Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Organisations

  • aid organisation
  • business organisation
  • care organisation
  • carer organisation
  • charitable organisation
  • community organisation
  • development organisation
  • different organisation
  • economic organisation
  • european organisation
  • governmental organisation
  • health care organisation
  • health organisation
  • healthcare organisation
  • industrial organisation
  • international organisation
  • labour organisation
  • le organisation
  • management organisation
  • non-governmental organisation
  • non-profit organisation
  • nonprofit organisation
  • not-for-profit organisation
  • other organisation
  • political organisation
  • primary care organisation
  • private organisation
  • professional organisation
  • provider organisation
  • public organisation
  • public sector organisation
  • research organisation
  • sector organisation
  • service organisation
  • social organisation
  • trade organisation
  • voluntary organisation
  • work organisation
  • world health organisation
  • world trade organisation

  • Selected Abstracts


    This paper serves as a short introduction to inframarginal economics. Particular emphasis is given to the historical relevance of this approach, as well as to its key feature of reconciling neoclassical questions of distribution with classical insights regarding economic organisation. [source]


    Article first published online: 4 JUN 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Anil Khosla, Article first published online: 8 MAR 200
    chemical industry; industrial organisation; Japan; oligopoly Trade is considered an effective antidote to the exercise of domestic market power. This article, through an analysis of the structure, conduct and performance of the Japanese ammonium sulphate industry during the interwar period, shows that trade is not always a sufficient condition for domestic markets to become competitive. In industries exhibiting substantial economies of scale, availability and diffusion of technology, existence of surplus international capacity and the ability of domestic producers to deter imports can impede instantaneous adjustment of international supply to imbalances in demand and supply thereby allowing domestic producers to exercise their market power. [source]


    Anna Thomasson
    This paper focuses on hybrid organisations, which have both public and private sector elements. Therefore, stakeholders of hybrid organisations have different views regarding what to expect from the organisation and the role of stakeholders tend to be multifaceted. This creates ambiguity that imposes demands on the management of hybrid organisations. In this paper a stakeholder approach is used in order to explore the ambiguity of hybrid organisations and the demands this imposes on managers. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    This year is the twentieth anniversary of the germinal report ,Faith in the City' which first drew attention to the concerns of religious agencies whose remit is to tackle growing multiple deprivation in the UK. Since then, the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) as mediators of welfare provision, urban regeneration and community development has attracted little attention from sociologists despite claims that such roles are becoming increasingly important. Successive UK governments have highlighted the potential of religious congregations in enhancing social capital and promoting social cohesion. The seminal work of Greg Smith (University of East London) emphasises this theme while other sociological literature in this area (mainly American, e.g., Putnam) argues that FBOs in the community provide a degree of social support and relationship structures that accumulate as social capital resources. This discussion paper is an attempt to open up the debate on the ways in which FBOs can develop and enhance the social capital value of local community groups. [source]

    Global factors shaping the future of food aid: the implications for WFP

    DISASTERS, Issue 2007
    Daniel Maxwell
    Food aid is a key component of a humanitarian response but its use in other programming contexts is subject to numerous criticisms. Even in humanitarian emergencies food aid is often late, unreliable and out of proportion to other elements of the response. Three major factors will shape the future of food aid. First, mechanisms of food aid governance are being reviewed and may undergo major changes,particularly the Food Aid Convention now that hopes have diminished for an Agreement on Agriculture at the World Trade Organisation. The second significant factor is donor agency trends. Overall levels of food aid have dropped fairly steadily in recent decades and there are several discernible trends in resource allocation, procurement and the use of food aid. The third factor is an emerging body of best practice that will define acceptable standards of food aid programming in the future. [source]

    Risk factors for suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence or abuse and a history of depressive symptoms: A subgroup analysis from the WHO/ISBRA study

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Alcoholism, depression and suicide attempts (SA) are strongly interrelated. The aims were to determine risk factors and develop a prognostic predictor model for SA in a subgroup of patients with a history of alcohol dependence or abuse and depressive symptoms. Design and Methods. A subgroup analysis from the data of the World Health Organisation (WHO)/the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA)-collaborative study on biological state and trait marker of alcohol use and dependence, an international multi-centre study with a cross-sectional design, based on a standardised questionnaire. We analysed from 1314 variables 43 factors,including demographic characteristics, dependence variables, comorbid disorders, personality trait markers and family history,that were supposed to be most predictive for SA according to the literature. Correlation analyses by the ,2 -test and Mann,Whitney U -test were performed to obtain statistical meaningful parameters for logistic regression analysis. Results. Of the 1863 persons included in the WHO/ISBRA study, 292 had both a history of depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence or abuse and were included in the subgroup analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, drinking status, depressive symptoms, adverse drinking experiences during alcohol consumption, bad experiences from drug abuse and antidepressant therapy were found to be independent risk factors for SA. Positive family history of alcoholism was a model-improving co-factor. This predictive model explains approximately 60% of the variance (Nagelkerkes' square). Discussion and Conclusions. This prognostic model derived from data of the WHO/ISBRA collaborative study shows important risk factors for SA in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence and depressive symptoms. [ Yaldizli Ö, Kuhl HC, Graf M, Wiesbeck GA, Wurst FM. Risk factors for suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence or abuse and a history of depressive symptoms: A subgroup analysis from the WHO/ISBRA study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

    Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders

    Abstract Issues. Despite the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to manage substance use disorders, which are common presenting complaints in primary care, primary-care providers find managing substance use disorders a difficult business. This paper provides an overview of the evidence for interventions, including training and education programmes, in enhancing the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders by health-care providers. Approach. The Cochrane Library and the database of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were searched for answers to five questions: (i) Can education and training increase the involvement of primary care providers? (ii) Can education and training cause harm? (iii) Can education and training be enhanced with support and other organisational factors? (iv) Can finance systems change provider behaviour? and (v) Is political support needed? Key Findings. Education and training can increase the involvement of primary-care providers in managing alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders, with the impact enhanced by additional support and other organisational factors. There is some evidence that if education and training does not take account of providers' attitudes, then harm can be caused. There is limited evidence that finance systems can change provider behaviour, and that comprehensive policy, in which a health sector response is a part, can increase the potential of primary-care management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders. Conclusions. Tailored education and training programmes for the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders need to be broadly implemented and embedded in overall comprehensive policies that provide the necessary organisational and financial incentives for enhancing provider behaviour. There is an urgent need to extend the evidence base on the impact of education and training and other strategies to increase the involvement of providers in managing substance-use disorders.[Anderson P. Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:567,574] [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2008
    Brett J. Skinner
    Healthcare systems in North America are sometimes criticised as being expensive or socially irresponsible relative to comparable systems in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries or regions. These perceived health system failures are often mistakenly attributed to greater private sector involvement in the delivery of medical care or the provision of medical insurance in Canada and the USA. However, the exact nature and scope of state involvement in the healthcare sector in Canada and the USA is also often misunderstood and underestimated. This paper presents a fact-based context for evaluating health policy in North America. [source]

    Changes in toxicity and bioavailability of lead in contaminated soils to the earthworm Eisenia fetida (savigny 1826) after bone meal amendments to the soil

    Nicola A. Davies
    Abstract The effect of bone meal (Ca5(PO4)3OH) amendments on lead (Pb) bioavailability to Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) was investigated. A standard uncontaminated soil was amended with Pb(NO3)2 solution to give Pb concentrations of 7,000 ,g/g of soil. After one week, bone meal was added to one half of the soil in the ratio 1:20 bone meal:soil. Immediately after addition of the bone meal, survival times of E. fetida were 23 and 41 h in the bone meal-free and bone meal-amended soil, respectively. Twentyeight days after addition of the bone meal, survival times of Eisenia fetida were 67 h in the bone meal-free soil and more than 168 h in the bone meal-amended soil. In a second experiment, a standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development reproduction toxicity test was carried out, but in addition to Pb(NO3)2 solution, bone meal was added to the soil in the ratio 1:20 bone meal:soil. The bone meal-free soil was left for five weeks before addition of E. fetida. In the bone meal-amended soil, bon emeal was added to the soil one week after addition of the Pb. The soil was left for a further four weeks before addition of Eisenia fetida. Calculated toxicities were significantly lower for the bone meal-amended soil than those calculated for the bone meal-free soil. Twenty-eight-day median lethal concentrations (LC50s; concentration that is statistically likely to kill 50% of the exposed test organism within a given time period ± 95% confidence intervals) of Pb were 4,379 ± 356 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-free soil and 5,203 ± 401 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-amended soil. Twenty-eight-day median effect concentrations (EC50s; concentration causing a reduction by 50% of a stated parameter) of Pb for weight change were 1,408 ± 198 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-free soil and 3,334 ± 731 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-amended soil and EC50s for cocoon production were 971 ± 633 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-free soil and 1,814 ± 613 ,g/g of soil for bone meal-amended soil. Significant mortalities occurred at Pb concentrations of 2,000 ,g/g of soil in the bone meal-free soil and 5,000 ,g/g of soil in the bone meal-amended soil. Earthworm Pb body load was lower in the bone meal-treated soil than in the bone meal-free soil up to a Pb concentration of 5,000 ,g/g of soil. Earthworm Pb body load was approximately 100 ,g/g of worm in surviving earthworms in both experiments when significant mortality occurred. Water and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-extractable soil Pb showed good correlations with earthworm Pb body load. These extractions could be used as estimates for Pb bioavailability. [source]

    Soil and plant diet exposure routes and toxicokinetics of lindane in a terrestrial isopod

    José Paulo Sousa
    Abstract In most studies dealing with effects of toxic substances in saprotrophic isopods, animals are exposed to the test substance through contaminated food. Because these animals can be in a close contact with the soil surface, the substrate, as an exposure pathway, should not be neglected. Here the authors analyze the toxicokinetic behavior of lindane (,-hexachlorocyclohexane [,-HCH]) in the isopod species Porcellionides pruinosus, comparing two exposure routes: food and two soil types (artificial Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] soil and a natural agricultural soil). In the feeding experiment, a strong decrease of ,-HCH concentration over time was observed on the food material, with the animals showing a broader range in chemical assimilation efficiency values (averaging 17.7% and ranging from 10 to 40%). The ,-HCH bioaccumulation results indicate that when animals incubated under both soil types reached a steady state, they displayed much higher body burdens (1,359.60 pg/animal on OECD soil and 1,085.30 pg/animal on natural soil) than those exposed to contaminated food (43.75 pg/animal). Kinetic models also revealed much lower assimilation and elimination rates in the food experiment (20.66 pg/d and 0.10 pg/d) than in both soil experiments (238.60 pg/d and 350.54 pg/d for the assimilation rate and 0.19 pg/d and 0.32 pg/d for the elimination rate). Differences in results between exposure routes are discussed according to equilibrium-partitioning theory and the enhanced relevance of the substrate exposure route is analyzed under future prospects on chemical toxicity testing using isopods. [source]

    Organisation of proficiency testing for plant health diagnostic tests: the experience of FAPAS®

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 1 2010
    A. Reynolds
    Proficiency testing (PT) is an established quality assurance measure and is based on the comparison of laboratories' results in an inter-laboratory trial. It highlights problems in laboratory analysis and is an educational tool to help improve data quality. This article describes how PT is organised by FAPAS®. FAPAS® is an international PT provider (external quality assessments) for food chemistry, food microbiology, genetically modified material and water/environmental samples. Since 2007, FAPAS® have organized plant health proficiency tests in conjunction with the Plant Pest and Disease Identification Programme at the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera). Up until 2009, FAPAS® has organised seven plant health proficiency tests that covered the identification of lyophilised bacteria, viruses in leaves and fungi in agar plugs. In 2009, FAPAS® organized over 10 plant health proficiency tests under the banner of ,PhytoPAS', including Potato spindle tuber viroid, Phytophthora ramorum, Thrips palmi, Erwinia amylovora, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, etc. DNA extracts, cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and slides/immunofluorescence (IF) slides have been added to the programme. The organization of the plant health proficiency tests follows a similar pattern. Suitable test materials are prepared and tested for quality before distribution to requesting participants. Laboratories usually have 1,2 months to analyze their samples and return their results. A report is then compiled for issue to laboratories and these contain all results in an anonymous form, so that laboratories can compare their results with those of other participants. If a laboratory's performance is unsatisfactory then it is up to them to investigate the situation. Thus, the primary purpose of PT is the detection of inaccuracy in a laboratory's results, so that they can investigate the problems and initiate corrective procedures. [source]

    Patients' subjective symptoms, quality of life and intake of food during the recovery period 3 and 12 months after upper gastrointestinal surgery

    U. OLSSON rnt, phd student
    Few studies describe patients' quality of life and their experienced symptoms during the recovery period after having undergone upper gastrointestinal surgery at 3 and 12 months. The aims of this study were to explore patients' quality of life and symptoms preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months following upper gastrointestinal surgery and to describe and compare patients' experiences of appetite, food intake, weight changes, tiredness and sleeping patterns. A descriptive and comparative quantitative design was used. Three instruments were used: the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Eating Dysfunction Scale. A questionnaire was used to investigate symptoms such as mood, appetite, sleep, activities and well-being. Twenty-four patients were included in the study. The major results were that anxiety levels and global health status decreased and that patients felt more disappointed after 12 months compared with after 3 months. Four patients at 3 months after surgery and eight patients at 12 months regained their weight compared with the situation before surgery. The contribution of nursing care activities focusing on the importance of food intake and the patients' current and historical medical records in relation to their health status should continue to be examined and researched over a longer period of time. [source]

    Adapting the Pattern of University Organisation to the Needs of the Knowledge Economy

    Federico Butera
    First page of article [source]

    EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-BMT for the measurement of quality of life in bone marrow transplant recipients: a comparison

    Martin Kopp
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to compare two differentquality-of-life self-rating instruments, namely the EORTC QLQ-C30, developed by the quality-of-life study group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the FACT-BMT (version 3), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy , Bone Marrow Transplantation scale, which is the FACT-G(eneral measure) in combination with a module developed specifically for evaluating quality of life of bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. Fifty-six BMT recipients completed both the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the FACT-BMT (German language version) during the same session. Questionnaire data were analyzed on a subscale basis using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Correlations between corresponding subscales of EORTC QLQ-C30 and the FACT-BMT ranged from r=0.30 for the emotional domain (poor agreement) to r=0.77 for global QOL (good agreement). This suggests that the instruments, despite considerable overlap, possibly focus on different aspects of QOL, in particular in addressing emotional and social issues of BMT patients. It appears that the FACT-BMT gives a more comprehensive overview regarding the multidimensional construct of quality of life. The EORTC QLQ-C30 gives more insight into the physical aspects of quality of life and helps to identify symptoms which effectively decrease quality of life from the patient's perspective. The QLQ-C30 might be improved by the incorporation of a BMT-specific module currently under development. We therefore conclude that neither of the two instruments can be replaced by the other in the assessment of QOL of BMT patients and that a direct comparison of results obtained with the two instruments is likely to be misleading. [source]

    Developing new measures of welfare state change and reform

    Francis G. Castles
    Since the publication of Gøsta Esping,Andersen's The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Esping,Andersen 1990), which built its typologies on a rich database of detailed programme characteristics, it has been generally accepted that measures of social expenditure are an inferior, and even a misleading, source of information concerning the character of welfare state development. The problem is, however, that the kinds of detailed programme data Esping,Andersen used are not routinely available, while the quality of social expenditure data has been improving rapidly, culminating in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) now regularly updated and highly disaggregated Social Expenditure Database (SOCX). This article explores the possibility of using SOCX to devise measures of the extent, structure and trajectory of welfare state change and reform in 21 OECD countries over the period 1984 to 1997. On the basis of these measures, it suggests that there has been almost no sign of systematic welfare retrenchment in recent years and only limited evidence of major structural transformation or programmatic reorientation. [source]

    A Nolan Committee for the German ethics infrastructure?

    Nathalie Behnke
    An international trend towards establishing and conforming standards of ethical behaviour in the public sector has repeatedly been stated. Germany, however, remains surprisingly reluctant to adopt such recommendations. This article argues that the likelihood of German decision makers implementing new, and especially soft, ethics measures depends on the demand for such measures, on the one hand, and their supply, on the other. The analysis shows that contradictory forces have an impact on Germany. The demand for new ethics measures is relatively low as a high level of hard ethics measures incorporated in the longstanding formal legal system of rules and regulations make the implementation of new measures seem unnecessary. Also, the demand for soft ethics measures is less marked in Germany than in the United Kingdom. This comparatively weak pressure meets the natural inertia caused by cognitive and institutional path,dependency in institutional choices of political decision makers. On the other hand, external bodies (such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development , OECD) provide blueprints for soft ethics measures and encourage the implementation of uniform standards across countries. Which of these forces will prevail in the long run, however, cannot be deduced from the present situation. [source]

    The European Judicial Organisation in a New Paradigm: The Influence of Principles of ,New Public Management' on the Organisation of the European Courts

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
    Elaine Mak
    Recent reforms regarding the European Courts raise the question in which way do ,new public management' principles influence the European judicial organisation and how is a balance struck between these principles and classic ,rule of law' principles? The article first presents a classification of these types of principles in the framework for discussion regarding the European judicial organisation. Starting out from two paradigms, an inquiry is made into the status of the two sets of principles in the present-day European ,constitutional' framework. Second, the interaction of principles is investigated with regard to a number of current dilemmas, including the demarcation of the judicial domain, the management of the Courts and the distribution of judicial competences. [source]

    The Current Status and Prospects of the ,Strategic Partnership' between the EU and China: Towards the Conclusion of a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    Antoine Sautenet
    In the absence of a category of ,emerging countries' in international economic law, the Union must adapt its foreign policy with regard to this major economic and commercial power. Relations between the European Community and China are currently governed by a second-generation agreement from 1985. However, a new dynamic has been set in motion since 2003, by the drawing up of preparatory documents by both parties and joint declarations at annual summits bearing on the ,strategic partnership'. Seen in a long-term perspective, this partnership helps provide a measure of predictability in relations between the two partners, through combining elements of ,soft law' and ,hard law'. If the insertion of political dialogue into the strategic partnership seems to alter the coherence of the Union, notably with regard to the difficulties of implementing the dialogue on human rights, the added value of the partnership lies essentially in its economic and commercial aspects, through not only the putting into place of non-binding ,economic dialogues' which cover a large spectrum of the relationship, but also by the multiplication of sector-based accords in numerous areas (maritime transport, customs cooperation, etc.). This constant development has thus allowed parties, at the last annual summit, to envisage the conclusion of a new framework agreement: this is the origin of the mandate given to the Commission in December 2005 to conclude a partnership and cooperation agreement. This article will sketch out a forecast of the legal framework, measured against the yardsticks of Asiatic regional reconfigurations and the law of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The commercial risks of the relationship could imply the integration of the domains known as ,WTO plus' into the future agreement, notably in the field of investments and intellectual property rights, which would introduce a greater variety into the agreement. That being the case, the negotiations risk being equally fragile at the political level, in particular concerning the insertion of a clause of democratic conditionality in the future agreement. Also, any clash between the values and the interests of the EU would be uncomfortably highlighted during negotiations. [source]

    The Fall and Renewal of the Commission: Accountability, Contract and Administrative Organisation

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
    Paul Craig
    The fall of the Santer Commission, prompted by the Report of the Committee of Independent Experts, sent shock waves throughout the entire Community. This article seeks to examine the nature of the problems which beset the Commission, to place these within the broader context of decision-making by public bodies, and to consider also the responsibilities of the Council and European Parliament for the delivery of agreed Community policies. The article analyses in detail the Reports of the Committee of Independent Experts, and the subsequent reforms initiated by the Prodi Commission, in order to assess the prospects for improved service delivery in the future. [source]

    Noxious Somatic Inputs to Hypothalamic-Midbrain Projection Neurones: a Comparison of the Columnar Organisation of Somatic and Visceral Inputs to the Periaqueductal Grey in the Rat

    D. M. Parry
    The induction of Fos protein was used to localise hypothalamic neurones activated by noxious somatic stimulation. This was combined with retrograde transport of fluorescent latex microspheres from identified ,pressor' and ,depressor' sites in the dorsolateral/lateral or ventrolateral columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG). Fos-positive neurones were found throughout the rostral hypothalamus. Of those neurones activated by noxious somatic stimuli that projected to the PAG all but one was retrogradely labelled from sites that included the lateral column. Only one neurone was double labelled following injection of tracer at a depressor site in the ventrolateral PAG. This is in marked contrast to visceroresponsive hypothalamic neurones, a larger proportion of which project to the PAG and which, as reported previously, preferentially target depressor sites in the ventrolateral sector. These results are discussed in relation to the roles of the anterior hypothalamus and the different functional columns of the PAG in co-ordinating autonomic and sensory functions in response to nociceptive inputs originating in different peripheral domains. [source]

    C-Nociceptor Activation of Hypothalamic Neurones and the Columnar Organisation of Their Projections to the Periaqueductal Grey in the Rat

    B. M. Lumb
    The induction of Fos protein was used to localise hypothalamic neurones activated by ramps of noxious skin heating delivered at a rate of 2.5 °C s,1 to preferentially activate C-nociceptors. This was combined with retrograde transport of cholera toxin subunit B from identified ,pressor' and ,depressor' sites in the dorsolateral/lateral or the ventrolateral columns of the periaqueductal grey. Fos-positive neurones were found throughout the rostral hypothalamus. Despite this wide distribution, those neurones double labelled retrogradely from the periaqueductal grey were focused in the lateral area of the anterior hypothalamus. More than 20% of Fos-positive neurones in this region projected to depressor sites in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, and 10% projected to its dorsolateral/lateral sector. These results are discussed in relation to the peripheral inputs to hypothalamic-midbrain pathways and their role in the cardiovascular responses to different components of the pain signal. [source]

    Financial Management Strategy in a Community Welfare Organisation: A Boardroom Perspective

    Lee D. Parker
    This paper presents the results of a four year participant observation study of boardroom deliberations and resulting financial management strategies in a large not,for,profit religious based community welfare organisation. Employing a complete membership research approach and informed by grounded theory analysis, the study develops a micro,theoretical framework portraying boardroom financial management and accountability strategising. The study finds that the strategic focus on mission financing was conditioned by the contested formulation of strategic objectives, core organisational service philosophies, and executive,board member interaction. A significant observed outcome of the strategic mission financing focus was the management of accountability and disclosure, to which two key strategies were contributory. These were the exercising of financial control and the exercising of relationships management. The findings offer hitherto unavailable insights into strategic financial management and accountability processes and their context at the boardroom level in the religious not,for,profit community welfare sector. [source]

    The Meaning of Balanced Scorecards in the Health Care Organisation

    Lars-Göan Aidemark
    This study investigates the introduction of balanced scorecards in a health care organisation. It analyses a top-down control system, built on measurement, in a medical professional context, where attempts at implementing systematic performance auditing are expected to meet resistance. The study shows, however, that balanced scorecards, redesigned by medical professionals and used in a dialogue about service activities and finances, are regarded attractive successors to criticised financial control systems. In the light of the markets, hierarchies and clans perspective, developed by Ouchi, this popularity becomes comprehensible. Balanced scorecards are seen to reduce both the ambiguity of performance evaluation and the goal in-congruence between parties in the organisation. [source]

    Good Government Means Different Things in Different Countries

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2010
    Work on good governance implies a one-best-way model of effective government. This has isomorphic influences on development, whereby governments are influenced to adopt a one-size-fits-all approach to get things done. This article challenges whether such an approach exists, proposing that models actually do not hold even for the so-called effective governments. Governments look different, even if they are similarly called models of good government. This proposition is examined through a study of public financial management practices in a set of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and non-OECD countries. The study shows that effective governments are not more likely to exhibit better practice characteristics implied in one-best-way models. Good public financial management means different things in different countries. The article concludes by suggesting that good governance models give way to menus and the development community invest more time in examining why different countries select different menu items. [source]

    Do social inequalities exist in terms of the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, control and monitoring of diabetes?

    A systematic review
    Abstract The major increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has led to the study of social inequalities in health-care. The aim of this study is to establish the possible existence of social inequalities in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, control and monitoring of diabetes in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries which have universal healthcare systems. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all relevant articles published up to 15 December 2007. We included observational studies carried out in OECD countries with universal healthcare systems in place that investigate social inequalities in the provision of health-care to diabetes patients. Two independent reviewers carried out the critical assessment using the STROBE tool items considered most adequate for the evaluation of the methodological quality. We selected 41 articles from which we critically assessed 25 (18 cross-sectional, 6 cohorts, 1 case-control). Consistency among the article results was found regarding the existence of ethnic inequalities in treatment, metabolic control and use of healthcare services. Socioeconomic inequalities were also found in the diagnosis and control of the disease, but no evidence of any gender inequalities was found. In general, the methodological quality of the articles was moderate with insufficient information in the majority of cases to rule out bias. This review shows that even in countries with a significant level of economic development and which have universal healthcare systems in place which endeavour to provide medical care to the entire population, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities can be identified in the provision of health-care to DM sufferers. However, higher quality and follow-up articles are needed to confirm these results. [source]

    Organisation and features of hospital, intermediate care and social services in English sites with low rates of delayed discharge

    Matt Baumann MSc
    Abstract In recent years, there has been significant concern, and policy activity, in relation to the problem of delayed discharges from hospital. Key elements of policy to tackle delays include new investment, the establishment of the Health and Social Care Change Agent Team, and the implementation of the Community Care (Delayed Discharge) Act 2003. Whilst the problem of delays has been widespread, some authorities have managed to tackle delays successfully. The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to investigate discharge practice and the organisation of services at sites with consistently low rates of delay, in order to identify factors supporting such good performance. Six ,high performing' English sites (each including a hospital trust, a local authority, and a primary care trust) were identified using a statistical model, and 42 interviews were undertaken with health and social services staff involved in discharge arrangements. Additionally, the authors set out to investigate the experiences of patients in the sites to examine whether there was a cost to patient care and outcomes of discharge arrangements in these sites, but unfortunately, it was not possible to secure sufficient patient participation. Whilst acknowledging the lack of patient experience and outcome data, a range of service elements was identified at the sites that contribute to the avoidance of delays, either through supporting efficiency within individual agencies or enabling more efficient joint working. Sites still struggling with delays should benefit from knowledge of this range. The government's reimbursement scheme appears to have been largely helpful in the study sites, prompting efficiency-driven changes to the organisation of services and discharge systems, but further focused research is required to provide clear evidence of its impact nationally, and in particular, how it impacts on staff, and patients and their families. [source]

    Staff shortages in the mental health workforce: the case of the disappearing approved social worker

    Peter Huxley PhD
    Abstract Approved social worker (ASW) numbers in England and Wales were compared on the basis of two national surveys conducted in 1992 and 2002. These data were supplemented by reports published by the Employers' Organisation in the intervening years. Although raw numbers suggested a modest absolute increase over this time, rates of ASWs per 100 000 population declined by over 50%. Possible explanations for this dramatic fall are explored. The authors conclude that specific and targeted action needs to be taken by the government and public sector employers to determine the numbers of mental health social workers needed in modernised community mental health services. [source]

    Studying the Organisation and Delivery of Health Services: Research Methods

    Nick Goodwin Ba (Hons) PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The politics of Europe 2003: differences and disagreements

    Erik Jones
    ABSTRACT The European Union (EU) was supposed to make a great leap forward in 2003. In many ways, it did. The European Convention presented its draft constitutional treaty. The 10 candidate countries signed and ratified their treaties of accession, and the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) agreed to share institutional resources. However, the year was marked more by division than by achievement. A series of crises over Iraq, the Stability and Growth Pact and the intergovernmental conference together shook confidence in the future of Europe. This essay examines what the implications of these crises are for Europe's future. It argues that they represent important disagreements,,but not lasting differences,,between the member states. The politics of Europe remains on track at the intergovernmental level. If there are problems in Europe's future, they are more likely to arise between elites and voters than between the member states. [source]