Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Openness

  • canopy openness
  • economic openness
  • trade openness

  • Selected Abstracts


    Sun LIXING
    First page of article [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
    MARIANNE MOYAERTArticle first published online: 17 MAR 2010
    First page of article [source]


    A cost function framework is used to model the productivity effect of trade openness in terms of cost saving. The idea of ,cost saving' is closer to the entrepreneur's view of productivity. An entrepreneur would expect a reduction in the cost of production if trade openness brings any benefits to their firm. The output-enhancing (primal) productivity effect of openness is obtainable from the cost-saving (dual) productivity effect through the cost-output link. The cost-function framework also enables us to investigate whether trade openness induces firms to adopt a technology that is biased towards the use or saving of any factor of production. An empirical exercise based on time series data for the Australian two-digit manufacturing industries reveals significant cost-saving and output-enhancing productivity effects of trade openness. Trade openness is biased towards the saving of labour and the use of capital. These results are quite insensitive to the choice of alternative measures of openness. [source]


    Australia's external trade is relatively low compared with the size of its economy. Indeed, Australia's openness ratio (exports plus imports as a proportion of GDP) in 2002 was the third-lowest among the 30 OECD countries. This paper seeks to understand Australia's low openness by analysing the empirical determinants of aggregate country trade. We present an equation for country openness which explains a substantial amount of the cross-country variation. The most important explanators of openness are population and a measure of distance to potential trade partners. Countries with larger populations trade less, as do countries that are relatively more remote. Furthermore, after controlling for trade policy there is little evidence of a positive correlation between openness and economic development. The openness equation suggests that Australia's level of trade is relatively close to what would be expected. The most important factors in explaining Australia's low openness ratio are its large geographic size and distance to the rest of the world. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2009
    ABSTRACT In this paper I analyse the ethical implications of the two main competing methodologies in genomic research. I do not aim to provide another contribution from the mainstream legal and public policy perspective; rather I offer a novel approach in which I analyse and describe the patent-and-publish regime (the proprietary regime) led by biologist J. Craig Venter and the ,open-source' methodologies led by biotechnology Nobel laureate John Sulston. The ,open-source methodologies' arose in biotechnology as an alternative to the patent-and-publish regime in the wake of the explosion in computer technology. Indeed, the tremendous increase in computer technology has generated a corresponding increase in the pace of genomics research. I conclude this paper by arguing that while the patent-and-publish method is a transactional method based on the exchange of extrinsic goods (patents in exchange for research funds), the free and open-source methodology (FLOSS)1 is a transformational method based on a visionary ideal of science, which leads to prioritizing intrinsic goods in scientific research over extrinsic goods. [source]

    Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion

    Thilo Deckersbach Ph.D.
    Abstract Factor-analytic approaches to human personality have consistently identified several core personality traits, such as Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Consciousness, and Openness. There is an increasing recognition that certain personality traits may render individuals vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Our purpose in this study was to explore correlates between the personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion as assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) in healthy control subjects. Based on the anxiety and depression literatures, we predicted correlations with a network of brain structures, including ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (encompassing anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), insular cortex, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Twenty healthy women completed an 18FFDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET) scan at rest and the NEO-FFI inventory. We investigated correlations between scores on NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Extraversion and rCMRglu using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Within a priori search territories, we found significant negative correlations between Neuroticism and rCMRglu in the insular cortex and positive correlations between Extraversion and rCMRglu in the orbitofrontal cortex. No significant correlations were found involving anterior cingulate, amygdala, or ventral striatum. Neuroticism and Extraversion are associated with activity in insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Depression and Anxiety 23:133,138, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lots of target variance: An update of SRM using the HEXACO personality inventory

    Reinout E. de Vries
    Abstract According to previous studies based on the Social Relations Model (SRM), most of the variance in observer reports of personality is perceiver and relationship variance, and not much is target variance. However, most SRM studies have employed short adjective scales instead of personality questionnaires. Results based on the HEXACO-PI-R in family and work groups showed high levels of consensus (target variance) and self-other agreement for all traits and, except for Honesty,Humility and Openness to Experience, low levels of generalized rater bias (perceiver variance) and of assumed similarity. Additionally, intraclass correlations suggested a 'group personality' for some traits. The findings suggest that the use of personality questionnaires in Social Relations Analyses may promote higher estimates of consensus in personality judgments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Right-wing authoritarianism, Big Five and perceived threat to safety

    Francesca Dallago
    Abstract Using structural equations modelling, we performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Italian Observatory of the North West (Italian national sample, N,=,976) to investigate the direct, mediated and moderated relations connecting the Big Five personality factors and perceived personal and societal threat to safety with right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Openness, Conscientiousness and perceived societal threat to safety exerted additive effects on RWA; the relation between Openness and RWA was partially mediated by societal threat to safety and that between societal threat to safety and RWA was moderated by Openness. Limitations and possible developments of this research are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relationship between ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine correlates of ,workaholism' components (Work Involvement, Drive, Enjoyment of Work). A cross-occupational sample of 661 Norwegian employees in six different organizations completed a web-based survey measuring ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality. Needs satisfaction at work was positively related to Enjoyment of Work, and negatively to Drive. Conscientiousness was positively related to all ,workaholism' components; Extraversion and Openness to Work Involvement and Enjoyment of Work; and Neuroticism to Drive. Negative relations were found between Neuroticism and Enjoyment of Work, and Agreeableness and Drive. Although the associations were rather weak, the findings give reason to differentiate between enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic ,workaholic' characteristics, which were consistent with predictions taken from central theories on ,workaholism'. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxonomy and structure of the Polish personality lexicon

    Piotr Szarota
    Abstract We identified 1839 person-descriptive adjectives from a Polish dictionary, and 10 judges classified those adjectives into five descriptive categories. Two hundred ninety adjectives (16 per cent) were classified by most judges as ,Dispositions' (i.e. relatively stable personality traits and abilities). We examined the structure of those 290 adjectives in self-ratings from 350 respondents. In the five-factor solution, two dimensions closely resembled Big Five Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and two others represented rotated variants of Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The fifth factor was dominated by Intellect, containing little Imagination and no Unconventionality content. A six-factor solution closely resembled the cross-language HEXACO structure (but with ,Intellect' rather than ,Openness to Experience'). Analyses of 369 peer ratings revealed five- and six-factor solutions nearly identical to those of self-ratings. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The intervening role of social worldviews in the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and social attitudes

    A. Van Hiel
    Abstract The present research investigates in a student (N,=,183) and a voter sample (N,=,276) whether the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality dimensions and social attitudes (i.e. Right-Wing Authoritarianism [RWA] and Social Dominance Orientation [SDO]) are mediated by social worldviews (i.e. dangerous and jungle worldviews). Two important results were obtained. First, the perception of the world as inherently dangerous and chaotic partially mediated the relationships of the personality dimensions Openness and Neuroticism and the social attitude RWA. Second, the jungle worldview completely mediated the relationships between Agreeableness and SDO, but considerable item overlap between the jungle worldview and SDO was also noted. It was further revealed that acquiescence response set and item overlap had an impact on social worldviews and attitudes, but that their relationships were hardly affected by these biases. The discussion focuses on the status of social worldviews to explain social attitudes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    German lexical personality factors: relations with the HEXACO model

    Michael C. Ashton
    Abstract We correlated the scales of the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) with adjective scale markers of factors previously obtained in indigenous lexical studies of personality structure in the German language. Self-ratings obtained from a sample of 323 German participants showed a pattern of strong convergent and weak discriminant correlations, supporting the content-based interpretation of the German lexical factors in terms of the HEXACO dimensions. Notably, convergent correlations were strong for both the broader and the narrower variants of the Honesty-Humility factor as observed in German lexical studies. Also, convergent correlations for HEXACO Openness to Experience were, as expected, stronger for German adjectives describing a creative and intellectual orientation than for German adjectives describing intellectual ability. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Big Five personality development in adolescence and adulthood

    Susan J. T. Branje
    Abstract The present article examines Big Five personality development across adolescence and middle adulthood. Two adolescents and their fathers and mothers from 285 Dutch families rated their own and their family members' personality. Using accelerated longitudinal growth curve analyses, mean level change in Big Five factors was estimated. For boys, Extraversion and Openness decreased and for girls, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness increased. Whereas mothers' Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness increased, fathers' Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability decreased. Differences in self- and other-reported personality change were found, as well as interindividual differences in personality change. Results confirm that personality change is possible across the life course but these changes are not similar for all individuals and depend on the type of observer. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stability and change in adolescents' personality: a longitudinal study

    Helle Pullmann
    Abstract The present study examined three types of personality change and continuity (mean-level, individual-level, and rank-order stability) over the 2-year period in a nationally representative longitudinal sample of Estonian adolescents (N,=,876) aged 12,18. According to the Reliable Change Index, 82.1% of adolescents maintained the same level on any given personality trait measured by the NEO Five-Factorial Inventory (NEO-FFI) indicating that the individual-level continuity of adolescents did not differ compared to young adults. A reliable increase was found in Openness. Across the five dimensions, the average test,retest correlations were 0.51, 0.56 and 0.67, and the computed biennial stability values were 0.80, 0.83 and 0.89 for age groups 12,,,14, 14,,,16 and 16,,,18 years, respectively. Neither intelligence nor school performance moderated the differential continuity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, identity styles and authoritarianism: an integrative study among late adolescents

    Bart Duriez
    Abstract The relations between five personality factors, three identity styles, the prejudice dispositions of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO) and racial prejudice were investigated in a Flemish-Belgian late adolescent sample (N,=,328). Results show that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness relate to racial prejudice but that these relations were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. In addition, results show that whereas RWA relates to Conscientiousness and lack of Openness to Experience, SDO relates to lack of Agreeableness and lack of Openness to Experience. The relation between Conscientiousness and RWA and between Openness to Experience and SDO was fully mediated by the identity styles. However, Openness to Experience had a direct influence on RWA and Agreeableness had a direct influence on SDO. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?

    Bo Ekehammar
    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N,=,183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, cognition, and university students' examination performance

    Pru Phillips
    A prospective study explored the relationship between personality traits (as defined by the five factor model), type of motivation (as defined by self-determination theory), and goal-specific cognitions (including those specified by the theory of planned behaviour) as antecedents of degree performance amongst undergraduate students. A sample of 125 students completed a questionnaire two to three months before their final examinations. Structural equation modelling was used to explore relationships. Intention and perceived behavioural control explained 32% of the variance in final degree marks, with intention being the strongest predictor. Controlling for theory of planned behaviour variables, anticipated regret, good-student identity, controlled extrinsic motivation, Conscientiousness, and Openness had direct significant effects on intention. In total, 65% of the variance in intention was explained. The resultant model illustrates how personality traits may affect examination performance by means of mediators such as intention, anticipated regret, student identity, and autonomous intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relation between personality and prejudice: a variable- and a person-centred approach

    Bo Ekehammar
    The relationship between Big Five personality (measured by the NEO-PI) and prejudice was examined using a variable- and a person-centred approach. Big Five scores were related to a generalized prejudice factor based on seven different prejudice scales (racial prejudice, sexism, etc). A correlation analysis disclosed that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness were significantly related to prejudice, and a multiple regression analysis showed that a variable-centred approach displayed a substantial cross-validated relationship between the five personality factors and prejudice. A cluster analysis of the Big Five profiles yielded, in line with previous research, three personality types, but this person-centred approach showed a low cross-validated relationship between personality and prejudice, where the overcontrolled type showed the highest prejudice and the undercontrolled the lowest, with the resilient falling in between. A head-to-head comparison sustained the conclusion that, based on people's Big Five personalities, their generalized prejudice could be predicted more accurately by the variable- than the person-centred approach. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and parenting: neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience as discriminative factors

    Riitta-Leena Metsäpelto
    This study used variable- and person-oriented approaches to examine the relationship between personality traits (at age 33) and parenting (at age 36) among 94 mothers and 78 fathers. The SEM revealed that Openness to Experience (O), low Neuroticism (N), and Extraversion (E) were related to parental nurturance; low O to parental restrictiveness; and low N to parental knowledge about the child's activities. Cluster analysis based on the three parenting factors yielded six gender-related parenting types with distinguishable personality profiles. Authoritative parents (mostly mothers) and emotionally involved parents (mostly fathers), who were high in nurturance and high to moderate in parental knowledge, were high in E and high to moderate in O. Authoritarian parents (mostly fathers) and emotionally detached parents (mostly mothers), who were low in nurturance, high to moderate in restrictiveness, and moderate to low in parental knowledge, were low in O and E. Permissive parents, who were low in restrictiveness and parental knowledge and moderate in nurturance, were high in N, E, and O. Engaged parents, who were high in nurturance, restrictiveness, and parental knowledge, were moderate in all personality traits. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness did not differ between the parenting types. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Humor Styles Questionnaire: personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students,

    Vassilis Saroglou
    Studies often treat sense of humour as a unidimensional construct. Recently, however, four different humour styles have been hypothesized and validated by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). In the present two studies, first, the HSQ received cross-cultural validation among French-speaking Belgian students (94 high school and 87 college students). Second, apart from some similarities (Extraversion, low need for closure), the four humour styles were found to be differently related to personality. Social and self-enhancing humour styles were positively related to Agreeableness, Openness, and self-esteem, whereas hostile humour was negatively related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Self-defeating humour was negatively related to Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, security in attachment, and self-esteem. Finally, students' humour styles were neither direct nor indirect predictors of school performance, but self-defeating and hostile humour styles were typical of students with low school motivation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The moderating role of personality factors in the relationship between depression and neuropsychological functioning among older adults

    Brian J. Ayotte
    Abstract Objective Depression is often associated with decreased cognitive performance among older adults. The current study focused on the association of neuropsychological functioning and personality traits in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Methods Data from 75 depressed and 103 non-depressed adults over the age of 60 were analyzed. All participants underwent standardized clinical assessment for depression prior to participation and completed the NEO-PI-R and a series of neuropsychological assessments. Results A series of multiple linear regressions were conducted to examine the relationships between personality and neuropsychological performance among depressed and non-depressed older adults. Results indicated that higher Openness to Experience was related to better performance on Parts A and B of the Trail Making Test among depressed older adults, and to better Digit Span Backward performance among all participants. Higher levels of neuroticism were related to poorer performance on Digit Span Backward, but only among depressed older adults. Depressed participants performed more poorly on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Conclusions Personality characteristics, particularly Openness to Experience, modified the relationship between depression and neuropsychological functioning among older adults. Results indicate that interventions aimed at increasing one's Openness to Experience could potentially attenuate some of the neuropsychological impairments that are associated with depression. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Symbolic Attributes and Organizational Attractiveness: The moderating effects of applicant personality

    Bert Schreurs
    The present study examined the moderating influence of the Big Five personality factors in the relationship between five symbolic, trait-based inferences about organizations (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Prestige, and Ruggedness) and organizational attractiveness. Drawing on the similarity-attraction paradigm, six hypotheses were formulated, stating that the relationship between trait-based inferences and organizational attractiveness would be stronger for persons who perceive the organization as similar to them. Results of moderated regression analyses on data from a sample of 245 prospective applicants for the Belgian military revealed two significant two-way interactions, showing that Sincerity was positively related to organizational attractiveness only for individuals high on Conscientiousness, and that the relationship between Excitement and organizational attractiveness is more positive for individuals high on Openness to Experience. Practical implications, strengths and limitations, as well as directions for further research are presented. [source]

    Why Openness to Experience is not a Good Predictor of Job Performance

    Barbara Griffin
    Recent meta-analyses investigating the relationship between personality and job performance have found that openness to experience is the least predictive of the Big Five factors. Unlike other research that has sought to explain the low criterion-validity with relation to job performance, this study explores the actual construct of openness to experience, suggesting that it consists of two dimensions that relate differentially to job performance thus reducing correlations between overall measures of openness to experience and performance criteria. Exploratory factor analysis of the six sub-dimensions, or facets, of the NEO PI-R (a popular measure of the Big Five factors) produced two factors of openness to experience corresponding to different areas to which people are open. A confirmatory factor analysis on a second set of data provided some support for this result. A pattern of differential relationships between the two factors and other variables including personality, biodata and supervisor-rated performance offered further support for the multidimensionality of openness to experience. The implications of these findings for future research in the selection context are discussed. [source]

    Can Basic Individual Differences Shed Light on the Construct Meaning of Assessment Center Evaluations?

    J. M. Collins
    The construct meaning of assessment center evaluations is an important unresolved issue in I/O psychology. This study hypothesized that Cognitive Ability and personality traits are primary correlates of evaluators' overall assessment ratings (OARs). Meta,analysis results based on 65 correlations indicate the following mean construct,level correlations with OARs: .67 for Cognitive Ability, .50 for Extraversion, .35 for Emotional Stability, .25 for Openness, and .17 for Agreeableness; yielding a multiple R of .84. These findings support our hypothesis and cast light on the construct meaning of assessment center evaluations. [source]

    Situational Tests in Student Selection: An Examination of Predictive Validity, Adverse Impact, and Construct Validity

    Filip Lievens
    The Flemish Admission Exam ,Medical and Dental Studies' is comprised of four cognitive ability tests and four situational tests, namely two work samples (i.e., a lecture and a medical text) and two video-based situational judgement tests (i.e., a physician,patient interaction and a medical expert discussion). On the basis of the Admission Exam scores of 941 candidates (359 men, 582 women) this study shows that situational tests significantly can predict better than cognitive ability tests, with lecture and text emerging as significant predictors. When situational tests are combined with cognitive ability tests, there are no mean gender differences. Situational tests also enable us to measure a broader range of constructs. For example, in this study, the personality factor Openness is related to better situational test performance. Overall, this study demonstrates that situational tests may be a useful complement to traditional student selection procedures. [source]

    Healing and Salvation in Late Modernity: the Use and Implication of Such Terms in the Ecumenical Movement

    Vebjørn Horsfjord
    This article explores developments over the last decades in the way ecumenical texts, primarily originating from world conferences organized by the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism, speak about soteriology. Under the headlines, "Salvation Today" (1973) and "Your Kingdom Come" (1980), terminology inspired by liberation theology took centre stage, and a predominantly immanent understanding of salvation was promoted. In recent years a different terminology has taken over, and it is one that focuses on "healing" and "the fullness of life". At its best, the holistic healing approach manages to take up the important concerns from earlier times, such as economic justice, racism and environmental issues, while at the same time giving more room for existential issues and the experiences of the individual The new healing discourse appears to reflect two different modalities of the church's healing ministry, viz. that which is concerned with the causes of suffering, and that which addresses the experience of suffering. The latter was often ignored in the recent past. The healing discourse gives room for new explorations of practices that have been central in the church throughout its history, such as anointing the sick, and praying for and with them, and hearing individual confessions. Openness towards subjective experience also has implications for the contextualization of the Christian faith. There is a new awareness that not only do the causes of suffering vary from situation to situation but so does the understanding of (what constitutes) suffering itself. Changing or varying understandings of suffering give rise to different approaches to its alleviation, and can inspire a rethinking of how we understand salvation in different contexts. The new healing discourse can also be studied in its relationship to cultural trends known as post-modernity or late modernity. The texts under study display very ambivalent approaches to these developments. There might be a tendency for texts that have concrete experience as their starting point to take a more positive view of these cultural developments than do texts that begin with more general theological observations. [source]

    Openness, Uncertainty, and Social Spending: Implications for the Globalization, Welfare State Debate

    Irfan Nooruddin
    We extend the literature on openness and spending in developing countries arguing that the effect of increasing openness depends on both regime type and the level of openness. Democracies respond to increases in openness by increasing spending while dictatorships respond by decreasing spending. However, the degree to which countries pursue the strategy of choice depends on the level of openness. In autarkic countries, an increase in import competition has more severe consequences for perceptions of job insecurity and dislocation. In response, government management of openness will be more vigorous under these conditions regardless of whether the leader increases or decreases spending. Economic selection mechanisms at work will produce an outcome wherein, at higher levels of openness, further import liberalization has smaller effects on perceptions of job insecurity and dislocation. Hence, both the demand and the supply of government management of openness will be lower. [source]

    Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive phenomenological nursing research

    Lorna De Witt BScN RN
    Aim., This paper reports a critical review of published nursing research for expressions of rigour in interpretive phenomenology, and a new framework of rigour specific to this methodology is proposed. Background., The rigour of interpretive phenomenology is an important nursing research methods issue that has direct implications for the legitimacy of nursing science. The use of a generic set of qualitative criteria of rigour for interpretive phenomenological studies is problematic because it is philosophically inconsistent with the methodology and creates obstacles to full expression of rigour in such studies. Methods., A critical review was conducted of the published theoretical interpretive phenomenological nursing literature from 1994 to 2004 and the expressions of rigour in this literature identified. We used three sources to inform the derivation of a proposed framework of expressions of rigour for interpretive phenomenology: the phenomenological scholar van Manen, the theoretical interpretive phenomenological nursing literature, and Madison's criteria of rigour for hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings., The nursing literature reveals a broad range of criteria for judging the rigour of interpretive phenomenological research. The proposed framework for evaluating rigour in this kind of research contains the following five expressions: balanced integration, openness, concreteness, resonance, and actualization. Balanced integration refers to the intertwining of philosophical concepts in the study methods and findings and a balance between the voices of study participants and the philosophical explanation. Openness is related to a systematic, explicit process of accounting for the multiple decisions made throughout the study process. Concreteness relates to usefulness for practice of study findings. Resonance encompasses the experiential or felt effect of reading study findings upon the reader. Finally, actualization refers to the future realization of the resonance of study findings. Conclusion., Adoption of this or similar frameworks of expressions of rigour could help to preserve the integrity and legitimacy of interpretive phenomenological nursing research. [source]

    Evaluation of window flight traps for effectiveness at monitoring dead wood-associated beetles: the effect of ethanol lure under contrasting environmental conditions

    C. Bouget
    Abstract 1,Subsequent to the diversity of saproxylic beetles being proposed as a management tool in forestry, more explicit knowledge about the efficiency and selective properties of beetle sampling methods is needed. 2,We compared saproxylic beetle assemblages caught by alcohol-baited or unbaited window traps in different forest contexts. Considering that trap attractiveness depends on kairomone concentrations, we appraised whether the trap efficiency was influenced by trap environment (openness and local supply of fresh dead wood). 3,Saproxylic beetles were sampled using 48 cross-vane window flight traps, arranged in paired designs (alcohol-baited/unbaited), in eight ancient and eight recent gaps (open stands), and eight closed-canopy control stands in an upland beech forest in the French Pyrenees. 4,Baited traps were more efficient than unbaited traps in terms of abundance and richness in our deciduous forests. The ethanol lure did not have any repellent effect on the individual response of saproxylic taxa. 5,The influence of local environmental conditions on trap attractiveness was observed. Openness had a significant moderate effect on species richness. Trap attractiveness was slightly reduced in the alcohol-saturated environment of recent gaps probably due to a disruption by local fresh dead-wood concentrations of the kairomonal response of saproxylic beetles to baited traps (,alcohol disruption'). 6,Because the ethanol lure enhanced the probability of species detection, it may be useful in early-warning surveillance, monitoring and control of wood borers, despite slight influences of local conditions on baited trap efficiency. [source]

    Effect of Short Study Abroad Course on Student Openness to Diversity

    Baraem Ismail
    ABSTRACT: An important contributing factor to students' willingness to work with diverse people is their "openness" to diversity. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a short (3-wk) study abroad course to China on the openness to diversity/ challenge of the 23 students participating in the China study abroad course. Students were given the "openness to diversity" survey at the beginning of the course and at the end of the course. Statistical analysis concerning the change in openness to diversity between pre-test and post-test was conducted using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (P, 0.05). A significant increase (P= 0.007) in openness to diversity was observed as a result of the short study abroad course. The overall average change in openness to diversity found for this study (0.07) was consistent with that reported for semester-long study abroad groups (0.074). Together these findings imply that short study abroad courses may have a significant effect on students' openness to diversity and may be as effective as longer study abroad programs. Overall, any study abroad course presents an opportunity to increase students' openness to diversity. [source]