Oviparous Species (oviparous + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2009
Vincent J. Lynch
The identification of adaptations and key innovations has long interested biologists because they confer on organisms the ability to exploit previously unavailable ecological resources and respond to novel selective pressures. Although it can be extremely difficult to test for the effects of a character on the rate of lineage diversification, the convergent evolution of a character in multiple lineages provides an excellent opportunity to test for the effect of that character on lineage diversification. Here, I examine the effect of parity mode on the diversification of vipers, which have independently evolved viviparity in at least 13 lineages. I find strong statistical evidence that viviparous species diversify at a greater rate than oviparous species and correlate major decreases in the diversification rate of oviparous species with periods of global cooling, such as the Oligocene. These results suggest that the evolution of viviparity buffered live-bearing species against the negative effects of global climate change during the Cenozoic, and was a key innovation in the evolution and diversification of live-bearing vipers. [source]

Grass snakes exploit anthropogenic heat sources to overcome distributional limits imposed by oviparity

Kristin Löwenborg
Summary 1.,A lack of warm nest-sites prevents oviparous reptile species from reproducing in cool climates; such areas are dominated by viviparous species because sun-seeking pregnant females can maintain high temperatures for their developing offspring. 2.,Our field and laboratory studies show that one oviparous species (the grass snake, Natrix natrix) escapes this cold-climate constraint (and hence, extends much further north in Europe than do other oviparous taxa) by ovipositing in a thermally distinctive man-made microhabitat (manure heaps on farms). 3.,In the field, temperatures inside manure heaps averaged 30·7 °C, much higher than compost heaps (20·6 °C) or potential natural nest-sites under logs and rocks (15·5 °C). 4.,In the laboratory, higher incubation temperatures not only hastened hatching, but also increased hatching success and modified the body sizes, colours, and locomotor abilities of hatchlings. Incubation temperatures typical of manure heaps (rather than alternative nest-sites) resulted in larger, faster offspring that hatched earlier in the season. 5.,Thus, anthropogenic activities have generated potential nest-sites offering thermal regimes not naturally available in the region; and grass snakes have exploited that opportunity to escape the thermal limits that restrict geographic distributions of other oviparous reptile taxa. [source]

The ovarian morphology of Scorpaena notata shows a specialized mode of oviparity

M. Muñoz
Scorpaena notata is an oviparous species with external fertilization that deposits its eggs in a gelatinous matrix. The internal epithelium of the ovarian wall is chiefly responsible for the production of this matrix, which is particularly abundant and viscous during the spawning period. The oocytes lack lipid droplets, so flotation and transport of the eggs is probably accomplished by means of the matrix that surrounds them. The ovarian stroma is situated along the centre of the gonad and the developing oocytes are connected to it by peduncles. The paucity and small size of the cortical alveoli of the oocytes are notable, as is the thinness of the zona radiata. These are characteristics that would be typical of viviparous species. The histological and ultrastructural observations lead to the conclusion that this species presents a type of oviparity more highly specialized than that of the majority of teleosts. [source]

From oviparity to viviparity: a preliminary note on the morphometric differentiation between oviparous and viviparous species assigned to the genus Liolaemus (Reptilia, Squamata, Liolaemidae)

J. M. Cei
Abstract Embryonic growth requires a considerable internal space in viviparous female lizards and this need for space should be reflected in their external morphometry. External morphological differences associated with the reproductive mode in 12 viviparous and 18 oviparous species of Liolaemus lizards were identified. Size differences between viviparous and oviparous species were elucidated by axilla-groin/snout-vent relationship. Axilla-groin distance, considered a size estimator of visceral cavity, surpassed 50% of snout-vent length in viviparous females, while it is always less than 50% in oviparous females. This difference between the two reproductive modes is statistically significant. Zusammenfassung Das Embryonenwachstum beansprucht in viviparen Eidechsenweibchen einen beachtlichen internen Raum und dieser Anspruch auf Raum sollte sich in ihrer externen Morphometrie wiederfinden. Es wurden externe morphologische Unterschiede, die mit dem Reproduktionsmodus in Zusammenhang stehen in 12 viviparen und 18 oviparen Arten von Eidechsen der Gattung Liolaemus erfaßt. Größenunterschiede zwischen viviparen und oviparen Arten wurden durch das Verhältnis der Längen Achselhöhle-Leiste zu Maul-Kloake entdeckt. Die Achselhöhle-Leisten Distanz, ein Wert, der als Maß des Bauchraums angesehen werden kann, überschritt 50 % der Maul-Kloaken-Länge bei den viviparen Weibchen, während sie bei den oviparen Weibchen stets unter 50% war. Dieser Unterschied zwischen den beiden Forpflanzungsweisen ist statistisch signifikant. [source]

Evolutionary innovations of squamate reproductive and developmental biology in the family Chamaeleonidae

The availability of molecular phylogenies has greatly accelerated our understanding of evolutionary innovations in the context of their origin and rate of evolution. Here, we assess the evolution of reproductive mode, developmental rate and body size in a group of squamate reptiles: the chameleons. Oviparity is ancestral and viviparity has evolved at least twice: Bradypodion and members of the Trioceros bitaeniatus clade are viviparous. Viviparous species are medium-sized as a result of convergence from either small-sized ancestors or large-sized ancestors, respectively, but do not differ from oviparous species in clutch size, hatchling size or the trade-off between clutch and hatchling size. Basal chameleons (Brookesia, Rhampholeon and Rieppeleon) are small-sized and have developmental rates comparable with those of other lizards. Derived chameleons (Calumma, Chamaeleo, Trioceros and Furcifer) are mostly large-sized and all have relatively slow developmental rates. Several clades of derived chameleons also exhibit developmental arrest (embryonic diapause or embryonic diapause plus cold torpor) and incubation periods extend to 6,10 months or more. Developmental arrest is associated with dry, highly seasonal climates in which the period favourable for oviposition and hatching is short. Long incubation periods thus ensure that hatching occurs during the favourable season following egg laying. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 656,668. [source]