Organizational Performance (organizational + performance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Selected Abstracts


This paper examines relationships between human resource management (HRM), work climate, and organizational performance in the branch network of a retail bank. It extends previous research on group-level climate-performance and HRM-performance relationships and examines how climate and HRM function as joint antecedents of business unit performance. Significant correlations are found between work climate, human resource practices, and business performance. The results show that the correlations between climate and performance cannot be explained by their common dependence on HRM factors, and that the data are consistent with a mediation model in which the effects of HRM practices on business performance are partially mediated by work climate. [source]

Alternative Knowledge Strategies, Competitive Environment, and Organizational Performance in Small Manufacturing Firms

Paul E. Bierly III
This study examines the relationship between knowledge strategy (exploration or exploitation) and performance, and the possible moderating role of external environment variables. Results from a sample of small manufacturing firms indicate that exploration and exploitation are distinct and complementary constructs. The relationship between exploration and performance is linear and positive, while the relationship between exploitation and performance is concave, indicating that there is a point at which focusing on exploitation leads to reduced returns. Additionally, we find that the competitive environment moderates the relationship between exploitation and performance, such that exploitation has a stronger impact on performance in stable and high-tech environments than in dynamic and low-tech environments. Exploration also has a stronger impact on performance in high-tech environments than in low-tech environments. [source]

Un/doing Gender and the Aesthetics of Organizational Performance

Philip Hancock
In the age of the so-called ,expressive organization' and the ,aesthetic economy', for an organization to compete in the global marketplace it would appear that it must perform. This does not refer simply to economic performance, but rather to the idea of performance as a means of affecting both people's impressions and definitions of reality. In this article we argue that such performativity is achieved, in part, through the power of symbolism and aesthetics, as well as the capacity to bring oneself into being in an environment in which successful management of the aesthetic has increasingly become a prerequisite for the conferment of recognition. Central to this process are the ways in which the aesthetics of gender are mobilized and indeed simultaneously ,done' and ,undone' in order to affirm particular, but often unstable, regimes of managerially desired meaning. Drawing on the work of Judith Butler, and informed by a critical or hermeneutic structuralism, we are concerned here to think through the relationship between performativity and the gendered organization of the desire for recognition as it is materialized in, and mediated by, the landscaping of corporate artefacts and organizationally compelled ways of un/doing gender. With this in mind, we consider a series of images taken from a sample of recruitment documents that, as cultural configurations that organize and compel particular versions of gender, we argue, are concerned with the production of organizationally legible and therefore viable gendered subjects. [source]

The Effects of Trainee Characteristics on Training Effectiveness in Improving Organizational Performance

Eul-Kyoo Bae
ABSTRACT Despite the existence of many comprehensive and user-friendly guides to evaluate training programs, most practitioners have had difficulty assessing training effects on corporate outcomes. Research revealed that trainees, organizational, and training-related factors might influence the effectiveness of training in terms of organizational performance. The current study examines the effects of trainee characteristics among those factors, specifically what kind of trainee characteristics could affect training effectiveness in terms of job performance in a company. In addition, telephone surveys were conducted to aid in understanding of the reasons for leaving and high turnover of company personnel. The current and terminated employees who went through training programs in the company differed when considering previous sales experience in years and type of sales experience as trainee characteristics factors, with those still employed having a statistically higher average number of years and a higher rated type of sales experience. The current employees demonstrated higher job performance. The implications of these results on the attainment of training effectiveness as well as the selection decisions in the organization are discussed. [source]

Managing Diversity in U.S. Federal Agencies: Effects of Diversity and Diversity Management on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Performance

Sungjoo Choi
Diversity in the workplace is a central issue for contemporary organizational management. Concomitantly, managing increased diversity deserves greater concern in public, private, and nonprofit organizations. The authors address the effects of diversity and diversity management on employee perceptions of organizational performance in U.S. federal agencies by developing measures of three variables: diversity, diversity management, and perceived organizational performance. Drawing from the Central Personnel Data File and the 2004 Federal Human Capital Survey, their findings suggest that racial diversity relates negatively to organizational performance. When moderated by diversity management policies and practices and team processes, however, racial diversity correlates positively with organizational performance. Gender and age diversity and their interactions with contextual variables produce mixed results, suggesting that gender and age diversity reflect more complicated relationships. This article provides evidence for several benefits derived from effectively managing diversity. [source]

Better than Raw: A Guide to Measuring Organizational Performance with Adjusted Performance Measures

Ross Rubenstein
Like oysters on the half shell, some things are better when they're raw. In evaluating the performance of organizations and providing guidance for improving performance, however, raw performance measures, such as test scores or success rates, are often inferior to performance measures adjusted for client and environmental characteristics, or adjusted performance measures (APMs). Using examples from a variety of public services and data on public schools in Georgia, we compare the performance data generated by raw scores and by APMs. We conclude with guidance for constructing and using adjusted performance measures. [source]

Internal Wage Structures and Organizational Performance

P. B. Beaumont
This paper considers whether a hierarchical or compressed wage structure is positively associated with relatively high levels of organizational performance. To date, there has been little empirical research in this area (especially in the UK). Thus we present an operational measure of a compressed/hierarchical wage structure, using UK manufacturing micro,data in five industrial sectors, and examine its relationship with labour productivity. We find that the wage compression argument holds in one sector but not for the majority of sectors and that taking into account other, intra,industry characteristics, namely size and ownership differences, further weakens the relationship. [source]

The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Performance through Knowledge and Innovation,

Víctor J. García-Morales
Today's information and knowledge society requires new leaders who can confront a reality based on knowledge and foster innovation to achieve improvements in organizational performance. However, organizations sometimes fail to achieve sustainable competitive advantage due to their limited understanding of the relationships between these strategic variables. To date, very little research has analysed the direct and indirect relationships between these variables. Our study seeks to fill this research gap by analysing theoretically and empirically how the leader's perceptions of different intermediate strategic variables related to knowledge (knowledge slack, absorptive capacity, tacitness, organizational learning) and innovation influence the relation between transformational leadership and organizational performance. Based on the literature, we develop a theoretical model that shows the interrelations between these variables. We then test the model using data from 408 Spanish organizations, discuss the findings and provide several implications for business practitioners. [source]

Defining the perfect process

Arnoud Vermei
Organizational performance is significantly dependent on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization's processes. Therefore, organizational leaders should focus much of their own and their people's efforts on operating and improving these processes. If you are going to seek to improve, you need some sense of what is better. To this end, Terry Weight sought to define the perfect process in his keynote speech to the 2008 ISPI EMEA Conference in Galway. [source]

Visions to Guide Performance: A Typology of Multiple Future Organizational Images

Sheila L. Margolis
ABSTRACT Organizational performance is highly influenced by how employees envision the future. To date, many scholars have emphasized the importance of an overarching future vision that unites all stakeholders, while acknowledging the presence of divergent perspectives among members. This variety in perspectives may be further complicated in organizations undergoing great stress and where the leadership has not defined and promoted a future vision to guide the content of the images of its members. Little study has explored the various types of future organizational images that exist or the nature of those images. We explore these concerns via a case study of an airline in the midst of a dramatic fight for survival. The findings both confirm the existence of multiple views for the company's future and delineate their general characteristics through a typology of imagery. We conclude with a language to use to differentiate those images for future research and offer practical implications for managing multiple future organizational images to mobilize energy and enhance performance in a more unified direction. [source]


The article outlines some of the main ideas of a new organizational theory: organizational portfolio theory. The literature has empirically established that organizations tend not to make needed adaptive changes until they suffer a crisis of low organizational performance. Organizational portfolio theory takes this idea and constructs a theory of the conditions under which organizational performance becomes low enough for adaptive organizational change to occur. The focus is on the interaction between organizational misfit and the other causes of organizational performance. To model these interactions use is made of the concepts of risk and portfolio. [source]

On the concept of a universal audit of quality and environmental management systems

Stanislav Karapetrovic
There is a definite trend in industry today toward the integration of internal management systems (MSs), including those for managing quality, environment, health and safety, and social accountability. The standards describing the minimum requirements for such systems have been made largely compatible, but are not yet fully aligned or integrated. Apart from several national standards for integrated quality, environment and safety MSs, the world has yet to see a corresponding and internationally accepted guideline. In contrast, integrative standardization activities in the realm of MS auditing are proceeding in full force, with the introduction of the pioneering ISO 19011 guideline for quality and environmental auditing expected soon. This paper focuses on the concepts, principles and practices of a truly generic audit, applicable for the evaluation of diverse aspects of organizational performance against the criteria stated in MS standards. A universal audit model based on the systems approach and several important questions regarding the compatibility and integration of the current auditing schemes are discussed. These issues include the ability of integrated audits to foster unification of supported MSs, as well as different strategies for the development of a universal audit guideline (UAG) and integration of function-specific audits. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. [source]

Managing People to Promote Innovation

Helen Shipton
There is growing evidence available to suggest that Human Resource Management (HRM) practice is an important predictor of organizational performance. Drawing upon organizational learning perspectives, we argue that HRM systems also have the potential to promote organizational innovation. We present longitudinal data from thirty-five UK manufacturing organizations to suggest that effective HRM systems , incorporating sophisticated approaches to recruitment and selection, induction, appraisal and training , predict organizational innovation in products and production technology. We further show that organizational innovation is enhanced where there is a supportive learning climate, and inhibited (for innovation in production processes) where there is a link between appraisal and remuneration. [source]

A strong market culture drives organizational performance and success

Sean Gallagher
First page of article [source]

Examining the performance of Google and AltaVista through the lens of the Cube One framework

Richard E. Kopelman
This article examines the management, marketing, and human resource practices of two Internet search companies through the lens of the Cube One framework, a three-dimensional model of the determinants of organizational performance that posits that successful organizations must simultaneously meet the needs of customers, employees, and the providers of capital. A detailed examination of enacted practices reveals that Google, which has been extraordinarily successful, has succeeded in all three regards. In contrast, AltaVista, which went out of business, did not. The Cube One framework, then, is useful for explaining differences in organizational performance and can serve as a guide for managing organizations in a globally competitive environment. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The effect of business strategies and HRM policies on organizational performance: The Greek experience

Anastasia A. Katou
This article investigates the relationship between simultaneity in decisions regarding business strategies and human resource management (HRM) policies and their impact on organizational performance. The research is based on a sample of 178 organizations operating in the Greek manufacturing sector. The results of this study support the hypothesis that when business strategies and HRM policies are developed simultaneously, they positively affect organizational performance. This is more valid for decisions taken simultaneously with respect to quality and employee development, innovation and employee rewards and relations, and cost and employee resourcing. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Corporate social performance: Creating resources to help organizations excel

Bryan Dennis
The most commonly employed theories of corporate social performance (CSP) tend to ignore firm-level processes and structures as sources of competitive advantage. But, by taking a resource-based view (RBV), and by enhancing a firm's capability to engage in socially responsible activities, it can potentially create its own competitive advantages. We examine four major components of CSP,community relations, the environment, diversity, and employee relations. And we show that the ability of a firm to develop its knowledge and skills,as well as policies and implementation plans and procedures,in each of these areas is a potential resource that may in fact provide competitive advantages and higher organizational performance, bringing benefits to both society and the firm. The community dimension evaluates the firm's performance in relationship to philanthropic giving and community support. The environmental aspect considers such firm stewardship activities as pollution prevention, global warming, and recycling. The diversity component measures CSP considering such factors as board member diversity and a firm's hiring, evaluation, training, and promotion policies concerning women and minorities. The employee relations dimension examines such socially responsible human resource practices as innovative employee involvement programs and profit sharing. Together, these capabilities can provide tangible and intangible resources that can provide the firm with competitive advantages. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Social networks at Sempra Energy's IT division are key to building strategic capabilities

Chris Chen
How does an IT division, faced with new and challenging strategic goals, get technical people to understand and appreciate the impact of human relationships on individual and organizational performance? It turns to social network analysis (SNA),a nifty tool for quantifying and visualizing the number and strength of connections between people. Taking advantage of a large menu of SNA's analytical options, this organization learned how it could better identify succession candidates, build social capital, lessen dependence on the senior leadership team, and improve interdepartmental collaboration and communication,in short, move to the next level of organization effectiveness. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice

Thomas G. Reio Jr.
This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical regression analytic procedures. Younger males engaged more frequently in uncivil behavior. After statistically controlling for the demographic variables, high negative affect and low degree of establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors (adaptation) predicted more incivility. For the physical health model, establishing relationships with coworkers and positive affect positively contributed to perceived physical health, while organizational incivility negatively contributed to the dependent variable. As for the job satisfaction model, establishing relationships with coworkers and supervisors and positive affect positively predicted satisfaction, whereas negative affect and incivility made negative contributions to the regression equation. In all cases, the magnitude of effect ranged from medium to large, supporting the theoretical, empirical, and practical relevance of understanding the detrimental effects of uncivil behaviors on organizational outcomes. HRD researchers and professionals are highlighted as possible means for reducing uncivil workplace behaviors and improving organizational performance. [source]

Relations between characteristics of workplace practices and types of informal work-related learning: A survey study among Dutch Police

Anja J. Doornbos
Some organizations seek to promote informal work-related learning to stimulate organizational performance. This study focuses on six types of work-related learning in relation to personal, relational, and work characteristics of the workplace practice. A survey was conducted to identify types and levels of work-related learning for executive Dutch police officers in terms of intentionality, developmental relatedness, and interaction partner's professional practice and hierarchical position. Analysis of the data found that police officers frequently learn from their peers and together. They learn from new and less-experienced colleagues infrequently. Of the nine characteristics of workplace practices researched in this study, some seemed to individually facilitate work-related learning; in particular, the individual's value of workrelated learning, possibilities for collegial feedback, and a relatively high level of work pressure seemed to stimulate informal work-related learning. Implications of the findings for HRD research and practice are discussed. [source]

Organizational learning as an organization development intervention in six high-technology firms in Taiwan: An exploratory case study

Bella Ya-Hui Lien
Organizational learning (OL) is about how individuals collect, absorb, and transform information into organizational memory and knowledge. This case study explored how six high-technology firms in Taiwan chose OL as an organization development intervention strategy. Issues included how best to implement OL; how individuals, teams, and organizations learn; and the extent to which OL activities contributed to organizational performance. Five themes emerged as findings: (1) using language with which employees are familiar, (2) implementing OL concepts that are congruent with employees' work or personal life, (3) putting individual learning first and diffusing it to team learning and organizational learning, (4) using the knowledge management system to create an opportunity for individuals, teams, and the organization to learn, and (5) linking OL to organizational strategy to improve organizational performance. [source]

How leveraging human resource capital with its competitive distinctiveness enhances the performance of commercial and public organizations

Abraham Carmeli
Although scholars agree that complex relationships between organizations' actual human resources (i.e., human capital stock) and means of leveraging these resources may influence performance, little empirical work has tested such propositions directly. We collected two primary data sets from privateand public-sector organizations in Israel. The multiplicative interaction between perceived human resources capital and distinctive value derived from that HR capital was significantly related to various measures of perceived and objective organizational performance. Having higher levels of human resources capital was strongly associated with performance only when top managers perceived that these resources provided distinctive value in terms of being highly valuable, inimitable, rare, and nonsubstitutable. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on strategic human resource management and the resource-based view of competitive advantage, as well as for practical efforts to develop firm-specific human resource capital that is inherently distinctive. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Outsourcing HR as a competitive strategy?

A literature review, an assessment of implications
HR outsourcing as an organizational strategy has increased substantially over the last decade. However, this trend has attracted little academic attention regarding how outsourcing decisions are made, the manner in which these decisions are implemented, how outsourcing effectiveness is measured, and its impact on organizational performance. In this article, we provide a critical review of the reasons for, the processes involved in, and the perceived effectiveness of HR outsourcing. We investigate the implications of HR outsourcing for the role of the HR function and for the various groups of people affected by this strategy. We argue that organizations should apply both the resource-based view and institutional theory when making outsourcing decisions. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Using profit sharing to enhance employee attitudes: A longitudinal examination of the effects on trust and commitment

Jacqueline A-M.
The ability of profit sharing to increase organizational performance via positive changes in employee attitudes has yielded mixed results. Drawing on principal agent, expectancy, and organizational justice theories, we assess how perceptions of profit sharing (capacity for individual contribution and organizational reciprocity) alter organizational commitment and trust in management using longitudinal data provided by 141 engineering employees. Favorable perceptions of profit sharing served to increase organizational commitment while only organizational reciprocity predicted trust in management. The relationship between organizational reciprocity and commitment was partially mediated by trust in management. Implications for the design of profit sharing initiatives are noted. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A socio-cognitive interpretation of the potential effects of downsizing on software quality performance

Paul J. Ambrose
Abstract Organizational downsizing research indicates that downsizing does not always realize its strategic intent and may, in fact, have a detrimental impact on organizational performance. In this paper, we extend the notion that downsizing negatively impacts performance and argue that organizational downsizing can potentially be detrimental to software quality performance. Using social cognitive theory (SCT), we primarily interpret the negative impacts of downsizing on software quality performance by arguing that downsizing results in a realignment of social networks (environmental factors), thereby affecting the self-efficacy and outcome expectations of a software professional (personal factors), which, in turn, affect software quality performance (outcome of behaviour undertaken). We synthesize relevant literature from the software quality, SCT and downsizing research streams and develop a conceptual model. Two major impacts of downsizing are hypothesized in the conceptual model. First, downsizing destroys formal and informal social networks in organizations, which, in turn, negatively impacts software developers' self-efficacy and outcome expectations through their antecedents, with consequent negative impacts on software development process efficiency and software product quality, the two major components of software quality performance. Second, downsizing negatively affects antecedents of software development process efficiency, namely top management leadership, management infrastructure sophistication, process management efficacy and stakeholder participation with consequent negative impacts on software quality performance. This theoretically grounded discourse can help demonstrate how organizational downsizing can potentially impact software quality performance through key intervening constructs. We also discuss how downsizing and other intervening constructs can be managed to mitigate the negative impacts of downsizing on software quality performance. [source]

Expatriate mangers: A historical review

Michael Harvey
As expatriate managers continue to be a viable means for exercising control over foreign operations, they can have a direct impact on organizational performance, and therefore a delineation of the history of these key leaders in order to enhance our understanding of their continued significant impact is a laudable goal. The paper discusses each stage of the human resource management process, beginning with the identification and concluding with the repatriation stage of expatriate managers. Each stage is discussed in terms of the successes as well as problems/failures associated with the individual, organizational, environmental and systemic unit in mind. The paper concludes with future implications emphasizing the necessity to create new and/or enhance current practices relating to the development of expatriate managers' maximum global impact depending on the evolving nature of the globalization of business. [source]

Teamworking and organizational performance: A review of survey-based research

Anne Delarue
This paper presents a review of recent survey-based research looking at the contribution of teamwork to organizational performance. In particular, it focuses on empirical studies in which both teamwork and performance are directly measured in a quantitative way. The paper begins by identifying four interrelated dimensions of teamwork effectiveness: attitudinal, behavioural, operational and financial. The first two represent transmission mechanisms by which organizational performance can be improved. The latter two provide direct measures of organizational outcomes. The review shows that teamworking has a positive impact on all four dimensions of performance. It also reveals that, when teamwork is combined with structural change, performance can be further enhanced. The paper concludes by highlighting some important research gaps that future studies could address. [source]

A review of outsourcing from the resource-based view of the firm

Tomás F. Espino-Rodríguez
The phenomenon of outsourcing is becoming increasingly widespread among organizations and is now one of the strategic decisions that attract the greatest interest from professionals and organizational scholars. The primary purpose of the paper is to contribute with a review of the principal works that address outsourcing from the resource-based view of the firm (RBV). The paper begins by setting out the main premises of outsourcing and then presents the different concepts of outsourcing and proposes a concept that is more in line with the theoretical framework used. This is followed by an analysis of the principal differences and similarities of the treatments of outsourcing from the traditional perspective of the transaction costs economics theory (TCE) and from the more strategic and up-to-date RBV. The next section contains a review of the most significant theoretical and empirical works on outsourcing that address outsourcing from the RBV. The contributions are classified into two categories, depending on the objectives: works that study the propensity to outsource and works that study the relationship between the outsourcing decision and organizational performance. Finally, a framework is proposed that is based on the resource and capability view with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of outsourcing and facilitating future empirical works from the RBV that are complementary and examine issues of greater interest that have been less developed in the literature to date. [source]

A performance measurement paradigm for integrating strategy formulation: A review of systems and frameworks

Kit Fai Pun
Measuring organizational performance plays a very important part in translating corporate strategy into results. Various emerging (non-traditional) performance systems have recently been devised to aid firms in selecting and implementing measures. This paper discusses the strategy/measurement initiatives and compares ten emerging performance measurement systems with respect to a list of performance dimensions, the characteristics of performance measures, and the requirements of development process. Although these systems have constraints borne with their own application domains, they stand by themselves empirically and/or theoretically, and provide guidance about what to measure and how to design performance measures that could be linked to the corporate strategy and objectives of an organization. This paper concludes that there is a need to develop a paradigm for integrating strategy formulation and performance measurement in organizations. [source]

A review of the Chinese cultural influences on Chinese enterprise management

Kit-Fai Pun
In order to create and sustain competitive advantage, a company should not only develop technologies to create products and processes that meet customer needs, but also stimulate a corporate culture that commits to continuous performance improvement. Managing corporate culture is one of a number of important factors that make for organizational change and business success. This paper reviews the cultural roots and identifies the characteristics of Chinese cultural values and management. A comparative analysis of the differences between Anglo-American and Chinese cultures is made. The cultural influences on Chinese management systems are then elaborated with reference to enterprise management in Mainland China and Hong Kong. With unique cultural heritage, collective orientation has a pervasive influence on the mode of Chinese management and organization. The prevailing Chinese culture values stress largely the paternalistic approach to management, acceptance of hierarchy and the importance of relationships. Today's Chinese enterprises need to determine changes in practice or value or both aspects of corporate culture in order to facilitate organizational change and maintain a competitive edge over their rivals. The paper also discusses the links of cultural values to employee involvement (EI) and total quality management (TQM), and initiates a need to manage cultural influences on EI/TQM practices to improve organizational performance in Chinese enterprises. [source]