Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Oral

  • single oral

  • Terms modified by Oral

  • oral Health-Relat quality
  • oral SCC
  • oral absorption
  • oral activity
  • oral administration
  • oral agent
  • oral allergy syndrome
  • oral analgesia
  • oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • oral antibiotics
  • oral anticoagulant
  • oral anticoagulant therapy
  • oral anticoagulation
  • oral anticoagulation therapy
  • oral antidiabetic agent
  • oral antidiabetic drug
  • oral antihistamines
  • oral apparatus
  • oral application
  • oral availability
  • oral bacteria
  • oral bioavailability
  • oral biofilm
  • oral biopsy
  • oral bisphosphonate
  • oral bisphosphonate therapy
  • oral bleeding
  • oral calcium
  • oral cancer
  • oral cancer patient
  • oral cancer risk
  • oral cancers
  • oral candidiasis
  • oral carcinogenesi
  • oral carcinoma
  • oral carcinoma cell
  • oral care
  • oral cavity
  • oral cavity cancer
  • oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma
  • oral cell
  • oral challenge
  • oral chemotherapy
  • oral ciclosporin
  • oral ciprofloxacin
  • oral clarithromycin
  • oral clearance
  • oral cleft
  • oral clonidine
  • oral colonization
  • oral combination therapy
  • oral complications
  • oral condition
  • oral consumption
  • oral contraceptive
  • oral contraceptive pill
  • oral contraceptive use
  • oral corticosteroid
  • oral corticosteroid therapy
  • oral cyclosporine
  • oral delivery
  • oral dexamethasone
  • oral diet
  • oral disease
  • oral disorders
  • oral dosage
  • oral dose
  • oral dosing
  • oral doxycycline
  • oral drug
  • oral drug administration
  • oral dryness
  • oral dysplasia
  • oral environment
  • oral epithelia
  • oral epithelial cell
  • oral epithelium
  • oral erosion
  • oral erythromycin
  • oral etoposide
  • oral examination
  • oral exposure
  • oral feeding
  • oral fibroblast
  • oral finding
  • oral flora
  • oral fluconazole
  • oral fluid
  • oral food
  • oral food challenge
  • oral formulation
  • oral formulations
  • oral function
  • oral ganciclovir
  • oral gavage
  • oral glucose
  • oral glucose load
  • oral glucose tolerance
  • oral glucose tolerance test
  • oral glucose tolerance testing
  • oral glucose-lowering agent
  • oral habit
  • oral hairy leukoplakia
  • oral health
  • oral health behavior
  • oral health behaviour
  • oral health care
  • oral health care delivery system
  • oral health condition
  • oral health disparity
  • oral health education
  • oral health impact
  • oral health impact profile
  • oral health indicator
  • oral health information
  • oral health measure
  • oral health outcome
  • oral health practice
  • oral health problem
  • oral health professional
  • oral health promotion
  • oral health quality
  • oral health research
  • oral health services
  • oral health status
  • oral health survey
  • oral health-related qol
  • oral health-related quality
  • oral history
  • oral history interview
  • oral hydration
  • oral hygiene
  • oral hygiene care
  • oral hygiene habit
  • oral hygiene instruction
  • oral hygiene instructions
  • oral hygiene measure
  • oral hygiene practice
  • oral hygiene procedure
  • oral hygiene status
  • oral hypoglycaemic agent
  • oral hypoglycemic agent
  • oral immunization
  • oral impact
  • oral implant
  • oral implant placement
  • oral infection
  • oral infections
  • oral inflammation
  • oral ingestion
  • oral inoculation
  • oral intake
  • oral intubation
  • oral involvement
  • oral iron
  • oral isotretinoin
  • oral itraconazole
  • oral jaw
  • oral keratinocyte
  • oral ketoconazole
  • oral language
  • oral lesion
  • oral leukoplakia
  • oral lichen planu
  • oral lichenoid reaction
  • oral magnesium
  • oral manifestation
  • oral medication
  • oral medicine
  • oral methadone
  • oral metronidazole
  • oral microflora
  • oral microorganism
  • oral midazolam
  • oral misoprostol
  • oral moist
  • oral morphine
  • oral mtx
  • oral mucosa
  • oral mucosal biopsy
  • oral mucosal condition
  • oral mucosal disease
  • oral mucosal lesion
  • oral mucositis
  • oral narrative
  • oral nutrition
  • oral nutritional supplement
  • oral opioid
  • oral origin
  • oral oxycodone
  • oral pain
  • oral pathogen
  • oral pathology
  • oral pemphigus vulgari
  • oral placebo
  • oral precancerou lesion
  • oral prednisolone
  • oral prednisone
  • oral premalignant lesion
  • oral preparation
  • oral presentation
  • oral pretreatment
  • oral problem
  • oral provocation test
  • oral quality
  • oral rabeprazole
  • oral regimen
  • oral rehabilitation
  • oral rehydration therapy
  • oral retinoid
  • oral ribavirin
  • oral rinse
  • oral route
  • oral sample
  • oral scc
  • oral secretion
  • oral sex
  • oral sildenafil
  • oral solution
  • oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • oral status
  • oral steroid
  • oral streptococcus
  • oral structure
  • oral submucou fibrosis
  • oral sumatriptan
  • oral supplement
  • oral supplementation
  • oral surgeon
  • oral surgery
  • oral surgery procedure
  • oral suspension
  • oral swab
  • oral symptom
  • oral tacrolimus
  • oral terbinafine
  • oral therapy
  • oral tissue
  • oral tolerance
  • oral tolerance induction
  • oral tongue
  • oral tongue cancer
  • oral tongue carcinoma
  • oral toxicity
  • oral tradition
  • oral treatment
  • oral ulcer
  • oral ulceration
  • oral use
  • oral vaccination
  • oral vaccine
  • oral vitamin k
  • oral yeast

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Oral and pharyngeal cancer: Analysis of patient delay at different tumor stages

    Xavier D. R. Brouha MD
    Abstract Background. The aim of this study was to examine which factors are related to patient delay in a cohort of consecutive patients with pharyngeal cancer and oral cancer and to determine whether the different stages of patient delay (ie, appraisal, illness, behavioral, and scheduling) were related to different tumor stages. Methods. Before treatment, 55 patients with pharyngeal cancer and 134 patients with oral cancer were interviewed about their prediagnostic period. To verify the data, a questionnaire was sent to the general practitioner and/or dentist and a close relative. Results. Patients with a delay of more than 30 days were significantly more often diagnosed with late-stage (T3,T4) disease (pharynx, p = .01, odds ratio [OR] = 4.5; oral, p = .01, OR = 3.2). No sociodemographic characteristics were associated with patient delay. Conclusions. Prolonged patient delay was associated with late-stage disease for both patients with pharyngeal cancer and patients with oral cancer. Although for most patients the symptoms are vague or might look like a common cold or infection, the general public should be better informed about tumor symptoms. This may enhance earlier visits to a health care professional. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: XXX,XXX, 2005 [source]

    Four Modes of Adhesion are Used During Helicobacter pylori Binding to Human Mucins in the Oral and Gastric Niches

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2008
    Sara K. Lindén
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and the oral cavity is likely to serve as a reservoir for this pathogen. We investigated the binding of H. pylori to the mucins covering the mucosal surfaces in the niches along the oral to gastric infection route and during gastric disease and modeled the outcome of these interactions. Materials and Methods:, A panel of seven H. pylori strains with defined binding properties was used to identify binding to human mucins from saliva, gastric juice, cardia, corpus, and antrum of healthy stomachs and of stomachs affected by gastritis at pH 7.4 and 3.0 using a microtiter-based method. Results:,H. pylori binding to mucins differed substantially with the anatomic site, mucin type, pH, gastritis status, and H. pylori strain all having effect on binding. Mucins from saliva and gastric juice displayed the most diverse binding patterns, involving four modes of H. pylori adhesion and the MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC5AC mucins as well as the salivary agglutinin. Binding occurred via the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), the sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), a charge/low pH-dependent mechanism, and a novel saliva-binding adhesin. In the healthy gastric mucus layer only BabA and acid/charge affect binding to the mucins, whereas in gastritis, the BabA/Leb -dependent binding to MUC5AC remained, and SabA and low pH binding increased. Conclusions:, The four H. pylori adhesion modes binding to mucins are likely to play different roles during colonization of the oral to gastric niches and during long-term infection. [source]

    Oral Vaccination Against Helicobacter pylori with Recombinant Cholera Toxin B-Subunit

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2005
    Eiji Kubota
    ABSTRACT Background., The innocuous pure recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) is very attractive as a strong adjuvant for host immunization, but little is known about rCTB's gastric mucosal immunoadjuvanticity against Helicobacter pylori. The immunoadjuvanticity of rCTB against H. pylori was tested. Material and methods., Mice were immunized with sonicated H. pylori and rCTB orally or intranasally and sacrificed on day 42 after immunization. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test was performed to evaluate IgE-mediated anaphylaxis with serum from mice to which H. pylori -antigen with rCTB had been administered. Immunoglobulin titer specific to H. pylori in serum, lavation of the gastrointestinal tracts and feces were examined. Gastritis in vaccinated mice after a challenge was assessed with the scoring defined from grading of gastric inflammation. H. pylori proliferation after immunization was investigated by counting colony forming units (CFU) per gram of stomach tissue. Results., PCA test exhibited no reactions against the serum from mice immunized with H. pylori -antigen with rCTB administered orally and intranasally. Oral and nasal coadministrations of rCTB significantly raised systemic and mucosal immunities against H. pylori and suppressed proliferation of H. pylori in gastric mucosa. The score of gastritis in mice immunized orally was significantly higher than that of mice immunized nasally due to postimmunization gastritis. Only oral administration of rCTB suppressed H. pylori proliferation as compared with intranasal administration and without rCTB. Conclusions., The present study indicated that rCTB has systemic and mucosal immunoadjuvanticities against H. pylori and that oral vaccination with rCTB might additively support antibiotic eradication. [source]

    The Usefulness of Design of Experimentation in Defining the Effect Difficult Airway Factors and Training Have on Simulator Oral,Tracheal Intubation Success Rates in Novice Intubators

    Frank Thomas MD
    Abstract Objectives:, This exploratory study examined novice intubators and the effect difficult airway factors have on pre- and posttraining oral,tracheal simulation intubation success rates. Methods:, Using a two-level, full-factorial design of experimentation (DOE) involving a combination of six airway factors (curved vs. straight laryngoscope blade, trismus, tongue edema, laryngeal spasm, pharyngeal obstruction, or cervical immobilization), 64 airway scenarios were prospectively randomized to 12 critical care nurses to evaluate pre- and posttraining first-pass intubation success rates on a simulator. Scenario variables and intubation outcomes were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model to determine two-way main and interactive effects. Results:, Interactive effects between the six study factors were nonsignificant (p = 0.69). For both pre- and posttraining, main effects showed the straight blade (p = 0.006), tongue edema (p = 0.0001), and laryngeal spasm (p = 0.004) significantly reduced success rates, while trismus (p = 0.358), pharyngeal obstruction (p = 0.078), and cervical immobilization did not significantly change the success rate. First-pass intubation success rate on the simulator significantly improved (p = 0.005) from pre- (19%) to posttraining (36%). Conclusions:, Design of experimentation is useful in analyzing the effect difficult airway factors and training have on simulator intubation success rates. Future quality improvement DOE simulator research studies should be performed to help clarify the relationship between simulator factors and patient intubation rates. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:460,463 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Two Japanese cases of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus

    Aki Kashima MD
    Case 1 was a 51-year-old Japanese woman. She presented with an asymptomatic brown macule located on the right axilla of 2 months' duration. The smooth macule was 2 cm in diameter with a sharp demarcation (Fig. 1A). Figure 1. Photographs of skin lesions in two patients. (A) Case 1. Well-circumscribed brown macule without an active red border in the central portion of the right axilla. (B) Case 2. Symmetric distribution of brown macules without an active red border in the popliteal fossae Case 2 was a 62-year-old Japanese man. He presented with asymptomatic, symmetric, gray,brown macules located on the groin, axillae, and popliteal region of 6 months' duration. The smooth macules were several millimeters to centimeters in diameter and sharply demarcated (Fig. 1B). Oral or nail lesions, previous inflammatory processes in affected areas, and internal malignancies were absent. A causal relationship with drugs, recent sun exposure, or trauma could not be identified. Findings for work-up, including blood cell count, fasting blood sugar levels, liver function, serum electrolyte levels, serum electrophoresis, urinalysis, antinuclear antibodies, and serological examinations for human hepatitis viruses and syphilis, were within normal limits or negative. The lesions gradually disappeared without medication within 6 months. Biopsy specimens showed a lymphocytic infiltrate with basal vacuolar changes and prominent melanin incontinence in the upper dermis (Fig. 2A). The band-like lymphocytic infiltrate was moderate in Case 1 and mild in Case 2. Immunohistochemistry showed infiltrative CD8+ T lymphocytes with keratinocytic damage, indicating cytotoxic injury of the keratinocytes (Fig. 2B). Both the epidermis and the upper dermis contained CD1a+ cells (Fig. 2C). The keratinocytes focally and weakly expressed HLA-DR (Fig. 2D). These findings were identical in samples from both patients. Figure 2. Light and immunohistochemical microphotographs. (A) Mild, band-like, lymphocytic infiltrate with basal vacuolar change and prominent melanin incontinence in the upper dermis with apoptosis or necrosis of keratinocytes. (B) Epidermal infiltrate of CD8+ T lymphocytes with keratinocytic damage. (C) CD1a+ cells in the upper dermis. (D) Keratinocytes focally and weakly express HLA-DR (original magnifications: A, ×200; B,D, ×400) [source]

    Oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Mexico, 1979,2003

    Gabriela Anaya-Saavedra
    Background:, In Mexico, information on oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) is scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the trends in OPC mortality rates in Mexico from 1979 through 2003 and to describe the distribution of OPC deaths for selected socio-demographic variables for the period of 2001,2003. Material and methods:, Annual crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were obtained by gender and site of lesion, using the 2003 WHO World standard million population. The Poisson regression model was used to detect a trend in the mortality rates, testing the hypothesis ,1 = 0. Also, the annual percentage change (APC) was computed over the age-adjusted rates. Results:, The total number of OPC deaths during the period 1979,2003 was 15 576. The age-adjusted mortality rate was 1.13/100 000 in 1979 and 1.08/100 000 in 2003. Oral cancer was more frequently found than salivary gland and pharyngeal cancer (41.5% vs. 13.4% and 17.1%). The tongue (19%) was the most frequent oral affected site. The Poisson regression analysis indicated a stationary trend in cancer mortality rate; also, the APC regression model showed no increase or decrease in OPC from 1979 to 2003. Conclusions:, Oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in Mexico were low compared to most countries, and remained stable in the past two decades. [source]

    Relative frequency of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a study of 380 cases from northern California and comparison to reports from other parts of the world

    Amos Buchner
    Background:, The relative frequency of individual intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors (IMSGT) is not well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency and distribution of IMSGT in an oral pathology biopsy service and to compare the data with similar studies from different parts of the world. Methods:, Files from the Pacific Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Laboratory of the University of the Pacific, San Francisco, California served as a source of material for this study. Files were systematically searched for all cases of IMSGT during a 20-year period. Tumors were classified according to the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumors. Results:, IMSGT were identified in 380 (0.4%) cases of 92 860 accessed. This is the largest series of IMSGT from one source reported in recent years. Of the 380 tumors, 224 (59%) were benign and 156 (41%) were malignant. Of the benign tumors, pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common (39.2%), followed by cystadenoma (6.3%), canalicular adenoma (6.1%), ductal papillomas (4.4%), basal cell adenoma (1.6%), and myoepithelioma (1.3%). Of the malignant tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common (21.8%), followed by polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (7.1%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (6.3%), adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS; 2.1%), acinic cell carcinoma (1.6%), clear cell carcinoma, NOS (1.0%), and carcinoma ex PA (0.5%). Conclusions:, Studies related to the relative frequency of individual IMSGTs from different parts of the world are difficult to compare because many studies are outdated, the number of cases is small, the list of tumors is limited, and new entities are not included. To determine the true relative frequency, more studies should be conducted, on a large number of cases from one source, by experienced pathologists in the field of salivary gland tumors. [source]

    Relative frequency of peripheral odontogenic tumors: a study of 45 new cases and comparison with studies from the literature

    Amos Buchner
    Background:, Peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors are rare, and reports in the literature have mainly been single case reports or a small series of cases. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors relative to one another and relative to their central (intraosseous) counterparts in an oral pathology biopsy service and to compare these data with information available in the literature. Methods:, The files of the Pacific Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Laboratory of the University of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA, USA, served as the source of material for this study. Files were systematically searched for all cases of peripheral odontogenic tumors (POTs) during a 20-year-period. Results:, There were 91 178 cases accessed in which central and POTs were identified in 1133 (1.24%), central tumors in 1088 (1.2%), and peripheral tumors in 45 (0.05%). Peripheral tumors accounted for 4% of all 1133 central and POTs. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (PODF) was the most common of the 45 POTs accounting for 51.1% (23 cases) followed by peripheral ameloblastoma (PA) 28.9% (13 cases) and peripheral calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (PCCOT) 13.3% (six cases). Peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, peripheral ameloblastic fibroma, and peripheral ameloblastic carcinoma were also identified , each comprised 2.2% (one case each). PODF was more common than its central counterpart by a 1.4:1 ratio. This was the only peripheral tumor that was more common than its central counterpart. PA accounted for 9.3% of all ameloblastomas and PCCOT for 26% of all calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors. Conclusion:, There is only scarce information in the literature on the relative frequency of POTs. Additional studies should be conducted to determine the true relative frequency. To ensure accuracy, pathologists with experience in the field of odontogenic tumors should conduct these studies. Intraosseous tumors that perforate through the bone to the gingival tissue, clinically presenting as ,peripheral tumors' should be excluded. [source]

    Epidemiological aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in the Basque Country

    M. Isabel Izarzugaza
    Abstract: Oral and pharyngeal cancer is an entity constituted by a group of tumours that arise in several heterogeneous anatomical sites, and for this reason it is difficult to establish comparisons. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of oropharyngeal cancer in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), to learn the incidence rate and to establish comparisons. Data of cases are from the Basque Country Cancer Registry for the period 1986,1994, and the methodology used is descriptive. We included 2548 cases, and the sex ratio was 7.4:1. Diagnosis was made by histology in most cases (99%). The crude incidence rate was 24.1/100,000 population for men and 3.1/100,000 for women. Higher incidence rates were found in the tongue (6.6), lip (5.8) and oropharynx (4.9). No variation was found in the incidence during the period. In comparison with other Spanish registries, there is a high incidence in men of cancer in the oral cavity. The results obtained show the characteristics of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the BAC and its magnitude, highlighting the importance of future preventive actions. [source]

    Pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen after intravenous and oral dosing of tamoxifen,hydroxybutenyl-,-cyclodextrin formulations

    Charles M. Buchanan
    Abstract Oral and intravenous administration of tamoxifen base and tamoxifen citrate formulated with hydroxybutenyl-,-cyclodextrin (HBenBCD) to Sprague,Dawley rats significantly increased the oral bioavailability of tamoxifen relative to that of parent drug (no HBenBCD). When formulated with HBenBCD, the form of tamoxifen (base vs. salt) made no difference in the oral bioavailability of tamoxifen. Liquid formulations (PG:PEG400:H2O) provided higher oral bioavailability than solid formulations dissolved and dosed as aqueous oral solutions. The oral bioavailability of tamoxifen was significantly influenced by both dietary status and time of dosing of the animals. Tamoxifen metabolite plasma concentrations were not affected by complexation of tamoxifen with HBenBCD. Collectively, the data indicated that dosing of fasted animals in the morning with tamoxifen:HBenBCD formulations provided a very significant increase in tamoxifen oral bioavailability (up to 10- to 14-fold). © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci [source]

    Caring for patients with allergic rhinitis

    AE-C Nurse Practitioner, APRN-C, Certified Asthma Educator, Clinical Assistant Professor2), Mary Lou Hayden MS
    Abstract Purpose: Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects up to 40 million Americans, with an estimated cost of $2.7 billion per annum. This review discusses several therapeutic options that reduce the symptoms of AR, including allergen avoidance, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Data sources: The articles included in this review were retrieved by a search of Medline literature on the subjects of AR, antihistamines, INS, leukotriene antagonists, and immunotherapy, as well as current published guidelines for the treatment of AR. Conclusions: Allergen avoidance is recommended for all patients prior to pharmacologic therapy. Oral and nasal H1 -antihistamines are recommended to alleviate the mild and intermittent symptoms of AR, and INS are recommended as the first-line treatment choice for mild persistent and more moderate-to-severe persistent AR. Implications for practice: There are a number of different types of therapy for the management of AR; with so many options available, successful tailoring of treatment to suit individual requirements is realistically achievable. [source]

    Effects of bisacodyl on ascending colon emptying and overall colonic transit in healthy volunteers

    Summary Background, The mechanism of action of bisacodyl in the unprepared human colon remains unclear. Aim, To evaluate the effect of oral bisacodyl on the overall and regional colonic transit in humans. Methods, In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 25 healthy participants, effects of oral bisacodyl (5 mg p.o. per day) and placebo on colonic transit were compared. A validated scintigraphy method was used to measure colonic transit. The primary transit endpoints, ascending colon emptying t1/2 and geometric centre of colon isotope at 24 h (overall transit), were compared (Wilcoxon rank sum test). Results, There were significant treatment effects on ascending colon t1/2, with the bisacodyl group demonstrating accelerated emptying [median 6.5 h, interquartile range 5.0,8.0 h] relative to the placebo group [11.0 h (7.0,17.1); P = 0.03]. Numerical differences in colonic geometric centre 24 h [bisacodyl median 3.0 (2.2,3.8), placebo 4.0 (3.1,4.6)] were not significant (P = 0.19). There were no significant differences observed in geometric centre 4 h. Conclusion, Oral 5 mg bisacodyl accelerates ascending colon in the unprepared colon in healthy adults; this action may contribute to the drug's efficacy in constipation. [source]

    Oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition with BAY 59-7939 for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement

    Summary.,Background:,Joint replacement surgery is an appropriate model for dose-ranging studies investigating new anticoagulants. Objectives:,To assess the efficacy and safety of a novel, oral, direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor , BAY 59-7939 , relative to enoxaparin in patients undergoing elective total hip replacement. Methods:,In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, patients were randomized to oral BAY 59-7939 (2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 30 mg b.i.d.), starting 6,8 h after surgery, or s.c. enoxaparin 40 mg once daily, starting on the evening before surgery. Treatment was continued until mandatory bilateral venography was performed 5,9 days after surgery. Results:,Of 706 patients treated, 548 were eligible for the primary efficacy analysis. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of any deep vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism, and all-cause mortality; rates were 15%, 14%, 12%, 18%, and 7% for BAY 59-7939 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg b.i.d., respectively, compared with 17% for enoxaparin. The primary efficacy analysis did not demonstrate any significant trend in dose,response relationship for BAY 59-7939. The primary safety endpoint was major, postoperative bleeding; there was a significant increase in the frequency of events with increasing doses of BAY 59-7939 (P = 0.045), but no significant differences between individual BAY 59-7939 doses and enoxaparin. Conclusions:,When efficacy and safety were considered together, the oral, direct FXa inhibitor BAY 59-7939, at 2.5,10 mg b.i.d., compared favorably with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective total hip replacement. [source]

    Oral, colonic-release low-molecular-weight heparin: an initial open study of Parnaparin-MMX for the treatment of mild-to-moderate left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Summary Background, Efficacy of heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment has been suggested. The multimatrix oral formulation MMX releases active drugs in the colon, avoiding systemic absorption. Parnaparin sodium is the LMWH chosen to be carried in the MMX formulation. Aim, To assess the safety of three different oral dosages (70, 140 and 210 mg once daily) of Parnaparin-MMX (CB-01-05) in left-sided ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods, Left-sided UC patients, with a mild-to-moderate relapse were enrolled. All patients received Parnaparin-MMX for 8 weeks. Clinical Activity Index (CAI), Disease Activity Index (DAI), Endoscopic Activity Index and IBD-QoL were assessed throughout the study. A strict clinical and laboratory follow-up, including assessment of anti-factor Xa activity, was performed. Clinical remission was defined as CAI <4. Results, Ten UC patients were enrolled. One patient retired for clinical deterioration. No relevant side effects, including either interference with haemostasis parameters or increased bleeding, were observed. At the end of the treatment, seven patients (70%) were in clinical remission, only one achieving endoscopic healing. Mean final CAI, DAI and IBD-QoL scores were significantly improved from baseline. Conclusions, Parnaparin-MMX appears to be a safe treatment option in mild-to-moderate UC. Controlled studies are warranted. [source]

    Systematic review: managing anaemia in Crohn's disease

    Summary Background, Anaemia is a serious complication of Crohn's disease that triggers hospitalization and, if not interfered with, may lead to death. Aims, To systematically summarize and compare the literature on anaemia in Crohn's disease. Methods, For this systematic review the literature was searched for English-language articles using anaemia, Crohn* and IBD as key words. 144 articles were identified and sorted according to the following topics: prevalence, aetiology, diagnostic tests and therapy. Results, The reported prevalence of anaemia varied between 6.2% and 73.7%, with higher reported frequencies in older studies and in in-patients. Iron deficiency is the most common underlying condition. Vitamin B12 deficiency is related to the extent of ileal resection but has rarely impact on anaemia. Diagnostic criteria are not established and treatment guidelines are missing. Oral iron supplementation seems effective for short periods but intolerance leads to discontinuation in up to 21%. Eleven of 11 studies show that oral iron enhances intestinal inflammation and colon carcinogenesis in animal models of colitis. Intravenous iron supplementation with iron sucrose has been tested in over 250 Crohn's disease patients, is safe, effective and does not carry such hazards. Conclusions, As disease activity is determining the degree of anaemia in Crohn's disease, implementation of more effective therapy for Crohn's disease will lower its incidence. However, further studies regarding the safety and effectiveness of iron supplementation are needed. [source]

    The stable isotope ketoisocaproic acid breath test as a measure of hepatic decarboxylation capacity: a quantitative analysis in normal subjects after oral and intravenous administration

    Heiner K. Berthold
    Abstract Background and aims: There is no generally accepted kinetic evaluation method for the stable isotope [13C]ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) breath test. Differences found in the results between women and men are contradictory. Methods: Oral and intravenous breath tests using 1 mg/kg stable isotope-labelled KIC were performed in healthy male and female volunteers. A power exponential function was fitted to the mass spectrometric data of breath 13CO2 enrichment, allowing mathematical analysis of time-to-peak-excretion, half-excretion time, percent label recovery and parameters describing the shape of the curve. Body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: After oral administration, total label recovery after 3 h was about 22% and was not different between men (n=7) and women (n=8). The time to maximal label excretion was 0.67 ± 0.12 h in men and 0.9 ± 0.32 h in women (P=0.028) and the excretion curve showed an initially slower rise in women compared with men. Adjusting for lean body mass or body water abrogated the sex differences. Total label recovery after intravenous administration was about 9%, suggesting that the substrate was rapidly catabolized in the muscle compartment after intravenous administration. Conclusions: The modified power exponential function described allows standardized estimates of the KIC breath test results. When corrected for body composition, there are no differences in breath test results between men and women. The comparison between oral and intravenous results provides robust evidence that the KIC breath test measures predominantly hepatic and not muscle decarboxylation and is thus a highly specific liver function test. [source]

    Oral and vaginal epithelial cell anti- Candida activity is acid labile and does not require live epithelial cells

    J. Yano
    Background:,Candida albicans is the causative agent of oral and vaginal candidiasis. Innate host defenses against C. albicans are important against each infection. Among these are oral and vaginal epithelial cells that have anti- Candida activity. The mechanism of action includes a requirement for cell contact with no role for soluble factors, and a putative role for carbohydrates based on the sensitivity of the activity to periodic acid. Methods:, Periodic acid treatment of epithelial cells as well as the property of partial resistance of antifungal activity to fixation was used to further dissect the mechanism of action. Results:, The results herein effectively now challenge a role for carbohydrates alone. Firstly, the putative carbohydrate(s) released into supernatants of periodic acid-treated epithelial cells could not compete with fresh epithelial cells for activity, and equivalent abrogation of activity was observed by periodic acid-treated cells irrespective of the amount of carbohydrate released. Instead, the similar abrogation of activity following treatment with other acids or when cocultured under acidic conditions suggests that the activity is acid-labile. Finally, while activity requires intact epithelial cells, it does not require live cells; activity was minimally affected by fixing epithelial cells prior to coculture where the majority of cells remained impermeable to Trypan blue but were defined as non,viable by positive nuclear staining with propidium iodide. Conclusion:, These results suggest that antifungal activity is dependent on contact by intact, but not necessarily live, epithelial cells through an acid-labile mechanism. [source]

    Oral and intestinal microflora in 5-fluorouracil treated rats, translocation to cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes and effects of probiotic bacteria

    I. von Bültzingslöwen
    Serious systemic infections may occur during cancer chemotherapy due to disturbances in the oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal microflora, impaired mucosal barrier functions and immunosuppression. Bacteria may spread from the gastrointestinal tract to the regional lymph nodes. The routes for bacterial spread from the oral cavity are less well known. In the present study we investigated changes in the oral and intestinal microfloras in rats given 50 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) i.v. for 6 days. Bacterial dissemination to the lymph nodes draining the oral cavity and the lymph nodes draining the gastrointestinal tract was examined. Effects of adding the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in the drinking water to the rats were measured. 5-FU treatment caused an increase in the number of facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria in biopsies from the oral cavity and an increase in the number of facultative anaerobes in the large intestine. The proportion of facultative gram-negative rods increased in both the oral cavity and intestine. Bacteria translocated to both the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes in untreated animals and increased in numbers after 5-FU treatment due to an increase in the number of facultative gram-negative rods. Treatment with L. plantarum 299v improved food intake and body weight in 5-FU-treated rats. It also reduced the 5-FU-induced raise in the total numbers of facultative anaerobes in the intestine, but did not reduce translocation and did not prevent diarrhea. This study reinforces the oral cavity, along with the gastrointestinal tract, as a source for bacterial dissemination. The use of probiotic bacteria may reduce some side effects of 5-FU treatment. [source]

    Postoperative pain relief following intrathecal bupivacaine combined with intrathecal or oral clonidine

    I. Dobrydnjov
    Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postoperative analgesic and adverse effects of equal doses of oral or intrathecal clonidine in spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine plain. Methods: Forty-five ASA I-III orthopaedic patients scheduled for osteosynthesis of a traumatic femur fracture were randomised in a double-blind fashion to one of 3 groups. Patients received 15 mg of plain bupivacaine intrathecally (group B) or an intrathecal mixture of bupivacaine 15 mg and clonidine 150 mg (group CIT). In group CPO oral clonidine 150 mg was administered 60 min before intrathecal injection of bupivacaine 15 mg. Results: Oral and intrathecal clonidine prolonged the time until the first request for analgesics, 313 ± 29 and 337 ± 29 min, respectively, vs. 236 ± 27 min in group B (P < 0.01). The total 24- h PCA morphine dose was significantly lower in group CIT(19.3 ± 1.3 mg) compared to groups B and CPO(33.4 ± 2.0 and 31.2 ± 3.1 mg). MAP was decreased significantly during the first hour after intrathecal clonidine(14%) and during the first 5 h after oral clonidine(14,19%). HR decreased in CIT during the 5th and 6th postoperative hours(7,9%) and during the first 2 h(9%) in CPO (P < 0.01). The degree of sedation was more pronounced in group CPO during the first 3 h. Four patients had pruritus in group B. Conclusions: Addition of intrathecal clonidine prolonged analgesia and decreased morphine consumption postoperatively more than oral clonidine. Hypotension was more pronounced after oral than after intrathecal clonidine. Intrathecal clonidine is therefore recommended. [source]

    Oral and silent reading performance with macular degeneration

    Jan E. Lovie-Kitchin
    Summary Previous studies have shown that reading rate for very large print (6°, 1.86 logMAR character size) is a strong predictor of oral reading rate with low vision devices (LVDs). We investigated whether this would apply using large print sizes more readily available in clinical situations (e.g. 2°, 1.4 logMAR), for subjects with macular degeneration. We assessed rauding rates,reading for understanding. A combination of near word visual acuity and large print reading rate (without LVDs) provided the best prediction of oral rauding rates (with LVDs). However, near word visual acuity alone was almost as good. Similarly, silent rauding rate was predicted best by near word visual acuity alone. We give near visual acuity limits as a clinical guide to expected oral and silent reading performance with LVDs for patients with macular degeneration. [source]

    Craniofacial and dental findings in cystinosis

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2010
    CW Bassim
    Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 488,495 Objectives:, Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with developmental and mineralization anomalies as part of its clinical presentation. The objective of this study was to provide the first systematic assessment of the craniofacial and dental characteristics associated with cystinosis. Study Design:, Oral and radiographic evaluations were performed on 73 patients with cystinosis. Analyses of cephalometry (n = 20), taurodontism (n = 47), caries (n = 47), enamel defects (n = 48), soft tissue anomalies (n = 48), and dental age (n = 41) were performed on the cystinosis group, and compared with age- and sex-comparable controls or standards. Results:, Cystinosis patients manifested relative mandibular deficiency, an increased facial height, and a reduced airway space. Taurodontism and enamel defects were significantly more prevalent in cystinosis patients compared with controls (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.027, respectively). Children (aged <15 years) with cystinosis also demonstrated a significant delay, of almost 9 months, of their dental development (P < 0.001). Conclusion:, Novel craniofacial and dental features are associated with cystinosis. Craniofacial deficiencies may influence the swallowing and respiratory complications seen in cystinosis. Renal pathology and associated mineral imbalance may explain the dental root and enamel anomalies found in cystinosis patients; the developmental delays in cystinosis include delayed dental formation. [source]

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis: oral/periodontal involvement in adult patients

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 8 2009
    S Annibali
    Objective:, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferative multisystem disease. Although bone and mucosae have been classified as non-risk organs, their involvement may increase the risk of disease progression. Oral and periodontal lesions are burdened with a significant impairment of quality of life for associated signs, symptoms and loss of function. Most of information regards paediatric disease; the disease in adults has received limited attention. Subjects and Methods:, A total of 31 adult patients affected by immuno-histopathology confirmed LCH have been prospectively examined; attention was paid to the occurrence and characterization of oral lesions. Results:, Twelve patients developed oral lesions. Posterior regions of jawbones were always affected; the involvement of anterior regions was not constant. Unifocal oral involvement was significantly associated with multisystemic disease while multifocal lesions were associated with unisystemic disease. Oral disease presented with soft tissue ulcers (50% of cases), gingival bleeding (66.7%), pain (83.4%), periodontal damage (50%), tooth mobility (16.7%), non-healing extraction socket (8.3%); 41.6% of patients complained of negative outcomes on quality of life. Oral lesions were easily handled with local measures. Conclusions:, Posterior regions require attention; single oral lesions may be part of multisystemic disease; oral and periodontal lesions may be early signs of disease reactivation. [source]

    Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2007
    MA Wijn
    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) develop multiple premalignant colorectal adenomas. Untreated, one or more of these polyps will progress to colorectal carcinoma in middle-aged adults. Extra-intestinal manifestations of FAP are frequently observed and this combination has been called Gardner's syndrome. Oral and maxillofacial symptoms of FAP include an increased risk of jaw osteomas, odontomas and supernumerary or unerupted teeth. Early diagnosis of FAP is crucial and may be life saving. As oral signs usually precede gastrointestinal symptoms, the dentist may play an important role in the diagnosis of FAP. [source]

    Ranula: another HIV/AIDS associated oral lesion in Zimbabwe?

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2004
    MM Chidzonga
    Aim:, To show that sublingual ranula is associated with HIV/AIDS and as such should be considered an HIV/AIDS associated oral lesion in Zimbabwe. Objectives:, To retrospectively study the prevalence, age and gender distribution, the HIV serostatus of ranula patients and the trend in prevalence of ranula and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in patients at the two largest referral Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery specialist centres in Harare, Zimbabwe. To use this information to infer an association between ranula and HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe. Design:, Descriptive study with a retrospective and prospective component. Setting:, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgical clinics at specialist referral hospitals, Harare Central Hospital and Parirenyatwa Government Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects:, Eighty-three cases of ranula were studied: 45 cases retrospectively and 38 consecutively. A total of 231 cases of KS were studied retrospectively. Methods:, Histopathologic records of patients who presented with ranula and KS during the period January 1981 to September 2003 were studied. Gender and age were recorded for each case. Thirty-eight ranula patients studied consecutively during the period June 1999 to September 2003 were consented for HIV testing. Results:, There were 83 cases of ranula; 43.4% male and 56.6% female. There were 231 cases of KS, 61.2% male and 38.8% female. Male to female ratio was 1:1.3 for ranula and for KS was 1:0.6. Ranula was predominant in the 0,10 year age group (73.5%) while KS was most common in the 21,40 year age group (76.4%). Ranula and KS both had a marked rise in prevalence from 1992 to 2003. A total of 88.5% of the ranula cases tested HIV positive with 95% in the 0,10 year age group. Conclusion:, There was a rising prevalence of ranula which mirrors that of KS (an HIV/AIDS associated oral lesion) and that 88.5% of ranula patients were HIV positive with 95% of them in the 0,10 year age group. Sublingual ranula should thus be considered another HIV/AIDS associated lesion in Zimbabwe, especially in children. [source]

    Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: Bcl-2 expression in sequential biopsies of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions assessed by immunocytochemistry

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2000
    RL McAlinden
    OBJECTIVE: To examine, for the first time Bcl-2 expression in sequential (autogenous) oral mucosal biopsies taken from the same sites in a gender, risk-factor matched, Caucasoid sample, over a 21-year period. DESIGN: Retrospective immunocytochemical longitudinal study of archival serial biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computer records were used to identify biopsy specimens derived from 12 patients. These were divided into four groups: (1) Histologically innocuous lesions which remained histologically innocuous. (2) Dysplastic lesions which remained dysplastic. (3) Histologically innocuous lesions which later progressed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (4) Dysplastic lesions which later progressed to SCC. This represented 65 biopsies in total. Bcl-2 expression was studied using mouse antihuman BCL-2 oncoprotein clone 124 (Dako, Denmark). RESULTS: Generally, there was a lack of Bcl-2 immuno-reactivity in the epithelium, with one exception in dysplastic epithelium from a group (3) patient. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in our series, Bcl-2 is not expressed early in oral premalignant lesions and appears to contradict previous reports. Possible explanations for this disparity are considered. [source]

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of the British Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, University of Leeds: Friday 10th September 1999

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 3 2000
    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200

    Current concepts in periodontal bioengineering

    M Taba Jr
    Abstract Authors ,, Taba Jr M, Jin Q, Sugai JV, Giannobile WV Repair of tooth supporting alveolar bone defects caused by periodontal and peri-implant tissue destruction is a major goal of reconstructive therapy. Oral and craniofacial tissue engineering has been achieved with limited success by the utilization of a variety of approaches such as cell-occlusive barrier membranes, bone substitutes and autogenous block grafting techniques. Signaling molecules such as growth factors have been used to restore lost tooth support because of damage by periodontal disease or trauma. This paper will review emerging periodontal therapies in the areas of materials science, growth factor biology and cell/gene therapy. Several different polymer delivery systems that aid in the targeting of proteins, genes and cells to periodontal and peri-implant defects will be highlighted. Results from preclinical and clinical trials will be reviewed using the topical application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2 and BMP-7) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) for periodontal and peri-implant regeneration. The paper concludes with recent research on the use of ex vivo and in vivo gene delivery strategies via gene therapy vectors encoding growth promoting and inhibiting molecules (PDGF, BMP, noggin and others) to regenerate periodontal structures including bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. [source]

    High trough levels of oral FK506 induced by loss of small intestine

    Nobuyuki Sano
    Abstract: To establish a safe and effective usage of oral tacrolimus (FK506) in small bowel transplantation (SBTx) recipients, trough levels and area under the curve (AUC) values of FK506 were assessed using swine models of SBTx and short bowel. Thirty-eight Landrace male piglets were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1, controls (n=13); Group 2, a one-third small bowel model (n=5); Group 3, a short bowel model (n=10); and Group 4, a one-third small bowel allograft model (n=10; five donors and five recipients). Piglets of Groups 1 and 3 were further divided into two sub-groups, according to the route of drug administration: Groups 1a (n=10) and 3a (n=7) received FK506 orally, and Groups 1b (n=3) and 3b (n=3) received FK506 intravenously. Oral or intravenous FK506 was started on post-operative day 3 and continued until day 7 in each group. On day 7, trough levels and AUC values were measured. In Groups 1a, 2, 3a and 4, trough levels of FK506 were 2.1±1.2 (p<0.01 vs. Group 2, 3a or 4), 11.2±2.1, 23.3±4.8 (p<0.05 vs. Group 2 or 4) and 14.6±3.0 ng/mL, and AUC values were 101±90 (p<0.01 vs. Group 3a or 4), 319&±155, 808±200, and 531±113 ng.h/mL, respectively. Both trough levels and AUC values were lowest in Group 1a and highest in Group 3a. Between Groups 1b and 3b, there was no significant difference in the blood levels of intravenous FK506. The shorter the functioning residual small intestine was, the higher the trough level of oral FK506 was, while the presence or absence of small intestine did not affect blood levels of intravenous FK506. These results suggest that oral FK506 is metabolized in the functioning small intestine during its absorption. Therefore, events which cause intestinal malfunction, such as graft rejection in SBTx, inflammation and loss of small intestine, may adversely raise the trough level of oral FK506. [source]

    Oral and dental adverse drug reactions

    PERIODONTOLOGY 2000, Issue 1 2008
    Robin A. Seymour
    First page of article [source]