Open-label Trials (open-label + trials)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of psychobiology and pharmacotherapy

I. Hageman
Objective: To review the literature on the psychobiology and pharmacotherapy of PTSD. Method: Relevant studies were identified by literature searches (Pub-med, web of science) and through reference lists. The search was ended by May 2001. Results: There is evidence of involvement of opioid, glutamatergic, GABAergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and neuroendocrine pathways in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Medications shown to be effective in double-blind placebo-controlled trials includes selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, reversible and irreversible MAO-inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and the anticonvulsant lamotrigine. Still more agents appear promising in open-label trials. Conclusion: The complexity of the psychobiology is reflected by the difficulties in treating the disorder. According to the present knowledge, suggestions for drug treatment of PTSD are made. [source]

Cocaine Rapid Efficacy Screening Trials (CREST): lessons learned

ADDICTION, Issue 2005
Kyle M. Kampman
ABSTRACT Aims The Cocaine Rapid Efficacy Screening Trials (CREST) were designed by the National Institute on Drug Abuse Division of Treatment Research and Development (NIDA, DT R&D) to rapidly screen a number of medications potentially useful for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Design Each CREST trial was designed to compare several medications in a single trial against an unmatched placebo. The placebo group was included in each trial to avoid the nearly universal positive response to medications seen in open-label trials. In addition, a common set of procedures and outcome measures were employed throughout to increase comparability of results obtained from different trials and from different times. Participants In all, 18 medications were screened in seven different trials, conducted in four different sites throughout the United States involving 398 cocaine-dependent patients. Findings Three medications were found to be promising enough to include in subsequent larger trials. Common statistical procedures for evaluating medications were developed to facilitate comparisons across sites and across time. A portion of the data were pooled and analyzed, which yielded some useful insights into cocaine dependence and its treatment. Finally, a review of individual trials together with the pooled analysis revealed several potential improvements for future screening trials. Conclusions Overall, the CREST trials proved to be useful for rapidly screening medications for treatment of cocaine dependence, but several modifications in design should be made before this framework is applied further. [source]

Atypical antipsychotics and anorexia nervosa: A review

Rebecca F. McKnight
Abstract Background There is currently mixed opinion regarding the value of using atypical antipsychotics to treat anorexia nervosa (AN). Aims To evaluate the literature on the use of atypical antipsychotics in AN. Method A review of all studies and clinical guidelines published before September 2009 involving use of an atypical antipsychotic in patients with AN. Analysis is by narrative synthesis. Results Forty-three publications or study protocols were found, including four randomized-controlled trials, five open-label trials and 26 case reports. The most studied drugs were olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. Atypical antipsychotics appear safe and there is some evidence of positive effects on depression, anxiety and core eating disordered psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Currently there is insufficient evidence to confirm atypical antipsychotics enhance weight gain in this setting. Conclusions Further high quality evidence is needed in this area in order to provide practical guidance to clinicians. However, the main challenge is to persuade adequate numbers of AN patients to participate in research trials. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Defining success in clinical trials , profiling pregabalin, the newest AED

P. Ryvlin
The efficacy and safety of pregabalin as adjunctive therapy for patients with partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalization has been established by four randomized, 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (n = 1396) and four long-term open-label studies (n = 1480). Patients in the three fixed-dose trials were ,12 years of age, had ,6 partial seizures and no 4-week seizure-free period during the 8-week baseline period. Seventy-three per cent of patients were taking ,2 concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Responder rates across the effective doses (150,600 mg/day) ranged from 14% to 51% and demonstrated a significant dose,response relationship. The most common adverse events were central nervous system related, generally mild or moderate, transient, and tended to be dose related. The fourth placebo-controlled trial compared a fixed dose of pregabalin 600 mg/day with a flexible-dose regimen (150,600 mg/day). Responder rates were greater for both the fixed dose (45.3%, P < 0.001) and flexible dose (31.3%, P < 0.001) when compared with placebo (11.0%). Compared with the fixed-dose group, the flexible-dose patients had a lower incidence of adverse events and study discontinuations. In long-term open-label trials, the efficacy of pregabalin was maintained with respect to 50% responder rates suggesting no obvious tolerance developing over 2 years. Seizure-free rates were 8.9% and 5.8% for the last 6 months and 1 year of pregabalin treatment, respectively. Long-term open-label pregabalin treatment was well tolerated. [source]

Treatment of behavioural symptoms and dementia in Parkinson's disease

Hasmet A. Hanagasi
Abstract Behavioural symptoms such as anxiety, depression and psychosis are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia occurs in about 90% of the patients. These symptoms can be more disabling than the motor dysfunction and they negatively impact quality of life, increase caregiver distress and are more frequently associated with nursing home placement. Depression can be treated with counselling and pharmacotherapy. Tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely used, but there is still need for controlled clinical trials. Management of psychosis in PD is complex and includes elimination of identifiable risk factors, reduction of polypharmacy and administration of atypical neuroleptics, which can alleviate psychotic symptoms without worsening motor functions. Clozapine is the best documented atypical neuroleptic shown to be effective against psychosis in PD patients. Cholinesterase inhibitors may prove additional benefit in psychotic PD patients. Recent evidence from small double-blind and open-label trials suggests that cholinesterase inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of dementia associated with PD. [source]

Viral safety of a pasteurized, monoclonal antibody-purified factor VIII concentrate in previously untreated haemophilia A patients

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2001
C. S. Philipp
The efficacy and viral safety of a pasteurized, immunoaffinity-purified procoagulant factor VIII protein (FVIII:C; Monoclate-P) was studied in two multicentre, prospective, open-label trials in 30 previously untreated patients, 18 with severe (< 1% FVIII:C activity), and 12 with moderate (1% to 5% FVIII:C activity) haemophilia A. Clinical assessments, performed at screening and regularly thereafter for 6 to > 24 months (maximum 34 months), showed that none of 24 assessable patients acquired illnesses consistent with monitored transfusion-transmissible diseases. No patients acquired hepatitis B surface antigen, or antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus. Likewise, no patients acquired treatment-related hepatitis A antibodies or sustained elevations of alanine aminotransferase levels. The safety profile for Monoclate-P is brought about by a multi-step safety system that incorporates viral inactivation (through a combination of immunoaffinity chromatography and pasteurization) plus donor screening, plasma testing, and quality assurance. The inhibitor development rate (13% low titre, 10% high titre) was similar to that reported in the literature for other FVIII concentrates (24% to 52%). The most frequently reported adverse events were related to typical infant and childhood diseases. Monoclate-P was effective in all patients treated according to protocol, except in two, who developed inhibitors. [source]

Updated meta-analysis of clinical trials of Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

P. Boyle
OBJECTIVES To determine, by analysing all available clinical trial data, the clinical efficacy against placebo of an extract from the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree, Serenoa repens (Permixon®, Pierre Fabre Médicament, Castres, France), as there is controversy about the use of phytotherapeutic agents in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS All clinical trial data published on Permixon, comprising 14 randomized clinical trials and three open-label trials, involving 4280 patients, were analysed. These trials were of different size (22,1100 patients) and duration (21,720 days). The peak urinary flow rate and nocturia were the two common endpoints. The statistical analysis was based on a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS Permixon was associated with a mean (sem) reduction in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 4.78 (0.41). The mean placebo effect on peak urinary flow rate was an increase of 1.20 (0.49) mL/s. The estimated effect of Permixon was a further increase of 1.02 (0.50) mL/s (P = 0.042). Placebo was associated with a reduction in the mean number of nocturnal voids of 0.63 (0.14); there was a further reduction attributable to Permixon of 0.38 (0.07) (P < 0.001). There was some heterogeneity among the studies for nocturia; one over 2 years involving 396 patients and showing no difference between placebo and Permixon had a large effect on the results. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis of all available published trials of Permixon for treating men with BPH showed a significant improvement in peak flow rate and reduction in nocturia above placebo, and a 5-point reduction in the IPSS. [source]

Mirtazapine: only for depression?

Luis San
Background:, Mirtazapine is an antidepressant first approved in the Netherlands in 1994 for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, evidence suggests its effectiveness in a variety of other psychiatric disorders and non-psychiatric medical conditions. Objective:, The present paper reviews the published literature on the off-label indications of Mirtazapine. Methods:, A search of the relevant literature from MEDLINE, PsycLIT and EMBASE databases, included in the Science Citation Index and available up to March 2006, was conducted using the terms mirtazapine, case-reports, open-label trials and randomized controlled trials. Only articles referring to conditions other than major depression were included in this present review. Results:, Off-label use of mirtazapine has been reported in panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dysthymia, menopausal depression, poststroke depression, depression as a result of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, elderly depression, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced depression, hot flashes, alcohol and other substance use disorders, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, tension-type headaches, cancer pain, fibromyalgia, schizophrenia and other less frequent conditions. Conclusions:, So far, data on the off-label usefulness of mirtazapine are limited and mainly based on observations from case reports or open-label studies. However, positive cues suggest that confirmation of these preliminary data with randomized controlled trials may give sufficient evidence to warrant the use of mirtazapine in a broad range of disorders. [source]