern Vietnam, produces deceptive flowers that are self-compatible but incapable of mechanical self-pollination (autogamy). The flowers are visited by females of Allograpta javana and Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) that disperse the orchid's massulate pollen onto the receptive stigmas. Measurements of insect bodies and floral architecture show that the physical dimensions of these two fly species correlate with the relative positions of the receptive stigma and dehiscent anthers of P. barbigerum. These hoverflies land on the slippery centralised wart located on the shiny yellow staminode and then fall backwards through the labellum entrance. They are temporarily trapped in the inflated chamber composed of the interconnected labellum and column. The attractive staminode of P. barbigerum strongly reflects the colour yellow (500,560 nm), a colour preferred innately by most pollen-eating members of the Syrphidae. No scent molecules were detected using GC mass spectrometry analysis, showing that the primary attractant in this system is visual, not olfactory. Pollination-by-deceit in P. barbigerum is contrasted with its congener, P. dianthum, a brood site mimic that is pollinated by ovipositing females of E. balteatus. As the natural rate of fruit set in P. barbigerum (mean 26.3% pooled over three seasons) is lower than that of P. dianthum (mean 58.5% over two seasons), the evolution of false brood sites in some Paphiopedilum spp. should be selectively advantageous as they may provide an increase in the attention and return rates of dependable pollinators to flowers that always lack a reward. [source]

Test of the enemy release hypothesis: The native magpie moth prefers a native fireweed (Senecio pinnatifolius) to its introduced congener (S. madagascariensis)

Abstract The enemy release hypothesis predicts that native herbivores will either prefer or cause more damage to native than introduced plant species. We tested this using preference and performance experiments in the laboratory and surveys of leaf damage caused by the magpie moth Nyctemera amica on a co-occuring native and introduced species of fireweed (Senecio) in eastern Australia. In the laboratory, ovipositing females and feeding larvae preferred the native S. pinnatifolius over the introduced S. madagascariensis. Larvae performed equally well on foliage of S. pinnatifolius and S. madagascariensis: pupal weights did not differ between insects reared on the two species, but growth rates were significantly faster on S. pinnatifolius. In the field, foliage damage was significantly greater on native S. pinnatifolius than introduced S. madagascariensis. These results support the enemy release hypothesis, and suggest that the failure of native consumers to switch to introduced species contributes to their invasive success. Both plant species experienced reduced, rather than increased, levels of herbivory when growing in mixed populations, as opposed to pure stands in the field; thus, there was no evidence that apparent competition occurred. [source]