Oviduct

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Oviduct

  • oviduct epithelial cell

  • Selected Abstracts


    Early ontogeny and placentation of the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae: Marsupialia): contribution to the reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2001
    Zeller
    This study provides new findings on the placenta of Monodelphis domestica and a reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype. To achieve this, early ontogeny and placentation of the grey short-tailed opossum, M. domestica, from 3 h after copulation until birth (day 15), were studied and compared with other mammals. Both the ultrastructure and histochemistry of egg membranes, foetal membranes, oviduct and uterus were examined. The results of this study provide the first detailed ultrastructural description of a trophoblastic syncytium in a marsupial. In addition, this is the first original documentation of an invasive trophectoderm and an inflammatory reaction at parturition in M. domestica. These findings were compared with literature data and included into the reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype. Based on marsupial phylogeny as proposed by Luckett (J. Mammal. Evol. 2, 255,283, 1994), characters that are consistent at least within didelphids and dasyurids were determined to be characters of the marsupial morphotype. These characters are a central yolk separated from the peripheral yolk-poor cytoplasm in the unfertilized oocyte, the presence of a zona pellucida, a mucoid coat and a shell coat, the absence of a corona radiata, oviductal mucoid secretion, no shell secretion distal to the isthmus of the oviduct, uterine shell secretion, a short tubal passage (1 day at maximum), the apposition of blastomeres to the zona pellucida prior to intercellular association, the absence of a morula stage, the polarity of the zygotic yolk, the localized segmentation of deutoplasm (yolk) during the first cleavage and subsequent extrusion of yolk vesicles during the first two cleavage stages. With regard to the marsupial morphotype, the non-polarized yolk distribution in the zygote [Hartman (J. Morphol. 27, 1,84, 1916); McCrady (Am. Anat. Mem. 16, 1,233, 1938)] is a derived character of Didelphis virginiana. Didelphis virginiana [Hartman (J. Morphol. 27, 1,84, 1916); Hartman (J. Morphol. 32, 1,139, 1919); McCrady (Am. Anat. Mem. 16, 1,233, 1938)] and Didelphis marsupialis (Hill, Q. J. Micr. Sci. 63, 91,139, 1918) share the synapomorphous reduction of deutoplasmolysis to a generalized extrusion of vesicles. The absence of separated yolk and consequently a cleavage without yolk extrusion (Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996) are apomorphies of macropodids. This is possibly correlated with the association of blastomeres in early cleavage stages (Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996). A yolk sac placenta and a vascularized allantochorion can be assumed for part of the ontogeny in the marsupial morphotype, irrespective of the formation of an allantoic placenta at near term stages. The character polarization of the mode of placentation and parturition needs further investigation. Frühe Ontogenie und Plazentation der grauen Hausspitzmausbeutelratte, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae: Marsupialia): Ein Beitrag zur Rekonstruktion des Grundplans der Marsupialia Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die frühe Ontogenese und Plazentation von 3 Stunden nach der Kopulation bis zur Geburt der Beutelratte Monodelphis domestica. Es wird die Ultrastruktur und Histochemie der Eihäute, der Fetalmembranen, des Oviductes und des Uterus beschrieben. Erstmalig wird die Ultrastruktur eines trophoblastischen Syncytiums bei einem Beuteltier beschrieben. Weiterhin wird ein invasives Trophektoderm und eine Entzündungsreaktion zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt bei M. domestica festgestellt. Die Befunde dieser Studie und Literaturdaten werden verglichen und in eine Grundplanrekonstruktion integriert. Merkmale, die mindestens zwischen Vertretern der Didelphidae und Dasyuridae übereinstimmen, werden basierend auf dem phylogenetischen System der Marsupialia nach Luckett, J. Mammal. Evol. 2, 255,283, 1994, für den Grundplan der Marsupialia angenommen. Diese Merkmale sind zentral separierter Dotter und peripheres dotterarmes Zytoplasma in der unbefruchteten Eizelle, das Vorhandensein von Zona pellucida, Mucoidschicht und Schalenhaut, das Fehlen einer Corona radiata, die Mucoidsekretion durch den Oviduct, die Schalensekretion durch den Uterus und nicht distal der Isthmusregion des Oviductes, eine kurze Tubenwanderung (maximal einen Tag), die Anlagerung der Blastomeren an die Zona pellucida vor der interzellulären Verbindung, das Fehlen eines Morulastadiums, die Dotterpolarität in der Zygote, die lokale Dotterabtrennung bei der ersten Teilung und die anschließende Dotterextrusion während der ersten beiden Teilungen. In Bezug auf den Grundplan der Marsupialia ist die unpolare Dotterverteilung in der Zygote ein abgeleitetes Merkmal von Didelphis virginiana. Didelphis virginiana und Didelphis marsupialis teilen als Synapomorphie die Reduktion der Deutoplasmolyse auf eine generelle Vesikelextrusion. Das Fehlen separierten Dotters in der Oocyte und die resultierende Furchung ohne Dotterextrusion [Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996] ist eine Apomorphie der Macropodidae. Hiermit hängt möglicherweise die frühe Zusammenlagerung der Blastomeren zusammen [Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996]. Ein vaskularisiertes Allantochorion und eine Dottersackplazenta können für einen Teil der Ontogenese im Grundplan der Marsupialia angenommen werden. Ob das Allantochorion neben der Respiration auch dem Stoffaustausch diente ist unklar. Die Lesrichtung für den Modus der Plazentation und der Geburt bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. [source]


    Energy substrates in bovine oviduct and uterine fluid and blood plasma during the oestrous cycle

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2008
    S.A. Hugentobler
    Abstract Up to 40 percent of cattle embryos die within 3 weeks of fertilization but there is little or no published information on the composition of the oviduct and uterine fluids essential for their survival during this time. We have measured the concentrations of the energy substrates, glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in cattle oviduct fluid on Days 0, 2, 4, and 6 and uterine fluid on Days 6, 8, and 14 of the oestrous cycle and corresponding blood samples. Oviduct and uterine fluids were collected in situ. Glucose concentrations in oviduct and uterine fluids were similar on all days and lower than in plasma (P,<,0.05). Oviduct lactate concentration was up to eightfold higher than uterine or plasma concentration (P,<,0.01). Oviduct pyruvate concentrations were similar on all days and lower than plasma concentrations on Days 0 and 2 (P,<,0.005). Pyruvate concentrations were similar in the uterus and in plasma except on Day 14 when the concentration in plasma was higher (P,<,0.05). There were no associations between systemic progesterone or oestradiol and glucose, lactate or pyruvate. There was a linear positive relationship (P,<,0.001) between oviduct fluid secretion rate and oviduct glucose concentration and a linear negative relationship (P,<,0.001) between oviduct fluid secretion rate and oviduct lactate, but no association between uterine fluid secretion rate and energy substrates. The different concentrations and associations between the energy substrates in oviduct and uterine fluids and blood plasma indicate a differential regulation of the secretion of these energy substrates by the oviduct and uterine epithelium. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 496,503, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    The Influence of Pre- and Post-ovulatory Insemination and Early Pregnancy on the Infiltration by Cells of the Immune System in the Sow Oviduct

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2006
    J Jiwakanon
    Contents The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pre- and post-ovulatory insemination and early pregnancy on the distribution of immune cells in the oviduct. Eighteen sows were pre-ovulatory and sixteen sows were post-ovulatory inseminated and slaughtered at different times, 5,6 h after insemination, 20,25 h and approximately 70 h after ovulation, day 11 and day 19. Immediately after slaughter, oviductal samples of three different segments (isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum) were fixed, embedded in plastic resin and stained with toluidine blue or cryofixed and stored in a freezer at ,70°C until analysed by immunohistochemistry (pre-ovulatory inseminated sows) with an avidin,biotin peroxidase method. Quantitative and qualitative examinations of oviductal epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue were performed by light microscopy. After pre- or post-ovulatory insemination, neutrophils were not observed in the oviductal epithelium from any of the segments or groups. The numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes of all sows as well as CD2- and CD3-positive cells of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows were higher in the infundibulum than in the other segments (p , 0.001). In the subepithelial connective tissue of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows, significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes (p , 0.001) and plasma cells (p , 0.001) were found in infundibulum than in isthmus. Neutrophils were found mainly in infundibulum, the number approximately 40 h after pre-ovulatory insemination was significantly higher (p , 0.05) than in the other groups and segments. Significantly higher numbers of CD2 than CD3-positive cells were found for all groups and segments. In the subepithelial connective tissue of post-ovulatory inseminated sows, the numbers of lymphocytes was higher (p , 0.001) at day 19 than up to 50 h after insemination and lower (p , 0.001) in isthmus than in ampulla and infundibulum. Neutrophils were found in infundibulum in almost all groups and the number was significantly higher (p , 0.05) in the infundibulum up to 50 h after insemination than in other segments. In the oviductal epithelium, no influence of insemination was found on the presence of phagocytes, i.e. neutrophils and macrophages, but on lymphocytes. In the infundibular connective tissue, pre-ovulatory insemination had an effect on neutrophil distribution, indicating an active immune response to insemination in the upper segment. Post-ovulatory insemination changed the oviductal immune cell pattern. [source]


    Postovulatory Effect of Intravenous Administration of Lipopolysaccharide (E. coli, O55:B5) on the Contractile Activity of the Oviduct, Ova Transport, Binding of Accessory Spermatozoa to the Zona Pellucida and Embryo Development in Sows

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2002
    AM Mwanza
    Contents The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli, O55:B5), administered 18 h after ovulation in the second oestrus after weaning, on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, sperm binding to zona pellucida (ZP) and embryo development, was studied in 14 Swedish crossbred (Landrace Yorkshire) multiparous sows. The endotoxin group (E-group) sows were administered with 300 ng/kg of LPS while the control group (C-group) sows were administered with 5 ml of saline i.v. via an indwelling jugular cannula. Immediately after evidence of standing oestrus, a Millar® pressure transducer was placed intraluminally about 3 cm into the mid-isthmus, via laparotomy. Pressure recordings of the oviduct were collected from all conscious sows until slaughter. After slaughter, the genital tract opposite to the side with the transducer was retrieved, and three equal isthmic segments and the first third of the uterine horn part adjacent to the utero-tubal-junction (UTJ) were flushed separately to recover the ova. The intervals (mean±SD) from ovulation to slaughter (OS) and insemination to ovulation (IO) were not different between the E-group (44.5±5.7 h; 13.3±6.5 h) and the C-group (42.7±5.9 h; 14.8±4.1 h), respectively. Ova recovery rate (RR) in the E-group (80.2±22.9%) did not differ from that in the C-group (85.2±4.5%). The frequency distribution of ova recovered in the different segments did not significantly (p>0.05) differ between the groups. The E-group showed higher cleavage rate than controls. A higher proportion of spermatozoa bound to the ZP was also found in the E-group compared with controls. The isthmic intraluminal pressure slightly increased (p=0.07) 18 h after ovulation and immediately following LPS in the E-group, compared with the C-group. The frequencies of phasic pressure fluctuations were significantly (p<0.05) lower at 30 and 38 h after ovulation in the E- than in the C-group. It can be concluded from the present study that a single i.v. administration of LPS (300 ng/kg body weight) to sows, 18 h after ovulation might be associated with changes in isthmic pressure and the frequency of phasic pressure fluctuations, increased numbers of spermatozoa attached to the ZP and an enhanced embryo development but not with ova transport rates. [source]


    REVIEW ARTICLE: Mechanism of Prolonged Sperm Storage and Sperm Survivability in Hen Oviduct: A Review

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Shubash C Das
    A unique property of the avian oviduct is to store sperm for a prolonged period. The sperm storage tubules (SST) are located in the utero-vaginal junction of the oviduct, where sperm can be stored and survived for a few weeks after insemination or natural mating. The immune system in the oviduct is essential to prevent tissue infection by various microorganisms, and it may also affect the fate and survivability of sperm in the oviduct. Anti-sperm immunoresponses including infiltration of leukocytes may be induced in the vagina of the oviduct. Sperm that will participate in fertilization may be selected by these immunoresponses. However, sperm stored in the SST may be protected from the immunoresponse by SST structures and transforming growth factor ,, whose expression is increased during sperm storage in the SST. In this review, the mechanism of sperm survivability with reference to the regulation of anti-sperm immunoresponses in hen oviduct is emphasized. [source]


    Macroscopic and Microscopic Anatomy of the Oviduct in the Sexually Mature Rhea (Rhea americana)

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 3 2008
    R. C. Parizzi
    Summary The morphological characteristics of the oviduct of 12 sexually mature rheas (Rhea americana) were studied. Only the left oviduct is developed as a long tube with a length of 122 ± 23.1 cm, and is subdivided into infundibulum (15.2 ± 4.0 cm), magnum (63.3 ± 9.4 cm), isthmus (5.6 ± 3.1 cm), uterus (16.0 ± 4.2 cm) and vagina (11.5 ± 1.4 cm). The mucous membrane of the oviduct, as a whole, possesses luminal folds covered by ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells. The infundibulum part presents a cranial opening with thin and long fimbriae with few tubular glands in caudal tubular portion. In the magnum, the largest portion of the oviduct, the folds are thicker and are filled with tubular glands. The isthmus is short and presents less bulky folds and a few tubular glands. A bag-shaped uterus in the cranial area shows thin folds, and in the caudal region (shell gland) more ramified folds with few tubular glands. The vagina has long luminal folds and a thick muscular tunic; no glands with sperm-storage characteristics have been observed. In conclusion, the oviduct in sexually mature rhea has morphological similarities with the other species of birds already described; however it presents its own characteristics to produce a big egg. [source]


    Sperm binding properties and secretory activity of the bovine oviduct immediately before and after ovulation

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2008
    Edita Sostaric
    Abstract The possibility that differences in hormonal regimes between the two oviducts in the cow around ovulation affects secretory activity of the oviduct epithelial cells and/or sperm,oviduct binding was studied. Oviducts were collected immediately after slaughter at 6 hr before to 5 hr after timed ovulation of 14 normally cyclic cows that had been inseminated (n,=,6) or not (n,=,8) and material obtained from the same cows was processed in three ways. First, in vivo, after artificial insemination of the cows, low numbers of sperm cells (approx. 15 per oviduct) were found within the entire oviducts as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Almost all sperm were located in the isthmus and then only on ciliated cells and showed without exception fully matured, intact morphology. Secretory activity of noninseminated oviduct epithelia was induced after ovulation which was most predominant in the pockets of the ipsi-lateral ampulla compared to the contra-lateral ampulla (P,<,0.01). Second, ex vivo, explants dissected from oviducts of the noniseminated cows were incubated with sperm. In all cases, the sperm bound to the explants in a similar pattern as observed in vivo and this binding was strictly fucose-dependent. The main difference with in vivo experiments was the high numbers of sperm bound at any site of the oviduct (,3,000 cells per mm2) indicating the high sperm binding capacity of the oviduct epithelia. Ovulation induced a striking drop in sperm binding capacity in the oviducts and was most pronounced in the isthmus (,1,300 cells per mm2; P,<,0.001) and to a lesser extent in the ampulla (,2,000 cells per mm2, P,<,0.01). Third, in vitro, pieces of tissue dissected from oviducts of the noninseminated cows were cultured to mono-layers. Culturing epithelial cells resulted in loss of their normal morphological appearance. In all cases, the sperm binding capacity in monolayers was very low (<50 cells per mm2) when compared to corresponding explants (P,<,0.0001). Sperm binding to monolayers originating from the isthmus (<25 cells per mm2) was lower than in those from the ampulla (40,50 cells per mm2; P,<,0.01) and remained similar after ovulation. In all three approaches, no significant differences were found in sperm,oviduct binding characteristics and sperm-distribution in the ipsi- versus contra-lateral oviducts. This indicates, that systemic endocrine changes around ovulation rather than specific oviduct changes at the ipsi,lateral oviduct induce secretion in oviduct epithelial cells, and thus induce sperm release. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 60,74, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Structure of sperm, spermatozeugmata and ,lateral organs' in the bivalve Arthritica (Galeommatoidea: Leptonidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Åse Jespersen
    Abstract The position and structure of paired ,lateral organs' in the foot of Arthritica semen and Arthritica bifurca might indicate a chemosensory function. In both species part of the organ is also glandular. In A. semen the glandular epithelium is detached piecemeal and, probably by means of the foot, is moved to and grafted upon the gills of the same individual. The transferred epithelia appear as disk-shaped actively secretory ,gill bodies' which, attached to the abfrontal side of the inner demibranch, replace the ordinary unciliated gill epithelium. The secretion is liberated into the suprabranchial chamber, which serves as a marsupium, but its function is uncertain. Arthritica semen is a protandric hermaphrodite and produces very large ova that undergo a direct development that results in a non-planktonic lecithotrophic crawling juvenile stage. The sperm cells have filiform nuclei that are straight in the euspermatozoa and more or less helicoidal in what is considered to represent paraspermatozoa. By a process of aggregation, spermatozeugmata are formed which consist exclusively either of euspermatozoa or paraspermatozoa. Spermatozoa are stored in the oviduct in A. semen but in paired seminal receptacles in A. bifurca. [source]


    Microscopic structure of the sperm storage tubules in the polygynandrous alpine accentor, Prunella collaris (Aves)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2001
    Akira Chiba
    Abstract We describe the microscopic structure of the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the polygynandrous alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. The SSTs were found at the utero-vaginal junction of the oviduct and were composed of a single layer of columnar epithelium. The cells of the tubule proper were non-ciliated and had a round or oval nucleus in their basal portion. Their cytoplasm was finely or coarsely vacuolated due to lipid inclusions. Under the electron microscope, the epithelial cells exhibited a number of mitochondria, Golgi bodies, occasional lysosome-like dense bodies, granular endoplasmic reticula, junctional complex, and tonofilaments. The apical margin of the cells was fringed with numerous microvilli. The epithelial lining of the SSTs was devoid of mucous cells, but showed occasional infiltration of lymphoid cells. No contractile elements were found in association with the SSTs, but a close apposition of unmyelinated nerve fibres to the basal part of the SST cells was recognized. Intraluminal sperm were arranged in bundles, and their heads were orientated towards the distal portion of the SSTs. Evidence for engulfment of sperm by the SST cells was obtained for the first time. A sign of atrophy or regression of the SSTs was found in one specimen. [source]


    Female reproductive biology of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Aprostocetus procerae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), two parasitoids associated with the African Rice Gall Midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Souleymane NACRO
    Abstract We investigated the female reproductive system of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Aprostocetus procerae (= Tetrastichus pachydiplosisae) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Both optical and electron microscopy were used. The female reproductive system of P. diplosisae includes two large ovaries of the meristic polytrophic-type, each composed of several tens of ovarioles. The system includes also a venomous gland that extends to a common oviduct. This gland had a filiform secretory portion, in which the epithelium was thin and surrounded a common evacuation canal. The secretory cells secrete into a large reservoir. Parasitism due to P. diplosisae is gregarious. The female reproductive system of A. procerae includes two ovaries of the meristic polytrophic-type, and each ovary has a few ovarioles. Each ovariole includes one or two oocytes, which can be seen in the vitellarium. Two accessory glands, which extend to the oviduct, are also visible. The secretory epithelium of the accessory gland is made up of a dense network of secretory cells surrounded by muscle fibers. Females of A. procerae pierce the tissues of the gall and probably deposit one egg on or close to the pupa of the midge. Aprostocetus procerae is a solitary parasitoid of the midge. The two parasitoids exploit the same host at different developmental stages. These findings improve our knowledge of the reproductive biology of these two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge, an important pest in Africa. [source]


    Effects of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A on sex organ development in quail and chicken embryos

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2001
    Cecilia Berg
    Abstract The plastic monomere bisphenol A (BPA) and the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were examined for estrogen-like developmental effects on the reproductive organs in avian embryos. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used as a positive control. The test compounds were injected into the yolk of quail and chicken eggs early during incubation and the embryos were examined 2 d before anticipated hatching. At 200 ,g/g egg, BPA induced Müllerian duct (embryonic oviduct) malformation in female quail embryos and feminization of the left testis (ovotestis) in male chicken embryos. The estrogenic potency of BPA compared with DES was species and endpoint specific. Müllerian duct malformation was the most sensitive endpoint in quail embryos, whereas ovotestis formation was the most sensitive response in chicken embryos. Tetrabromobisphenol A caused high embryo mortality at 45 ,g/g egg in both species, but no estrogen-like effects were observed. Bisphenol A caused mortality only in chicken embryos at 67 and 200 ,g/g egg. To our knowledge, this is the first report on estrogen-like or embryolethal effects of BPA and TBBPA in birds. [source]


    Detailed characterization of polydnavirus immunoevasive proteins in an endoparasitoid wasp

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2002
    Kohjiro Tanaka
    Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses in terms of their obligate and symbiotic associations with some parasitic wasps. The Cotesia kariyai polydnavirus (CkPDV) replicates only in ovarian calyx cells of C. kariyai female wasps and is injected into the wasp's host, the armyworm Pseudaletia separata, along with the eggs. A previous study indicated the possibility that one of the CkPDV surface proteins mediates immunoevasion by the wasp from the encapsulation reaction of the host insect's hemocytes. This protein was named immunoevasive protein (IEP). The present studies substantially confirmed the previous observation by showing that an anti-IEP IgG neutralizes immunoevasive activity on the wasp eggs. Further, we isolated the IEP homologue (IEP-2) cDNA and IEP (IEP-1) cDNA, sequenced them and found that both are cysteine-rich proteins, each containing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. IEP genes were not found to reside in the CkPDV genome, but in the wasp chromosomal DNA. IEPs are synthesized in the female reproductive tract and their expression was detected from 4 days after pupation, 1 day later than expression of the virus capsid proteins. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry indicated that the lateral oviduct cells of the reproductive tracts produce IEP-1/IEP-2 mRNAs and secrete the proteins into the oviduct. These data suggest that the expression pattern and localization of IEPs are different from other components of CkPDV virions. [source]


    Mechanisms of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Issue 4 2009
    Inne Gantois
    Abstract Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been the major cause of the food-borne salmonellosis pandemic in humans over the last 20 years, during which contaminated hen's eggs were the most important vehicle of the infection. Eggs can be contaminated on the outer shell surface and internally. Internal contamination can be the result of penetration through the eggshell or by direct contamination of egg contents before oviposition, originating from infection of the reproductive organs. Once inside the egg, the bacteria need to cope with antimicrobial factors in the albumen and vitelline membrane before migration to the yolk can occur. It would seem that serotype Enteritidis has intrinsic characteristics that allow an epidemiological association with hen eggs that are still undefined. There are indications that SE survives the attacks with the help of antimicrobial molecules during the formation of the egg in the hen's oviduct and inside the egg. This appears to require a unique combination of genes encoding for improved cell wall protection and repairing cellular and molecular damage, among others. [source]


    Cre-mediated recombination in cell lineages that express the progesterone receptor

    GENESIS: THE JOURNAL OF GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2005
    Selma M. Soyal
    Abstract Using gene-targeting methods, a progesterone receptor Cre knockin (PR-Cre) mouse was generated in which Cre recombinase was inserted into exon 1 of the PR gene. The insertion positions the Cre gene downstream (and under the specific control) of the endogenous PR promoter. As for heterozygotes for the progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mutation, mice heterozygous for the Cre knockin insertion are phenotypically indistinguishable from wildtype. Crossing the PR-Cre with the ROSA26R reporter revealed that Cre excision activity is restricted to cells that express PR in progesterone-responsive tissues such as the uterus, ovary, oviduct, pituitary gland, and mammary gland. Initial characterization of the PR-Cre mouse underscores the utility of this model to precisely ablate floxed target genes specifically in cell lineages that express the PR. In the wider context of female reproductive tissue ontology, this model will be indispensable in tracing the developmental fate of cell lineages that descend from PR positive progenitors. genesis 41:58,66, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Behavioral and morphological asymmetries in chukar Alectoris chukar copulation

    JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    David J. Delehanty
    Birds often exhibit greater reproductive tract development on the left side than right side. Behavioral evidence from the three species for which data has been published indicates that these species copulate more frequently on the left side of females than on the right side. Missing from the literature are studies that compare asymmetry in copulation behavior to asymmetry in reproductive tract morphology of the same individuals of both sexes within a single species. To better understand the potential for cryptic sexual selection to influence avian copulation, we measured asymmetries in chukar Alectoris chukar copulation using 24 male and 29 female chukar brought into captivity from the wild. Chukar copulated (n=37) more from the left side (n=30) of females than the right side (n=7). The left testis of males was consistently greater in size, mass and volume than the right testis. The left ovary and oviduct of females was consistently functional with no observable development of the right ovary or oviduct. Left-side bias in direction of copulation, larger left testes, and functional left vaginal openings may act in concert to deliver spermatozoa to the oviduct, promoting fertilization. [source]


    Octopus Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone: A Multifunctional Peptide in the Endocrine and Nervous Systems of the Cephalopod

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    H. Minakata
    The optic gland, which is analogous to the anterior pituitary in the context of gonadal maturation, is found on the upper posterior edge of the optic tract of the octopus Octopus vulgaris. In mature octopus, the optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotrophic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the brain of octopus and was named oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH showed luteinising hormone-releasing activity in the anterior pituitary cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix. Oct-GnRH immunoreactive signals were observed in the glandular cells of the mature optic gland. Oct-GnRH stimulated the synthesis and release of sex steroids from the ovary and testis, and elicited contractions of the oviduct. Oct-GnRH receptor was expressed in the gonads and accessory organs, such as the oviduct and oviducal gland. These results suggest that oct-GnRH induces the gonadal maturation and oviposition by regulating sex steroidogenesis and a series of egg-laying behaviours via the oct-GnRH receptor. The distribution and expression of oct-GnRH in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggest that oct-GnRH acts as a multifunctional modulatory factor in feeding, memory processing, sensory, movement and autonomic functions. [source]


    Multiple Roles for the Endocannabinoid System During the Earliest Stages of Life: Pre- and Postnatal Development

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 2008
    E. Fride
    The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB1 and CB2), endogenous ligands (,endocannabinoids'), synthesising and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development. In addition, the endocannabinoids, notably 2-arachidonyl glycerol, are also present in maternal milk. During three distinct developmental stages (i.e. embryonic implantation, prenatal brain development and postnatal suckling), the endocannabinoid system appears to play an essential role for development and survival. Thus, during early pregnancy, successful embryonic passage through the oviduct and implantation into the uterus both require critical enzymatic control of optimal anandamide levels at the appropriate times and sites. During foetal life, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor plays a major role in brain development, regulating neural progenitor differentiation into neurones and glia and guiding axonal migration and synaptogenesis. Postnatally, CB1 receptor blockade interferes with the initiation of milk suckling in mouse pups, by inducing oral motor weakness, which exposes a critical role for CB1 receptors in the initiation of milk suckling by neonates, possibly by interfering with innervation of the tongue muscles. Manipulating the endocannabinoid system by pre- and/or postnatal administration of cannabinoids or maternal marijuana consumption, has significant, yet subtle effects on the offspring. Thus, alterations in the dopamine, GABA and endocannabioid systems have been reported while enhanced drug seeking behaviour and impaired executive (prefrontal cortical) function have also been observed. The relatively mild nature of the disruptive effects of prenatal cannabinoids may be understood in the framework of the intricate timing requirements and frequently biphasic effects of the (endo)cannabinoids. In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system plays several key roles in pre- and postnatal development. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms involved and provide a better understanding of the adverse effects of prenatal exposure, in order to design strategies for the treatment of conditions such as infertility, mental retardation and failure-to-thrive. [source]


    The effect of adding cadmium and lead alone or in combination to the diet of pigs on their growth, carcase composition and reproduction

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 13 2003
    Clive Phillips
    Abstract Limits for cadmium and lead concentrations in food animal products have been established independently, whereas these two toxic metals often co-exist in polluted regions. Weaned pigs (60) were allocated to ten treatments: control; low (0.5 mg kg,1), medium (1 mg kg,1) or high cadmium (2.5 mg kg,1) in feed; low (5 mg kg,1) medium (10 mg kg,1) or high (25 mg kg,1) lead in feed; and low, medium and high cadmium plus lead in feed. Growth rates and concentrations of cadmium and lead in body tissues (kidney, liver, spleen, lungs, heart, testicle, ribs, hair and teeth) were measured after 137 days. There was a similar reduction in weight gain for pigs in the cadmium and lead treatments, compared with the control, and a greater reduction for the pigs in the cadmium plus lead treatments. The reduction increased with the level of metal included. There was an increase in cadmium concentration of all tissues and blood with increasing feed cadmium concentration, which was usually less when lead was also included in the feed. There was also an increase in tissue lead concentration with increasing dietary lead, and this was in most cases increased when cadmium was also included in the feed. The most sensitive tissues for cadmium and lead exposure were the kidney, liver, hair and teeth, and regression equations were developed for the accumulation rates in these tissues. Tissue and blood cadmium concentrations increased gradually with increasing dietary lead, whereas tissue lead concentration was not sensitive to dietary cadmium, except in the ribs and heart. In a second experiment, 10 sows were allocated to a control diet or the same diet but with a supplement of cadmium and lead. The birth weight of piglets was decreased by the supplement and their mortality increased. Lead accumulated most in the ovary and oviduct of the sows, and there were increases in the lead and, to a lesser extent, cadmium concentrations of tissues of the piglets from these sows. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Early ontogeny and placentation of the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae: Marsupialia): contribution to the reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2001
    Zeller
    This study provides new findings on the placenta of Monodelphis domestica and a reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype. To achieve this, early ontogeny and placentation of the grey short-tailed opossum, M. domestica, from 3 h after copulation until birth (day 15), were studied and compared with other mammals. Both the ultrastructure and histochemistry of egg membranes, foetal membranes, oviduct and uterus were examined. The results of this study provide the first detailed ultrastructural description of a trophoblastic syncytium in a marsupial. In addition, this is the first original documentation of an invasive trophectoderm and an inflammatory reaction at parturition in M. domestica. These findings were compared with literature data and included into the reconstruction of the marsupial morphotype. Based on marsupial phylogeny as proposed by Luckett (J. Mammal. Evol. 2, 255,283, 1994), characters that are consistent at least within didelphids and dasyurids were determined to be characters of the marsupial morphotype. These characters are a central yolk separated from the peripheral yolk-poor cytoplasm in the unfertilized oocyte, the presence of a zona pellucida, a mucoid coat and a shell coat, the absence of a corona radiata, oviductal mucoid secretion, no shell secretion distal to the isthmus of the oviduct, uterine shell secretion, a short tubal passage (1 day at maximum), the apposition of blastomeres to the zona pellucida prior to intercellular association, the absence of a morula stage, the polarity of the zygotic yolk, the localized segmentation of deutoplasm (yolk) during the first cleavage and subsequent extrusion of yolk vesicles during the first two cleavage stages. With regard to the marsupial morphotype, the non-polarized yolk distribution in the zygote [Hartman (J. Morphol. 27, 1,84, 1916); McCrady (Am. Anat. Mem. 16, 1,233, 1938)] is a derived character of Didelphis virginiana. Didelphis virginiana [Hartman (J. Morphol. 27, 1,84, 1916); Hartman (J. Morphol. 32, 1,139, 1919); McCrady (Am. Anat. Mem. 16, 1,233, 1938)] and Didelphis marsupialis (Hill, Q. J. Micr. Sci. 63, 91,139, 1918) share the synapomorphous reduction of deutoplasmolysis to a generalized extrusion of vesicles. The absence of separated yolk and consequently a cleavage without yolk extrusion (Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996) are apomorphies of macropodids. This is possibly correlated with the association of blastomeres in early cleavage stages (Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996). A yolk sac placenta and a vascularized allantochorion can be assumed for part of the ontogeny in the marsupial morphotype, irrespective of the formation of an allantoic placenta at near term stages. The character polarization of the mode of placentation and parturition needs further investigation. Frühe Ontogenie und Plazentation der grauen Hausspitzmausbeutelratte, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae: Marsupialia): Ein Beitrag zur Rekonstruktion des Grundplans der Marsupialia Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die frühe Ontogenese und Plazentation von 3 Stunden nach der Kopulation bis zur Geburt der Beutelratte Monodelphis domestica. Es wird die Ultrastruktur und Histochemie der Eihäute, der Fetalmembranen, des Oviductes und des Uterus beschrieben. Erstmalig wird die Ultrastruktur eines trophoblastischen Syncytiums bei einem Beuteltier beschrieben. Weiterhin wird ein invasives Trophektoderm und eine Entzündungsreaktion zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt bei M. domestica festgestellt. Die Befunde dieser Studie und Literaturdaten werden verglichen und in eine Grundplanrekonstruktion integriert. Merkmale, die mindestens zwischen Vertretern der Didelphidae und Dasyuridae übereinstimmen, werden basierend auf dem phylogenetischen System der Marsupialia nach Luckett, J. Mammal. Evol. 2, 255,283, 1994, für den Grundplan der Marsupialia angenommen. Diese Merkmale sind zentral separierter Dotter und peripheres dotterarmes Zytoplasma in der unbefruchteten Eizelle, das Vorhandensein von Zona pellucida, Mucoidschicht und Schalenhaut, das Fehlen einer Corona radiata, die Mucoidsekretion durch den Oviduct, die Schalensekretion durch den Uterus und nicht distal der Isthmusregion des Oviductes, eine kurze Tubenwanderung (maximal einen Tag), die Anlagerung der Blastomeren an die Zona pellucida vor der interzellulären Verbindung, das Fehlen eines Morulastadiums, die Dotterpolarität in der Zygote, die lokale Dotterabtrennung bei der ersten Teilung und die anschließende Dotterextrusion während der ersten beiden Teilungen. In Bezug auf den Grundplan der Marsupialia ist die unpolare Dotterverteilung in der Zygote ein abgeleitetes Merkmal von Didelphis virginiana. Didelphis virginiana und Didelphis marsupialis teilen als Synapomorphie die Reduktion der Deutoplasmolyse auf eine generelle Vesikelextrusion. Das Fehlen separierten Dotters in der Oocyte und die resultierende Furchung ohne Dotterextrusion [Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996] ist eine Apomorphie der Macropodidae. Hiermit hängt möglicherweise die frühe Zusammenlagerung der Blastomeren zusammen [Renfree and Lewis, Reprod. Fert. Dev. 8, 725,742, 1996]. Ein vaskularisiertes Allantochorion und eine Dottersackplazenta können für einen Teil der Ontogenese im Grundplan der Marsupialia angenommen werden. Ob das Allantochorion neben der Respiration auch dem Stoffaustausch diente ist unklar. Die Lesrichtung für den Modus der Plazentation und der Geburt bedarf weiterer Untersuchungen. [source]


    Expression of zinc finger protein 105 in the testis and its role in male fertility

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2010
    Huaxin Zhou
    Using an in silico approach, we identified a putative zinc finger domain-containing transcription factor (zinc finger protein 105, ZFP105) enriched in the adult mouse testis. RT-PCR analyses showed that Zfp105 was indeed highly expressed in adult mouse testis and that its expression was regulated during postnatal development. To further characterize Zfp105 expression, we generated a Zfp105:,-galactosidase (LacZ) knock-in reporter mouse line (Zfp105LacZ/+) in which a Zfp105:LacZ fusion gene was expressed. Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105LacZ/+ tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary, and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus, or oviduct. Sectional LacZ staining showed that ZFP105 was highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. ZNF35, the human ortholog of Zfp105, was also highly expressed in human testis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that ZNF35 was located primarily in the cytoplasm of male germ cells. More importantly, reduced male fertility was observed in adult Zfp105LacZ/LacZ mice. Histological studies showed the presence of undifferentiated spermatogenic cells in the lumen of seminiferous tubules at stage VII and in the epididymal lumen of adult Zfp105LacZ/LacZ mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ZFP105 is a male germ-cell factor and plays a role in male reproduction. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 77: 511,520, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Molecular Reproduction & Development: Volume 76, Issue 7

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 7 2009
    Article first published online: 13 MAY 200
    Abnormal function at the utero-tubal junction is observed in postnatal day 28 Amhr2-Cre; Dicer fx/fx mutant females, as demonstrated by the inability of this structure to restrict blue dye, injected into the posterior lumen of the uterine horn, to pass into the oviduct. This abnormality may also influence the fate of embryos conceived in these females, altering their transit from the oviduct into the uterus. See the accompanying article by Gonzales and Behringer in this issue. [source]


    Energy substrates in bovine oviduct and uterine fluid and blood plasma during the oestrous cycle

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2008
    S.A. Hugentobler
    Abstract Up to 40 percent of cattle embryos die within 3 weeks of fertilization but there is little or no published information on the composition of the oviduct and uterine fluids essential for their survival during this time. We have measured the concentrations of the energy substrates, glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in cattle oviduct fluid on Days 0, 2, 4, and 6 and uterine fluid on Days 6, 8, and 14 of the oestrous cycle and corresponding blood samples. Oviduct and uterine fluids were collected in situ. Glucose concentrations in oviduct and uterine fluids were similar on all days and lower than in plasma (P,<,0.05). Oviduct lactate concentration was up to eightfold higher than uterine or plasma concentration (P,<,0.01). Oviduct pyruvate concentrations were similar on all days and lower than plasma concentrations on Days 0 and 2 (P,<,0.005). Pyruvate concentrations were similar in the uterus and in plasma except on Day 14 when the concentration in plasma was higher (P,<,0.05). There were no associations between systemic progesterone or oestradiol and glucose, lactate or pyruvate. There was a linear positive relationship (P,<,0.001) between oviduct fluid secretion rate and oviduct glucose concentration and a linear negative relationship (P,<,0.001) between oviduct fluid secretion rate and oviduct lactate, but no association between uterine fluid secretion rate and energy substrates. The different concentrations and associations between the energy substrates in oviduct and uterine fluids and blood plasma indicate a differential regulation of the secretion of these energy substrates by the oviduct and uterine epithelium. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 496,503, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Osteopontin improves in vitro development of porcine embryos and decreases apoptosis

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2008
    Yanhong Hao
    Abstract An optimal environment for fertilization and early embryonic development is provided by the mammalian oviduct and uterus. The secretory cells lining the lumen of the oviduct and uterus synthesize and secrete proteins that have been shown to interact with and influence the activities of gametes and embryos. Western blotting in this study demonstrated that a 50-kDa secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) form was present in the uterus on Days 0, 3, and 5 in pregnant and nonbred gilts, and the concentration of SPP1 on Day 0 was higher than on Days 3 and 5 in pregnant gilts, but in nonbred gilts the concentration of SPP1 on Day 0 was higher than Day 3, but not Day 5. In addition, we show that addition of 0.1 µg/ml SPP1 to the culture medium after fertilization increased the percent cleaved (24 hr: 23.6,±,1.29a vs. 18.7,±,0.65b (2-cell %)), and the percent blastocyst (37.2,±,1.12a vs. 30.9,±,0.56b) derived from IVF (P,<,0.05). In parthenogenetic-derived embryos the percent cleaved was increased due to SPP1 at 24 hr (24.0,±,1.59a vs. 19.7,±,1.59b (>2-cell %)), and at 48 hr (72.9± 2.99a vs. 63.3,±,2.99b), but not the percent blastocyst. By TUNEL assay, SPP1 decreased both apoptosis (7.9,±,0.04a vs. 13.1,±,0.02b) and the percent fragmentation (45.2 ,±,0.07a vs. 58.8 ,±,0.03b). We conclude that SPP1 can improve development in vitro possibly by reducing the rate of apoptosis. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 291,298, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sperm binding properties and secretory activity of the bovine oviduct immediately before and after ovulation

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2008
    Edita Sostaric
    Abstract The possibility that differences in hormonal regimes between the two oviducts in the cow around ovulation affects secretory activity of the oviduct epithelial cells and/or sperm,oviduct binding was studied. Oviducts were collected immediately after slaughter at 6 hr before to 5 hr after timed ovulation of 14 normally cyclic cows that had been inseminated (n,=,6) or not (n,=,8) and material obtained from the same cows was processed in three ways. First, in vivo, after artificial insemination of the cows, low numbers of sperm cells (approx. 15 per oviduct) were found within the entire oviducts as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Almost all sperm were located in the isthmus and then only on ciliated cells and showed without exception fully matured, intact morphology. Secretory activity of noninseminated oviduct epithelia was induced after ovulation which was most predominant in the pockets of the ipsi-lateral ampulla compared to the contra-lateral ampulla (P,<,0.01). Second, ex vivo, explants dissected from oviducts of the noniseminated cows were incubated with sperm. In all cases, the sperm bound to the explants in a similar pattern as observed in vivo and this binding was strictly fucose-dependent. The main difference with in vivo experiments was the high numbers of sperm bound at any site of the oviduct (,3,000 cells per mm2) indicating the high sperm binding capacity of the oviduct epithelia. Ovulation induced a striking drop in sperm binding capacity in the oviducts and was most pronounced in the isthmus (,1,300 cells per mm2; P,<,0.001) and to a lesser extent in the ampulla (,2,000 cells per mm2, P,<,0.01). Third, in vitro, pieces of tissue dissected from oviducts of the noninseminated cows were cultured to mono-layers. Culturing epithelial cells resulted in loss of their normal morphological appearance. In all cases, the sperm binding capacity in monolayers was very low (<50 cells per mm2) when compared to corresponding explants (P,<,0.0001). Sperm binding to monolayers originating from the isthmus (<25 cells per mm2) was lower than in those from the ampulla (40,50 cells per mm2; P,<,0.01) and remained similar after ovulation. In all three approaches, no significant differences were found in sperm,oviduct binding characteristics and sperm-distribution in the ipsi- versus contra-lateral oviducts. This indicates, that systemic endocrine changes around ovulation rather than specific oviduct changes at the ipsi,lateral oviduct induce secretion in oviduct epithelial cells, and thus induce sperm release. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 60,74, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    TIMP-1 as candidate gene for embryo survival in two divergent lines selected for uterine capacity in rabbits,

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2006
    Jordi Estellé
    Abstract Selection on uterine capacity has been used in animal breeding as a way to improve the litter size. A divergent selection experiment for uterine capacity was performed in rabbits during ten generations. After the first generations of selection, large differences in number of implanted embryos were obtained between high and low lines. The major part of the differences between lines was due to embryo survival. A segregation analysis suggested the presence of a major gene affecting the reproductive traits. The objective of this work was to test the TIMP-1 gene as a candidate gene for embryo survival in rabbits since it stands up as a target for the investigation of reproductive problems in humans. We have analyzed the parental generation of a F2 cross which consists of 8 and 14 animals from the high and low uterine capacity lines, respectively. The rabbit TIMP-1 gene structure and sequence has been determined, including the proximal promoter region. Despite of the absence of polymorphism between lines in the screened regions (CDS, proximal promoter, exon 1, intron 1, and exon 2), a real-time RT-PCR quantification of the TIMP-1 mRNA in oviduct has shown significant differences between high and low lines at 62 hr of gestation, just when rabbit embryos are located in the oviduct, postulating TIMP-1 as an interesting candidate gene to be involved in the phenotypic differences between the two rabbit lines. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sperm transfer during mating in the pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis

    PHYSIOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    D. ALLARD
    Abstract Sperm transfer in the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.) is studied by making longitudinal sections through the gasters of mating pairs fixed in copula. Sperm is transferred inside a spermatophore similar to those found in two other ants, Diacamma sp. from Japan and Carebara vidua. Sharp teeth-ridges are present on the penis valves and, during copulation, these teeth make contact with a thick and soft cuticular layer covering the bursa copulatrix. This ensures an attachment long enough for the successful transfer of the spermatophore to the right position inside the female oviduct. The thick cuticle also protects the queen from serious damage by the male's sharp claspers. After a first successful copulation, sperm is still present inside the male's seminal vesicles, suggesting that males can mate multiply. Additional experiments, where single, initially virgin males are presented to several virgin females, confirm this. [source]


    Number of Spermatozoa in the Crypts of the Sperm Reservoir at About 24 h After a Low-Dose Intrauterine and Deep Intrauterine Insemination in Sows

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2010
    P Tummaruk
    Contents The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6,8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 × 106 spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 × 106 spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 × 106 spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 ,m. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of the total number of spermatozoa in the sperm reservoir (UTJ and caudal isthmus) were 2296, 729 and 22 cells in AI, IUI and DIUI groups, respectively (p < 0.01). The spermatozoa were found on both sides of the sperm reservoir in all sows in the AI and the IUI groups. For the DIUI group, spermatozoa were not found on any side of the sperm reservoir in three out of five sows, found in unilateral side of the sperm reservoir in one sow and found in both sides of the sperm reservoir in one sow. No spermatozoa were found in the cranial isthmus, while only one spermatozoon was found in the ampulla part of a sow in the IUI group. In conclusion, DIUI resulted in a significantly lower number of spermatozoa in the sperm reservoir approximately 24 h after insemination compared with AI and IUI. Spermatozoa could be obtained from both sides of the sperm reservoir after AI and IUI but in one out of five sows inseminated by DIUI. [source]


    Effects of Exogenous ACTH during Oestrus on Early Embryo Development and Oviductal Transport in the Sow

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2007
    Y Brandt
    Contents This study was conducted to assess the effects of ACTH injections on the early development of embryos and their transportation to the uterus. Fifteen sows were monitored for ovulation using transrectal ultrasonography during the first two oestrous periods after weaning. The sows were randomly divided into a control group (C group, n = 8) and an ACTH-treated group (ACTH group, n = 7), and were all surgically fitted with intra-jugular catheters. From the onset of the second standing oestrus after weaning, the sows were injected (NaCl/synthetic ACTH) every 4 h. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 45 min after each injection. All sows were inseminated once 10,33 h before ovulation in their second oestrus after weaning. At 48 (n = 4) or 60 (n = 11) h after ovulation during their second oestrus, the sows were killed and the embryos retrieved from the oviduct and uterus. The embryos were counted and compared with the number of corpora lutea, cleavage rate was noted and, finally, the embryos were prepared for confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. There was no difference between the groups regarding cleavage rate, the cytoskeleton, or the number of active nucleoli. However, the ACTH group had significantly (p < 0.05) fewer ova/embryos retrieved (51%) than the C group (81%), and there was a tendency towards faster transportation to the uterus in the ACTH group, possibly because of high progesterone concentrations during treatment. To conclude, administration of ACTH every 4 h from onset of oestrus to 48 h caused significant loss of oocytes or embryos, and possibly faster transportation through the oviduct. [source]


    The Influence of Pre- and Post-ovulatory Insemination and Early Pregnancy on the Infiltration by Cells of the Immune System in the Sow Oviduct

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2006
    J Jiwakanon
    Contents The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pre- and post-ovulatory insemination and early pregnancy on the distribution of immune cells in the oviduct. Eighteen sows were pre-ovulatory and sixteen sows were post-ovulatory inseminated and slaughtered at different times, 5,6 h after insemination, 20,25 h and approximately 70 h after ovulation, day 11 and day 19. Immediately after slaughter, oviductal samples of three different segments (isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum) were fixed, embedded in plastic resin and stained with toluidine blue or cryofixed and stored in a freezer at ,70°C until analysed by immunohistochemistry (pre-ovulatory inseminated sows) with an avidin,biotin peroxidase method. Quantitative and qualitative examinations of oviductal epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue were performed by light microscopy. After pre- or post-ovulatory insemination, neutrophils were not observed in the oviductal epithelium from any of the segments or groups. The numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes of all sows as well as CD2- and CD3-positive cells of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows were higher in the infundibulum than in the other segments (p , 0.001). In the subepithelial connective tissue of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows, significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes (p , 0.001) and plasma cells (p , 0.001) were found in infundibulum than in isthmus. Neutrophils were found mainly in infundibulum, the number approximately 40 h after pre-ovulatory insemination was significantly higher (p , 0.05) than in the other groups and segments. Significantly higher numbers of CD2 than CD3-positive cells were found for all groups and segments. In the subepithelial connective tissue of post-ovulatory inseminated sows, the numbers of lymphocytes was higher (p , 0.001) at day 19 than up to 50 h after insemination and lower (p , 0.001) in isthmus than in ampulla and infundibulum. Neutrophils were found in infundibulum in almost all groups and the number was significantly higher (p , 0.05) in the infundibulum up to 50 h after insemination than in other segments. In the oviductal epithelium, no influence of insemination was found on the presence of phagocytes, i.e. neutrophils and macrophages, but on lymphocytes. In the infundibular connective tissue, pre-ovulatory insemination had an effect on neutrophil distribution, indicating an active immune response to insemination in the upper segment. Post-ovulatory insemination changed the oviductal immune cell pattern. [source]


    Postovulatory Effect of Intravenous Administration of Lipopolysaccharide (E. coli, O55:B5) on the Contractile Activity of the Oviduct, Ova Transport, Binding of Accessory Spermatozoa to the Zona Pellucida and Embryo Development in Sows

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2002
    AM Mwanza
    Contents The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli, O55:B5), administered 18 h after ovulation in the second oestrus after weaning, on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, sperm binding to zona pellucida (ZP) and embryo development, was studied in 14 Swedish crossbred (Landrace Yorkshire) multiparous sows. The endotoxin group (E-group) sows were administered with 300 ng/kg of LPS while the control group (C-group) sows were administered with 5 ml of saline i.v. via an indwelling jugular cannula. Immediately after evidence of standing oestrus, a Millar® pressure transducer was placed intraluminally about 3 cm into the mid-isthmus, via laparotomy. Pressure recordings of the oviduct were collected from all conscious sows until slaughter. After slaughter, the genital tract opposite to the side with the transducer was retrieved, and three equal isthmic segments and the first third of the uterine horn part adjacent to the utero-tubal-junction (UTJ) were flushed separately to recover the ova. The intervals (mean±SD) from ovulation to slaughter (OS) and insemination to ovulation (IO) were not different between the E-group (44.5±5.7 h; 13.3±6.5 h) and the C-group (42.7±5.9 h; 14.8±4.1 h), respectively. Ova recovery rate (RR) in the E-group (80.2±22.9%) did not differ from that in the C-group (85.2±4.5%). The frequency distribution of ova recovered in the different segments did not significantly (p>0.05) differ between the groups. The E-group showed higher cleavage rate than controls. A higher proportion of spermatozoa bound to the ZP was also found in the E-group compared with controls. The isthmic intraluminal pressure slightly increased (p=0.07) 18 h after ovulation and immediately following LPS in the E-group, compared with the C-group. The frequencies of phasic pressure fluctuations were significantly (p<0.05) lower at 30 and 38 h after ovulation in the E- than in the C-group. It can be concluded from the present study that a single i.v. administration of LPS (300 ng/kg body weight) to sows, 18 h after ovulation might be associated with changes in isthmic pressure and the frequency of phasic pressure fluctuations, increased numbers of spermatozoa attached to the ZP and an enhanced embryo development but not with ova transport rates. [source]