Other Mental Health Problems (other + mental_health_problem)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The reliability and validity of general psychotic rating scales with people with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: an empirical investigation

C. Hatton
Abstract Background Whilst assessment tools have been developed to diagnose schizophrenia in people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs), little attention has been paid to developing reliable and valid dimensional measures of psychotic experiences with this population. This study investigates the reliability and validity of two such measures developed for the general adult psychiatric population, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), with a population of adults with mild IDs. Method Sixty-two adults with mild IDs were interviewed using the PANSS and PSYRATS, and independently interviewed using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule , Adults with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) to obtain psychiatric diagnoses to the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases , Tenth Revision (ICD-10). On the basis of ICD-10 diagnosis, participants were divided into three groups: psychosis (n = 11); other mental health problem (n = 14); no mental health problem (n = 37). PANSS and PSYRATS subscale scores were compared across these three groups and were correlated with PAS-ADD symptom scores across a number of PAS-ADD symptom domains. Results All PANSS and PSYRATS subscales showed adequate internal reliability, largely good test-retest reliability, and logical inter-correlations between subscales. The PANSS positive symptoms and the PSYRATS auditory hallucinations subscales differentiated between the psychosis group and the other groups; the PANSS general symptoms subscale differentiated between the psychosis and no mental health problem groups; and the PANSS negative symptoms and the PSYRATS delusions subscales did not differentiate between the three groups. Conclusions The PANSS and PSYRATS are promising measures for use with people with mild IDs and psychotic experiences, although further investigation of items relating to negative symptoms and delusions is warranted. [source]

Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications

J. Read
Objective:, To review the research addressing the relationship of childhood trauma to psychosis and schizophrenia, and to discuss the theoretical and clinical implications. Method:, Relevant studies and previous review papers were identified via computer literature searches. Results:, Symptoms considered indicative of psychosis and schizophrenia, particularly hallucinations, are at least as strongly related to childhood abuse and neglect as many other mental health problems. Recent large-scale general population studies indicate the relationship is a causal one, with a dose-effect. Conclusion:, Several psychological and biological mechanisms by which childhood trauma increases risk for psychosis merit attention. Integration of these different levels of analysis may stimulate a more genuinely integrated bio-psycho-social model of psychosis than currently prevails. Clinical implications include the need for staff training in asking about abuse and the need to offer appropriate psychosocial treatments to patients who have been abused or neglected as children. Prevention issues are also identified. [source]

Stigma, social justice and the rights of the mentally ill: Challenging the status quo

Megan-Jane Johnstone
ABSTRACT: People suffering from mental illness and other mental health problems are among the most stigmatized, discriminated against, marginalized, disadvantaged and vulnerable members of society. Although much has been done in recent years to improve the status quo, it is evident that a great deal more needs to be done to improve the moral standing of and to achieve social justice for the mentally ill. A key contention of this philosophical essay is that unless the stigma of difference that is attached to people with mental illness is overturned, their rights will continue to be marginalized, invalidated, violated and/or ignored. [source]

Auditory Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children: Diagnostic Considerations

Peter Mertin
Background:, Auditory hallucinations in childhood and adolescence are not necessarily an indication of psychosis, but are more frequently associated with a range of other mental health problems. Although not specifically linked to abuse as an aetiological factor, the literature reporting on hallucinations in children alludes to a range of family dysfunction and disruption. Method:, This study reports on the auditory hallucinations of 13 children referred to a community-based child and family mental health service exhibiting a variety of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The presence of the hallucinations was generally revealed during the course of the initial assessment. Results:, None of the children were considered psychotic at initial presentation; however, all were experiencing high levels of stress and/or anxiety in their lives. Following the initial assessments children were given diagnoses ranging from generalised anxiety disorder, through adjustment disorder, to posttraumatic stress disorder. The hallucinations gradually disappeared over the course of therapy. Two case studies describe the hallucinations and family histories in more detail. Conclusions:, The present study adds further confirmation of the presence of auditory hallucinations in nonpsychotic children. The clinical presentation of the children in the present study indicates an association between hallucinations and high levels of stress and anxiety, suggesting that mental health professionals should enquire more routinely about auditory hallucinations, particularly with those children from abusive and violent backgrounds. [source]

Comorbidity and Psychological Science: Does One Size Fit All?

Nancy A. Piotrowski
Psychologists need a thorough understanding of comorbidity involving physical health, substance use, and other mental health problems for clinical research, practice, and training. Comorbidity affects case management from treatment entry through follow-up, touching the work of psychologists in all related settings and at varying levels of training. Conceptualizations of comorbidity, however, are heterogeneous and may vary by training and employment experiences and settings. As such, there is a need to examine the concept of comorbidity more methodically. This article argues that current knowledge and developing language challenges a one-size-fits-all approach to comorbidity. The article outlines and discusses relevant considerations for research, treatment, and training regarding comorbidity. [source]