Oreochromis Niloticus (Oreochromi + niloticu)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Oreochromis Niloticus

  • nile tilapia Oreochromi niloticu
  • tilapia Oreochromi niloticu

  • Terms modified by Oreochromis Niloticus

  • Oreochromi niloticu l.

  • Selected Abstracts

    Juvenile growth of two tilapia species in lakes Naivasha and Baringo, Kenya

    J. R. Britton
    Abstract,,, Tilapia species in East African lakes often form the basis of commercial fisheries, with information on their population biology assisting their management. This study utilised otolith microstructure, with validation by modal progression analysis, to provide growth data for two tilapia species in two Kenyan lakes for the first time. Otolith microstructure revealed the growth rate of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, a sub-species endemic to Lake Baringo, was fast compared with populations of Oreochromis niloticus; mean daily growth rates were >0.50 mm·d,1 in fish between 12 and 53 mm total length. Growth of Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha was also relatively fast when compared with the growth rates of other tilapia species, with mean daily growth rates of approximately 0.35,0.48 mm·d,1 in fish between 10 and 56 mm total length. Growth rates of both species were well described by the Gompertz model and were corroborated by modal progression analysis that revealed similar daily growth rates in modes of young-of-the-year fish. [source]

    Growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. from Lakes Zwai, Langeno and Chamo (Ethiopian rift valley) based on otolith microincrement analysis

    D. Admassu
    Abstract , Age and growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from Lakes Zwai, Langeno and Chamo (Ethiopia) were studied from microincrements in otoliths. Growth in length was best described by the Gompertz model. Average growth rate of the fish was most rapid in Lake Chamo (0.39 mm,·,day,1, 1.14%,·,day,1), intermediate in Lake Zwai (0.20 mm,·,day,1, 0.72%,·,day,1) and slowest in Lake Langeno (0.16 mm,·,day,1, 0.62%,·,day,1). Similarly, back-calculation from otolith increment widths gave growth rates of 0.28 to 0.43 mm,·,day,1, 0.15 to 0.32 mm,·,day,1 and 0.11 to 0.28 mm,·,day,1 for Chamo, Zwai and Langeno fish, respectively. In addition, Fulton's condition factor was largest for Chamo tilapia and smallest for Langeno tilapia; the difference between fish from Langeno and Zwai was small. Rapid growth of juvenile O. niloticus in Lake Chamo was attributed to warm temperature and better food quality., [source]

    Genotoxicity testing of the herbicide trifluralin and its commercial formulation Treflan using the piscine micronucleus test

    Serpil Könen
    Abstract In this study, the genotoxic effects of a widely used herbicide, trifluralin, and its commercial formulation, Treflan, were evaluated using the micronucleus test in a commercially important fish species, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia). Fish were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ,g/L doses of trifluralin and Treflan for 3, 6, and 9 days under laboratory conditions. Ethylmethanesulfonate, at a single dose of 10 mg/L, was used as positive control. Micronuclei were evaluated on the peripheral erythrocytes. Both Treflan and trifluralin treatments significantly increased the micronucleus frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of O. niloticus. Furthermore, the genotoxicity of the active ingredient, trifluralin, was observed to be higher than that of the commercial formulation Treflan. Our results indicate that herbicide trifluralin has genotoxic potential in fish. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test

    Serap Ergene
    Abstract The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80,3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50,2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45,1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cadmium tolerance in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following acute exposure: Assessment of some ionoregulatory parameters

    Sofia Garcia-Santos
    Abstract The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) can tolerate very high levels of waterborne cadmium. It has one of the highest 96 h LC50 recorded for a freshwater teleost fish (14.8 mg/L Cd; hardness 50 mg/L CaCO3). Cadmium is known to perturb ion balance in teleost fishes. However, in an acute time course experiment, plasma Na+ concentrations were unaffected, and plasma Ca2+ values only decreased after 96 h exposure in a dose-independent manner. Branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and ,-subunit protein level expression in crude gill homogenates were not affected by Cd exposure during this period. Branchial chloride cell numbers, identified as Na+/K+ -ATPase immunoreactive cells using immunohistochemistry, decreased 24 h after exposure but recovered thereafter. Histopathological changes did not follow a consistent pattern of variation with exposure time, and the alterations noted in gill epithelium were basically nonspecific to cadmium. Because of its tolerance, it can be concluded that the tilapia O. niloticus would not be a suitable test organism to evaluate sublethal toxicity of cadmium and the realistic impact of this pollutant in the environment. However, it certainly could contribute significantly to our understanding of the toxic mechanism of cadmium exposure in aquatic organisms. This is the first work to investigate the effect of waterborne pollutants on Na+/K+ -ATPase ,-subunit protein expression in fish gills. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 33,46, 2006. [source]

    Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning stress and growth,

    Andrea Ziková
    Abstract Diets containing Microcystis with considerable amounts of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were fed to determine their impact on the physiological performance of the omnivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with regard to stress and growth performance. Four different diets were prepared based on a commercial diet (control, MC-5% [containing 5% dried Microcystis biomass], MC-20% [containing 20% dried Microcystis biomass], and Arthrospira-20% [containing 20% dried Arthrospira sp. biomass without toxin]) and fed to female Nile tilapia. Blood and tissue samples were taken after 1, 7, and 28 d, and MC-LR was quantified in gills, muscle, and liver by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Only in the liver were moderate concentrations of MC-LR detected. The stress hormone cortisol and glucose were analyzed from plasma, suggesting that all modified diets caused only minor to moderate stress, which was confirmed by analyses of hepatic glycogen. In addition, the effects of the different diets on growth performance were investigated by determining gene expression of hypophyseal growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). For all diets, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated no significant effect on gene expression of the major endocrine hormones of the growth axis, whereas classical growth data, including growth and feed conversion ratio, displayed slight inhibitory effects of all modified diets independent of their MC-LR content. However, no significant change was found in condition or hepatosomatic index among the various diets, so it seems feasible that dried cyanobacterial biomass might be even used as a component in fish diet for Nile tilapia, which requires further research in more detail. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:561,568. © 2009 SETAC [source]

    Effects of dietary N -acetylcysteine on the oxidative stress induced in tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) exposed to a microcystin-producing cyanobacterial water bloom,

    María Puerto
    Abstract Fish can be exposed to toxic cyanobacterial cells in natural waters and fish farms and suffer from oxidative damage. The present study investigates the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione (GSH) precursor, on the oxidative stress induced by Microcystis cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins (MCs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Variation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, carbonyl group content, reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and catalase (Enzyme Commission [EC], superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC, glutathione reductase (GR; EC, glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC, and glutathione S-transferase (EC activities in liver and kidney of tilapia exposed to a single oral dose of 120 ,g MC-LR (with leucine [L] and arginine [R])/fish and killed in 24 h were investigated in the absence and presence of 20.0, 44.0, and 96.8 mg NAC/fish/d. Results showed a protective role of NAC, depending on the dose and the biomarker considered. The increase in LPO (1.9-and 1.4-fold in liver and kidney, respectively) and the decreased protein content and GSH:GSSG in the liver induced by MCs were recovered mainly by the lower doses of NAC employed. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased (range, 1.4-to 1.7-fold) by MCs also were ameliorated by NAC, although the highest level used induced significant alteration of some enzymatic activities, such as SOD, GPx, and GR. Thus, NAC can be considered to be a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress in the prophylaxis and treatment of MC-related intoxications in fish when careful attention is given to its application dose because of its own pro-oxidant activity, as shown in the present study at 96.8 mg NAC/ fish/d. [source]

    Supplemental dietary flaxseed oil affects both neutral and phospholipid fatty acids in cultured tilapia

    Nilson E. de Souza
    Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) classes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle tissue. Tilapias were raised in captivity for a period of 5,months with increasing levels (0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, and 5.00%) of flaxseed oil [source of ,-linolenic acid (LNA), 18:3n -3] in substitution for sunflower oil (control). The NL/PL ratio was 1.9, and 45,fatty acids were determined for both classes of lipid. The class totals of n -3 acids always increased in all treatments, while the totals for n -6 acids always decreased (p,<0.05). For a given level of flaxseed oil, the LNA contents were consistently higher, including EPA (20:5n -3) and DHA (22:6n -3). Arachidonic acid (20:4n -6) remained high in the PL but was reduced as levels of dietary flaxseed oil were increased. The n -6/n -3 ratios decreased significantly with the rise in flaxseed oil content in all treatments, and highly unsaturated fatty acid contents increased with the levels of flaxseed oil. Overall, the influence of flaxseed oil on the fatty acid composition in the contributing NL and PL classes was to increase n -3 PUFA, thus raising the nutritional value of this freshwater fish meat and, consequently, contributing to the health of consumers. [source]

    Culture-based fisheries in non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka: production and relative performance of stocked species

    Abstract, In Sri Lanka, there is a great potential for the development of culture-based fisheries because of the availability of around 12 000 non-perennial reservoirs in the dry zone (<187 cm annual rainfall) of the island. These reservoirs fill during the north-east monsoonal period in October to December and almost completely dry up during August to October. As these non-perennial reservoirs are highly productive, hatchery-reared fish fingerlings can be stocked to develop culture-based fisheries during the water retention period of 7,9 months. The present study was conducted in 32 non-perennial reservoirs in five administrative districts in Sri Lanka. These reservoirs were stocked with fingerlings of Indian (catla Catla catla Hamilton and rohu Labeo rohita Hamilton) and Chinese (bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis Richardson) major carps, common carp Cyprinus carpio L., genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and post-larvae of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, at three different species combinations and overall stocking densities (SD) ranging from 218 to 3902 fingerlings ha,1, during the 2002,2003 culture cycle. Of the 32 reservoirs stocked, reliable data on harvest were obtained from 25 reservoirs. Fish yield ranged from 53 to 1801 kg ha,1 and the yields of non-perennial reservoirs in southern region were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the northern region. Naturally-recruited snakehead species contributed the catches in northern reservoirs. Fish yield was curvilinearly related to reservoir area (P < 0.05), and a negative second order relationship was evident between SD and yield (P < 0.05). Chlorophyll- a and fish yield exhibited a positive second order relationship (P < 0.01). Bighead carp yield impacted positively on the total yield (P < 0.05), whereas snakehead yield impact was negative. Bighead carp, common carp and rohu appear suitable for poly-culture in non-perennial reservoirs. GIFT strain O. niloticus had the lowest specific growth rate among stocked species and freshwater prawn had a low return. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Echinacea purpurea and Allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    S. M. Aly
    Summary The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echnicacea (E) and garlic (G) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Seven treatments were designed including a control (C). Fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. Echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). Neutrophil adherence and haematocrit values increased in both supplemented groups with prolonging period of application. The neutrophils adherence was significantly increased in all treatments except group administered echinacea for 1 month. The lymphocytic counts were significantly (p < 0.004) elevated that resulted in a significant increase in the total leucocytic count in groups administered echinacea for 1 and 2 months when compared with the control and/or other treatments. The gain in the body weight and specific growth rate was significantly increased in all supplemented groups (p < 0.004) during summer, but remained without any significant increase after winter. The survival rate was significantly high (>85%) in all the supplemented groups. The percentage of protection, after challenge infection using pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was the highest in groups supplemented with echinacea and garlic for 3 months after summer and winter seasons. It could be concluded that echinacea and garlic improve the gain in body weight, survival rate and resistance against challenge infection. Both compounds showed extended effects after withdrawal and improved resistance to cold stress during the winter season. However, a full commercial cost benefit analysis is necessary before recommending their application in aquaculture. [source]

    The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on the gut microbiota and immune status of on-growing red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    R.M.W. Ferguson
    Abstract Aim:, To assess Pediococcus acidilactici as a dietary supplement for on-growing red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Methods and Results:, Tilapia were fed either a control diet or control diet supplemented with Ped. acidilactici at 107 CFU g,1 for 32 days. Ped. acidilactici colonized the intestinal tract and significantly affected the intestinal microbial communities. PCR-DGGE revealed direct antagonism of gastric Ped. acidilactici with an endogenous uncultured bacterium during a period of reverting to nonsupplemented feeding. Light microscopy revealed that gut integrity and leucocyte levels were unaffected by Ped. acidilactici; however, blood leucocyte levels and serum lysozyme activity were elevated after 14-days' feeding. No significant improvements in growth performance were observed at the end of the trial (day 32), but survival was significantly higher in the probiotic group. Conclusions:, The study demonstrates that oral supplementation of Ped. acidilactici modulates intestinal bacterial communities in on-growing red tilapia and also stimulates some aspects of the nonspecific immune response. Significance and Impact of the study:, To our knowledge this is the first study assessing the effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota of tilapia using culture-independent methods. Such methods are crucial to understand the mechanisms which underpin and mediate host benefits. [source]

    Effects of zinc and cadmium on erythrocyte antioxidant systems of a freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus

    Özgür F
    Abstract In this work to determine the effects of metals exposure of Oreochromis niloticus on erythrocyte antioxidant systems, fish were exposed to 5.0 mg/L Zn, 1.0 mg/L Cd, and 5.0 mg/L Zn + 1.0 mg/L Cd mixtures for 7 and 14 days and reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were investigated. In addition, Zn or Cd levels in whole blood were studied. Erythrocyte GSH level and CAT and G6PD enzyme activities increased in response to single and combined Zn and Cd exposure. The elevation observed in the CAT activity was higher in the Cd alone, and in combination with Zn, than in Zn alone. Time-dependent alteration was not observed in all antioxidant parameters. Exposure to metals (alone and in mixture) resulted in elevatation of Zn and Cd levels in the blood. Concentration of metals in the blood of fish exposed to the Zn + Cd combination was lower than in fish exposed to the single metal. This study demonstrates that metals caused oxidative stress in fish erythrocytes, and an adaptation with an increase in CAT and G6PD activities and GSH level, which were important in the protection against metal damage, was observed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:223,229, 2010; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/jbt.20327 [source]

    Physiological responses in Nile tilapia exposed to different photoperiod regimes

    A. K. Biswas
    After conditioning Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 2 weeks, the photoperiod regime of 12 tanks of fish was changed to a 6L : 6D photoperiod while 12 further tanks were retained on the conditioning photoperiod regime (12L : 12D). Blood samples were collected 3 days (first sampling) and 3 months (second sampling) after changing the photoperiod regime. Blood was collected at 6 h intervals from both photoperiod regimes (1000, 1600, 2200 and 0400 hours). At the first sampling time, fish in the 6L : 6D had significantly higher cortisol both in the light and dark phases than levels in fish in the 12L : 12D photoperiod. At the second sampling time, the levels were significantly higher only in the light phase. The levels of cortisol, glucose and Cl, in fish exposed to the 6L : 6D photoperiod, however, were far lower than those of acute stress-induced levels observed in fish exposed to a stress experiment. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in overall values of all the variables between the photoperiod regimes at the second sampling time. This indicated that the fish exposed to the 6L : 6D photoperiod were not chronically stressed. Significantly higher blood lymphocyte counts were observed in fish exposed to the 6L : 6D compared to those of the 12L : 12D photoperiod during the light phase at the second sampling time. Other variables (glucose, Cl,, haematocrit and neutrophil) did not show a significant difference between the treatments at either sampling time. These results demonstrated that the artificial photoperiod regime did not cause a significant acute or chronic stress response in Nile tilapia. [source]

    Conditioning of stress in Nile tilapia

    P. S. A. Moreira
    A Pavlovian conditioning paradigm was used to induce a connection between a conditioned stimulus, light (CS), associated with an unconditioned stimulus, confinement (US) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, which resulted in a conditioned endocrine response (CR) to the CS alone manifested as an increase in plasma cortisol. Individual isolated Nile tilapia were submitted for 10 days to the conditioning treatment consisting of turning on a light (CS) for 1 min with subsequent 30 min confinement (US). On the 10th day of the experiment, plasma cortisol was not increased when fish were subjected to no handling at all, or only light, or even a daily stressor for the 9 days. On the other hand, at the 10th day cortisol was significantly increased only when light was presented either with or without pairing with the stressor. These results confirmed that the cue, light (CS), was not stressful in itself, but when given as the CS in the absence of the US post conditioning the hypothalamus,pituitary,interrenal axis was activated. Therefore, it was concluded that memory of a previous experience with a stressor can be recalled by a conditioned stimulus and induce stress, which is the first demonstration of a memory-induced stress in fishes. [source]

    Effects of different food restrictions on somatic and otolith growth in Nile tilapia reared under controlled conditions

    A. M. Massou
    .Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, initial age 12 days, were given an unrestricted (NR) or restricted (R) ration over 93 days which resulted in fish of very different sizes although the body condition factor (K) and the viscero-somatic index (IV) remained almost unchanged. In a second stage (64 days) each group (NR & R) was divided into three subgroups that were subjected to 0 (NR0, R0), 15 (NR15, R15) and 30 (NR30, R30) days of food restriction, respectively. The impact of the different treatments on the somatic growth during the second stage of the experiment had an effect, with a highly significant difference between the mean ± S.D. masses (MT) in the different subgroups (NR0= 115.0 ± 26.6 g; NR15 = 94.8 ± 24.9 g; NR30 = 56.3 ± 28 g; R0 = 76.4 ± 20.1 g; R15 = 72.l ± 17.6 g; R30 = 43.6 ± 17.2 g). Similarly, K and IV decreased. Irrespective of the initial feeding condition, the width of the otolith microincrements started to decrease at the end of the first or second day of restricted feeding. In the subgroups given a restricted food ration for 30 days (NR30 and R30), this decrease reached a plateau at about day 30, which was maintained even when the restriction had ended. This slowed growth did not lead to any marked halt in microincrement formation, since there were no significant differences (ANOVA; P>0.05) in the numbers of increments counted in the various subgroups. The results show that in 153 day old fish, a period of severe food restriction, even if prolonged (15 to 30 days), had no influence on the timing of the laying down of microincrements but only affected their growth. [source]

    Sibling cannibalism in dorada under experimental conditions.

    II. Effect of initial size heterogeneity, light regime on early cannibalism
    Cannibalism among embryos and larvae of Brycon moorei (Characidae) occurs during daytime and night-time, and persists under permanent darkness. Embryos and larvae of dorada-provisioned with formulated feed over the first week of exogenous feeding did not survive, except for those exerting cannibalism. When offered alternative fish prey [embryos of Prochilodus magdalenae (0·5,0·8 mg) and Oreochromis niloticus (9,10 mg)], 1-day-old embryos of dorada preferred preying on these, thereby reducing early cannibalism. However, this promoted depensatory growth and more intense cannibalism later in the larval stage. Dorada provisioned with Artemia nauplii in excess showed more homogeneous growth and higher survival, most cannibalistic acts being restricted to the first 24 h of exogenous feeding, just after oral teeth were fully developed (21 h after hatching). Provisioning dorada with Artemia nauplii a few hours before their oral teeth were fully developed reduced early cannibalism from 41 to 15%. High proportions of deformed fish caused higher mortality, both directly and indirectly, as they promoted early cannibalism, depensatory growth and more intense cannibalism among larvae. The initial sorting of embryos, based on their occupation of the water column improved survival significantly during the first week of exogenous feeding, up to 52% in progenies containing <10% of deformed fish. Size-grading of larvae and young juveniles over the next 2 weeks reduced cannibalism to 2·6 and 1·9% day,, in the first and second weeks, respectively. These results indicate that cannibalism in dorada can be mitigated efficiently through appropriate rearing procedures, and open promising perspectives for the intensive culture of this fast-growing tropical species. [source]

    Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in fresh water

    L Bigarré
    Abstract A betanodavirus associated with a massive mortality was isolated from larvae of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, maintained in fresh water at 30 °C. Histopathology revealed vacuolation of the nervous system, suggesting an infection by a betanodavirus. The virus was identified by indirect fluorescent antibody test in the SSN1 cell line and further characterized by sequencing of a PCR product. Sequencing of the T4 region of the coat protein gene indicated a phylogenetic clustering of this isolate within the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type. However, the tilapia isolate formed a unique branch distinct from other betanodavirus isolates. The disease was experimentally reproduced by bath infection of young tilapia at 30 °C. The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water. [source]

    The macrophage chemotactic activity of Edwardsiella tarda extracellular products

    A A Wiedenmayer
    Abstract The chemoattractant capabilities of Edwardsiella tarda extracellular products (ECP) were investigated from two isolates, the virulent FL6-60 parent and less virulent RET-04 mutant. Chemotaxis and chemokinesis were assayed in vitro using blind well chambers with peritoneal macrophages obtained from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, 5 days following squalene injection. Non-purified ECP derived from both isolates stimulated predominantly chemokinetic migration of macrophages. Additionally, the ECP were semi-purified by high pressure liquid chromatography. The FL6-60 parent ECP yielded higher molecular weight components than did the ECP from the RET-04 mutant. The chemotactic activity of the macrophages for both the FL6-60 parent and RET-04 mutant semi-purified ECP was increased over the non-purified ECP and overall migration was primarily chemotactic. Exposure to ECP derived from virulent and less virulent E. tarda isolates promoted chemokinetic movement of macrophages that may be involved in inflammatory responses of Nile tilapia to E. tarda infection. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of strains of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazil

    H C P Figueiredo
    Abstract Flavobacterium columnare is an important pathogen of freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. An outbreak of skin disease in fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), cultivated in a recirculation system, was investigated. Four strains were isolated and characterized by biochemical reactions, enzyme production, fatty acid profile and analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. All strains were identified as F. columnare. Experimental infection assays with one of these strains (BZ-5-02) were conducted and pathogenicity (by intramuscular route) was demonstrated in Nile tilapia and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). This is the first report of characterization of Brazilian strains of F. columnare. [source]

    Systemic and mucosal antibody response in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), following immunization with Flavobacterium columnare

    L D Grabowski
    Abstract Specific antibody responses to Flavobacterium columnare (isolate ATCC 23463T) were characterized in plasma and mucus of tilapia following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or immersion immunization with formalin-killed sonicated or whole cell preparations. Fish (30 per treatment) received a primary immunization and were booster immunized 4 weeks later. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detection and quantification of specific anti- F. columnare antibody, and it was found that formalin-killed sonicated cells in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) injected i.p. stimulated a significant systemic antibody response within 2 weeks (mean titre 11 200) which increased to 30 600 following secondary immunization. At 10 weeks post-immunization, the mean titre remained significantly elevated above the controls. Antibodies were also observed in cutaneous mucus of fish immunized i.p. with formalin-killed sonicated cells in FCA at 6 and 8 weeks post-immunization (mean titres 67 and 33, respectively). Although some individual fish responded, mean plasma and cutaneous mucus antibody titres were not significantly greater than controls in any of the other treatment groups. The results of this study demonstrate that tilapia can mount a significant humoral response in plasma and cutaneous mucus to F. columnare, but i.p. immunization with FCA is required to elicit this response. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Vincent J. Lovko
    Water quality, microbial contamination, prior fish health, and variable results have been major impediments to identifying the cause and mechanism of fish mortality in standard aquarium-format Pfiesteria bioassays. Therefore, we developed a sensitive 96-h larval fish bioassay for assessing Pfiesteria spp. pathogenicity using six-well tissue culture plates and 7-day-old larval cyprinodontid fish. We used the assay to test pathogenicity of several clonal lines of Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger and Burkholder and P. shumwayae Glasgow and Burkholder that had been cultured with algal prey for 2 to 36 months. The P. shumwayae cultures exhibited 80%,100% cumulative mortality in less than 96 h at initial zoospore densities of approximately 1000 cells·mL,1. No fish mortalities occurred with P. piscicida at identical densities or in controls. In a dose-response assay, we demonstrated a strong positive correlation between dinospore density and fish mortality in a highly pathogenic culture of P. shumwayae, generating a 96-h LD50 of 108 zoospores·mL,1. Additionally, we applied the assay to evaluate a 38-L P. shumwayae bioassay that was actively killing fish and compared results with those from exposures of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a 500-mL assay system. Water from the fish-killing 38-L assay was filtered and centrifuged to produce fractions dominated by dinoflagellates, bacteria, or presumed ichthyotoxin (cell-free fraction). After 96 h, the larval fish assay exhibited 50%,100% cumulative mortality only in fractions containing dinoflagellates, with no mortalities occurring in the other fractions. The 500-mL bioassay with tilapia produced inconsistent results and demonstrated no clear correlation between mortality and treatment. The new larval fish bioassay was demonstrated as a highly effective method to verify and evaluate dinoflagellate pathogenicity. [source]

    Growth Performance, Immune Response, and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Vitamins C and E

    Chhorn Lim
    Growth, immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge were evaluated after feeding diets supplemented with vitamin C (0, 100, 2000 mg/kg) and E (0, 50, 500 mg/kg) for 12 wk. Supplementation of 100 mg vitamin C/kg to the basal diet was sufficient to increase growth and feed efficiency. The amount of vitamin E present in the basal diet (23.1 mg/kg) was sufficient to promote good growth and feed efficiency, but adding 50 mg vitamin E/kg was necessary to increase survival. Liver vitamin C and E concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrations of the corresponding vitamin. Dietary vitamin E concentrations had no effect on liver vitamin C concentration, but increasing dietary vitamin C increased liver vitamin E. Although hematology was generally unaffected by dietary vitamin E, significantly lower red blood cell count and hemoglobin and higher mean corpuscular volume were observed in fish fed the vitamin C-unsupplemented diets. Total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in fish fed 2000 mg/kg vitamin C diets. Vitamin E at 500 mg/kg diet significantly decreased alternative complement activity. Dietary concentrations of vitamin C had no effect on mortality following S. iniae challenge, but mortality significantly decreased in fish fed vitamin E,supplemented diets. [source]

    Estimating Amino Acid Requirement of Brazilian Freshwater Fish from Muscle Amino Acid Profile

    ÁLvaro José De Almeida Bicudo
    Information on nutritional requirement of some Brazilian farmed fish species, especially essential amino acids (EAA) requirements, is scarce. The estimation of amino acids requirements based on amino acid composition of fish is a fast and reliable alternative. Matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus, and curimbata, Prochilodus lineatus, are two important Brazilian fish with potential for aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to estimate amino acid requirements of these species and analyze similarities among amino acid composition of different fish species by cluster analysis. To estimate amino acid requirement, the following formula was used: amino acid requirement = [(amount of an individual amino acid in fish muscle tissue) × (average totalEAA requirement among channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio)]/(average fish muscle totalEAA). Most values found lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, in exception of leucine requirement estimated for both species, and arginine requirement estimated for matrinxa alone. Rather than writing off the need for regular dose,response assays under the ideal protein concept to determine EAA requirements of curimbata and matrinxa, results set solid base for the study of tropical species dietary amino acids requirements. [source]

    The Effects of Dietary Yeast Culture or Short-chain Fructo-oligosaccharides on the Intestinal Autochthonous Bacterial Communities in Juvenile Hybrid Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus,×Oreochromis aureus,

    Zhi-Gang Zhou
    The effects of dietary yeast culture (YC) or short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on intestinal autochthonous bacterial communities in juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus,×Oreochromis aureus, were studied by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Ninety Tilapias in tanks (10 fish per tank) were randomly and equally divided into three groups. At the end of an 8-wk feeding period of CK (the control treatment), YC (3 g/kg), or FOS (1 g/kg), autochthonous gut bacteria were analyzed in intestinal samples of all fish in each tank of a recirculating aquaculture system. The clear differences in the banding patterns indicated the obvious effects of dietary prebiotics on intestinal communities in hybrid tilapia. Higher variation was detected within the dietary YC group. This difference might be due to the effects of certain immune-stimulating agents in YC on the immunity response of hybrid tilapia. It was concluded that dietary prebiotics, YC, and FOS obviously affected the intestinal bacterial community in hybrid tilapia with different patterns for different kinds. [source]

    Feeding Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides to Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Has No Effect on Hematological Parameters and Showed Decreased Feed Consumption

    Ricardo Yuji Sado
    Impaired immune system by environmental stressors can lead fishes to be more susceptible to diseases that limit the economic development of aquaculture systems. This study was set out to determine the effect of six levels of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS; ActiveMOS®; Biorigin, Lençois Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil) on the performance index and hematology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Fish (13.62 g) were randomly distributed into 18 plastic aquaria (300 L; 20 fishes per aquarium) and fed during 45 d with a commercial diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1% dietary MOS, in a totally randomized design trial (n = 3); biometrical and hematological data were collected and analyzed. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between fish fed control and MOS supplementation diets, and daily feed consumption (FC) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary MOS. Dietary MOS did not increase leukocyte count and presented negative effects on FC of Nile tilapia. At 0.4% MOS supplementation, the individual weight gain was higher in absolute values but not different (P > 0.05) compared to control diet. [source]

    Evaluation of Brewer's Waste as Partial Replacement of Fish Meal Protein in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Diets

    Desale B. Zerai
    A 10-wk feeding trial experiment involving five different diets with increasing levels of brewer's waste (32% crude protein) was carried out to evaluate the use of brewer's waste in tilapia diets in place of fish meal. Growth performance was compared against a control diet formulated to have similar composition to a typical commercial diet. Four experimental diets replaced successively 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the fish meal protein with brewer's waste. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Results indicated that weight gain did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with up to 50% replacement. Feed intake and utilization were depressed at high levels of brewer's waste. In addition, methionine of high replacement level diets was low. The results of the digestibility trial demonstrated that the brewer's waste used in this study has an apparent digestibility coefficient for protein of 70%. It was concluded that 50% of the fish meal protein in a typical commercial diet could be replaced with brewer's waste with no adverse effect on growth and feed utilization for tilapia. [source]

    Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations, and Production When Polycultured with Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    Jason J. Danaher
    The effects of different densities of caged Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on water quality, phytoplankton populations, prawn, and total pond production were evaluated in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, production ponds. The experiment consisted of three treatments with three 0.04-ha replicates each. All ponds were stocked with graded, nursed juvenile prawn (0.9 ± 0.6 g) at 69,000/ha. Control (CTL) ponds contained only prawns. Low-density polyculture (LDP) ponds also contained two cages (1 m3; 100 fish/cage) of monosex male tilapia (115.6 ± 22 g), and high-density polyculture (HDP) ponds had four cages. Total culture period was 106 d for tilapia and 114 d for prawn. Overall mean afternoon pH level was significantly lower (P , 0.05) in polyculture ponds than in CTL ponds but did not differ (P > 0.05) between LDP and HDP. Phytoplankton biovolume was reduced in polyculture treatments. Tilapia in the LDP treatment had significantly higher (P , 0.05) harvest weights than in the HDP treatment. Prawn weights were higher (P , 0.05) in polyculture than prawn monoculture. These data indicate that a caged tilapia/freshwater prawn polyculture system may provide pH control while maximizing pond resources in temperate areas. [source]

    Physiological Responses of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Vitamin C- and Lipid-Supplemented Diets and Submitted to Low-Temperature Stress,

    Dario R. Falcon
    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of vitamin C and lipids on physiological responses of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, submitted to temperature stress. There were two phases: Phase I , preparing fish to store vitamin C and lipid at appropriate temperature, and Phase II , evaluating the contributions these reserves make to fish physiology under low-temperature stress. The experiment used a 3 × 2 factorial design with three vitamin C levels (300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg diet) and two lipid levels (8.0 and 12.0%), plus absence of nutrient test and a diet of 6.0% lipids and 125.0 mg/kg vitamin C. In Phase I, 192 fish were kept at 26.0 ± 1.0 C for 112 d, and in Phase II, 48 fish were kept at 18.0 ± 0.5 C for 32 d and at 15.0 ± 0.5 C for 11 d. Fish fed C0L0 diet showed lower erythrocytes values in both phases; higher vitamin C supplement determined higher red blood cell (RBC) number and higher hematocrit (Htc) (Phase II); Htc was significantly lower in Phase II; after temperature stress, fish fed C0L0 diet had higher mean corpuscular volume, lower hemoglobin corpuscular concentration, and significantly lower vitamin C concentration in the liver; and higher supplementation determined a higher concentration in the liver (Phases I and II). Higher plasmatic cortisol concentration was seen in fish fed C0L0 diet. In conclusion, our results show that the absence of vitamin C in diets impairs RBC formation and does not enable fish to cope with stress; excess vitamin C is efficient in mitigating stress and 600 mg/kg diet is economic and physiologically sufficient to prepare fish for coping with low-temperature stress. Lipid supplementation does not determine alterations in stress biochemical parameters. [source]

    Economic Analysis of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Production in Tanzania

    Aloyce R Kaliba
    In Tanzania, Nile tilapia culture is a promising aquaculture enterprise. Information on production costs could assist fish farmers in economic and financial planning. Economic profitability of small-scale Nile tilapia production in Tanzania is analyzed using a model that simulates individual fish growth and takes into account fish population dynamics in the pond. The results suggest that the current practiced mixed-sex tilapia culture without predation is not economically sustainable. Extension efforts should be geared toward developing a Nile tilapia production system that is based on a hand-sexed all-male tilapia. Meanwhile catfish can be introduced in ponds to control overcrowding in mixed-sex tilapia culture without predation. Studies to determine optimal pond sizes, availability of feed, and a quality fingerling supply chain are also fundamental for developing a sustainable Nile tilapia production system in Tanzania. Under improved Nile tilapia production systems, returns are high enough to justify investment through borrowed capital from formal institutions. [source]

    Evaluation of Growth Performance of Nonimproved and Improved Strains of the Nile Tilapia (L.), Oreochromis niloticus

    Mohammad T. Ridha