Open-label Study (open-label + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

An Open-Label Study of the Lidocaine Patch 5% in Painful Idiopathic Sensory Polyneuropathy

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
David N. Herrmann MBBCh
ABSTRACT Objective., Painful idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy is common, but has been largely ignored as a model for the evaluation of neuropathic pain therapies. We have therefore conducted a safety, tolerability, and effectiveness study of the lidocaine patch 5% in painful idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy. Design., A prospective open-label, flexible dosing, 3-week study period with a 5-week extension. Setting., Peripheral Neuropathy clinics and Anesthesiology Clinical Research Center at a tertiary care facility. Patients., Twenty subjects with a diagnosis of idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy (with or without associated impaired glucose tolerance), with a baseline mean pain daily rating of ,4 on a visual analog scale. Intervention., Lidocaine patch 5%, maximum of four patches daily for 18 hours. Main Outcome Measure., Change from baseline week to week 3 mean daily diary pain ratings. Secondary endpoints included assessments of safety and tolerability as well as quality of life measures. Results., Subjects with idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy, both with and without impaired glucose tolerance, showed significant improvements in pain and quality of life outcome measures over a 3-week treatment period. These improvements were maintained in a subgroup of patients treated for an additional 5 weeks and permitted a taper of concomitant analgesics in 25% of subjects. The lidocaine patch 5% was well tolerated. Conclusions., The lidocaine patch 5% appeared well tolerated and potentially effective in the management of painful idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy. Idiopathic distal sensory polyneuropathy is an appropriate patient population for the conduct of clinical trials of neuropathic pain therapies. [source]

Low Systemic Absorption and Good Tolerability of Pimecrolimus, Administered as 1% Cream (Elidel®) in Infants with Atopic Dermatitis , A Multicenter, 3-Week, Open-Label Study

Doris Staab M.D.
Here we evaluate pimecrolimus blood concentrations and tolerability to pimecrolimus cream 1% in 22 infants below 2 years of age with atopic dermatitis (10,92% body surface area affected at baseline). Efficacy was assessed as a secondary objective. Pimecrolimus cream 1% was applied twice daily for 3 weeks. Blood concentrations were low, typically (96% of total 100 concentrations measured) below 2 ng/mL, the majority (71%) remaining below 0.5 ng/mL. The highest concentration observed was 2.26 ng/mL. At steady state, there was no indication of accumulation. Pimecrolimus was well tolerated locally and systemically, with no serious adverse events recorded. Most adverse events recorded (35 in 17/22 patients) were typical of the young pediatric population studied, of mild to moderate severity, and not considered to be study-medication related, with the exception of four local adverse effects limited to the site of cream application. No clinically relevant change was observed in physical examination, vital signs, or laboratory safety parameters. A rapid onset of therapeutic effect was observed within the first four days of treatment. Pimecrolimus cream 1% is well tolerated in infants 3 to 23 months of age treated for 3 weeks, and results in minimal systemic exposure. [source]

Timing of Dose Relative to Sexual Intercourse Attempt in Previous Sildenafil Citrate Users Treated with Tadalafil: A Geographical Comparison from a Single Arm, Open-Label Study

Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. Aim., To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Methods., Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of ,6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Main Outcomes Measures., Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. Results., A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P < 0.0001). The Asian cohort demonstrated the shortest duration between dosing and sexual intercourse attempts (irrespective of drug), and altered sexual behavior the least upon switching to tadalafil. The ANZ cohort demonstrated the longest duration between dosing and sexual intercourse attempts (irrespective of drug), and altered sexual behavior the most upon switching to tadalafil. Conclusion., Men with a history of established sildenafil citrate use alter their dose-attempt behavior when treated with tadalafil irrespective of geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use. Rubio-Aurioles E, Glina S, Abdo CHN, Hernandez-Serrano R, Rampazzo C, Sotomayor M, West TM, Gallagher GL, and Lenero E. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: A geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study. J Sex Med 2009;6:2836,2850. [source]

A Prospective, Open-label Study of Long-term Intrathecal Ziconotide for Chronic Nonmalignant Back Pain: A Case Report

Ann Ver Donck MD
Abstract Ziconotide is an N-type calcium channel (NCC) blocking conopeptide, acting primarily at the NCC-rich dorsal horn. Reported here is an early experience with intrathecal ziconotide in a 55-year-old man with chronic pain resulting from failed back surgery. All conservative and surgical treatments, in addition to IT morphine, failed prior to enrollment in a short-term, placebo-controlled trial testing ziconotide efficacy and safety. Following successful short-term treatment, the patient was enrolled in a long-term follow-up study. The dosing regimen, onset and resolution of adverse events, and improvement on the primary efficacy measure, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity, are discussed. Overall, the patient responded positively to ziconotide. [source]

Pharmacokinetic interaction study between eslicarbazepine acetate and lamotrigine in healthy subjects

L. Almeida
Almeida L, Nunes T, Sicard E, Rocha J-F, Falcão A, Brunet J-S, Lefebvre M, Soares-da-Silva P. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between eslicarbazepine acetate and lamotrigine in healthy subjects. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 121: 257,264. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objective,,, Anti-epileptic drugs are often used in combination. Both eslicarbazepine (main metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate, ESL) and lamotrigine undergo conjugation with glucuronic acid, and both eslicarbazepine and its glucuronide and lamotrigine glucuronide undergo extensive renal elimination; therefore, there is a potential for interaction. This study investigated the interaction between ESL and lamotrigine in healthy subjects. Methods,,, Open-label study in two parallel groups of 16 healthy volunteers each. After an 8-day treatment with ESL or lamotrigine, ESL (1200 mg once-daily) and lamotrigine (150 mg once-daily) were co-administered for 19 days. Geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration,time curve in the dosing interval (AUC0,24) were calculated for eslicarbazepine (ESL active metabolite) and lamotrigine. Results,,, The Cmax and AUC0,24 GMR (90% CI) were, respectively, 95% (87,102%) and 96% (91,102%) for eslicarbazepine, and 88% (82,94%) and 86% (81,92%) for lamotrigine. The 90% CI of the Cmax and AUC0,24 GMR fell within the prespecified acceptance interval (80,125%) both for eslicarbazepine and lamotrigine. Conclusion,,, There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between ESL and lamotrigine in healthy subjects. Therefore, no dosage adjustment appears to be usually required in either lamotrigine or ESL when the drugs are co-administered. [source]

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine as primary and booster vaccination in low-birth-weight premature infants

Liliana Vázquez
Abstract Aim: To assess suitability of a combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexaÔ) for immunization of low-birth-weight (<2.0 kg) preterm infants, with particular focus on the hepatitis B response. Methods: Open-label study in 170 preterm infants receiving primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 18,24 months. Enrolment and analysis were stratified in two groups: infants with birth weight between 1.5 kg and 2.0 kg (low birth weight: LBW), infants with BW <1.5 kg (very low birth weight: VLBW). Results: One month after the three dose primary vaccination, 93.7% and 94.9% of infants in VLBW and LBW groups, respectively, had anti-HBs antibody concentrations , 10 mIU/mL. High seroprotection and response rates (92.4,100%) to all vaccine antigens were observed. Those were reinforced (>98%) by booster vaccination for all antigens except for HBs in VLBW children: only 88.7% of those had anti-HBs antibody concentrations , 10 mIU/mL, compared with 96.5% of LBW children (difference statistically not significant). The vaccine was well tolerated in both groups of infants. Conclusion: Preterm infants will benefit by the administration of a primary and booster vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. [source]

Pharmacokinetics of carisbamate (RWJ-333369) in healthy Japanese and Western subjects

EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2009
Peter Zannikos
Summary Purpose:, To compare the pharmacokinetics of carisbamate (RWJ-333369) in healthy Japanese and Western adults, and to comparatively assess carisbamate safety and tolerability between the two populations. Methods:, An open-label study was conducted in 24 Japanese and 24 Caucasian healthy subjects. Subjects received a single oral dose of 250 mg carisbamate on day 1 followed by a 3-day washout period; twice-daily dosing of 250 mg carisbamate on days 5,8; subsequently, 500 mg on days 9,12 and a single dose of 500 mg on day 13. Plasma samples were collected for a pharmacokinetic analysis on days 1, 8, and 13. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed for carisbamate and its urinary metabolites by liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Results:, Following a single dose, carisbamate Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) geometric mean ratios were 16.4% and 28.8% higher in Japanese than in Caucasians, respectively; these differences were statistically significant and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell outside of the 80,125% limits, which are considered not to be of clinical significance. With dose,body weight normalization, Cmax and AUC were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects and the 90% CIs were within the 80,125% boundaries. Carisbamate was well tolerated, and its mean oral clearance and half-life were similar in both groups, ranging from 35.1,41.4 ml/h/kg and 11.5,12.8 h. Discussion:, Carisbamate plasma exposure (AUC) and Cmax in Japanese subjects is ,20,25% higher than in Caucasians due to a higher mg/kg dose. After body weight normalization, carisbamate pharmacokinetics was similar between Japanese and Caucasian subjects following single and multiple dosing, and showed the same dose proportionality. [source]

Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam in Children with Partial Seizures: An Open-label Trial

EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2002
Tracy A. Glauser
Summary: ,Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) as adjunctive therapy in children with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures. Methods: Children (aged 6,12 years) with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures receiving one standard antiepileptic drug (AED) were eligible. After a 4-week baseline period, children received LEV in a 6-week titration phase (target dose, 40 mg/kg/day) followed by an 8-week evaluation phase. Seizure frequency during the evaluation period with individualized LEV doses (20,40 mg/kg/day) were compared with the 4-week baseline seizure frequency. Plasma concentrations of LEV and other AEDs were determined to evaluate potential drug interactions. Results: Twenty-four subjects enrolled and received LEV; 23 entered the evaluation phase, and 22 completed the evaluation phase. Compared with their baseline seizure frequency, 12 (52%) of 23 subjects entering the evaluation phase had their seizure frequency decrease by >50%. Two subjects remained seizure free during the entire evaluation period. LEV did not significantly affect plasma concentrations of any concomitant AED during this study, and no alteration of mean clinical laboratory values was observed. The most commonly reported adverse events were headache, infection, anorexia, and somnolence. Conclusions: This open-label study of adjunctive LEV therapy (at 20,40 mg/kg/day) suggests that LEV is effective, safe, and well tolerated in children ages 6,12 years with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of LEV adjunctive therapy in children with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures is needed and ongoing to confirm these open-label findings. [source]

Long-Term, Open-Label Safety Study of Oral Almotriptan 12.5 mg for the Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adolescents

HEADACHE, Issue 5 2010
Frank Berenson MD
(Headache 2010;50:795-807) Objectives., This study evaluated the long-term safety of oral almotriptan 12.5 mg for the treatment of multiple migraine episodes in adolescents over a 12-month period. Efficacy outcomes were assessed as a secondary objective. Methods., Adolescent migraineurs aged 12-17 years were enrolled in this 12-month, open-label study (Study ID CR002827). Patients were instructed to record their assessments on paper headache records whenever they experienced a migraine headache that they treated with study medication. Safety was assessed descriptively and assessments included adverse event (AE) recording, change in laboratory values, vital signs, and electrocardiogram parameters. Efficacy outcomes were assessed descriptively and outcomes included rates for 2- and 24-hour pain relief and sustained pain relief, 2- and 24-hour pain-free and sustained pain-free, and presence of migraine-associated symptoms of photophobia, phonophobia, nausea and vomiting. Results., Overall, 67.1% of patients reported ,1 AE over the course of the trial, 7.6% had an AE judged by the study investigator to be related to treatment with almotriptan, 2.4% discontinued because of an AE, and 1.9% reported serious AEs. The most commonly reported treatment-related AEs (occurring in ,1% of patients) were nausea (1.4%) and somnolence (1.4%). Pain relief responses for treated migraines of moderate or severe intensity at baseline were 61.7% and 68.6%, at 2 and 24 hours, respectively; the sustained pain relief rate was 55.5%. Pain-free responses were reported for 40.5% of all treated migraines at 2 hours and 65.9% of treated migraines at 24 hours; the sustained pain-free rate was 38.4%. The proportion of migraines that achieved the pain relief, sustained pain relief, pain-free and sustained pain-free endpoints were similar in the 12- to 14-year and 15- to 17-year age groups. Treating with almotriptan 12.5 mg when headache pain was mild was associated with higher rates of pain relief and pain-free at 2 and 24 hours, and sustained pain relief and sustained pain-free, compared with treatment initiated when pain was severe. Conclusions., Almotriptan 12.5 mg was well tolerated in this adolescent population over a 12-month period. No unexpected safety or tolerability concerns were revealed over the course of this study. The results are consistent with almotriptan 12.5 mg being effective for the acute treatment of pain and symptoms associated with migraine in both younger and older adolescents. [source]

Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release for the Prophylaxis of Migraine Headache in Adolescents: Results of a Stand-Alone, Long-Term Open-Label Safety Study

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2009
George Apostol MD
Objective., The objective of this long-term open-label study in adolescents was to assess the safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium extended-release in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Background., Two formulations of divalproex sodium have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of migraine headaches in adults. However, no medications are currently approved for this indication in adolescents, and long-term safety data on agents for migraine prevention are lacking for this younger population. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of divalproex extended-release in adolescents with migraine headaches. Methods., This was a 12-month, phase 3, open-label, multicenter study of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches diagnosed by International Headache Society criteria. Divalproex sodium extended-release was initiated at 500 mg/day for 15 days then increased to 1000 mg daily, with subsequent adjustments permitted within a dosing range of 250-1000 mg daily. Study visits were conducted at days 1 and 15 and months 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Safety was evaluated by adverse event collection, laboratory assessments, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, electrocardiograms, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children. Efficacy was evaluated by following the number of migraine headache days reported in subjects' headache diaries over sequential 4-week intervals for the duration of the trial. Results., A total of 241 subjects were enrolled and treated. The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (19%), vomiting (18%), weight gain (12%), nasopharyngitis (11%), migraine (10%), and upper respiratory tract infection (10%). Ten (4%) subjects experienced serious adverse events, and 40 (17%) subjects discontinued because of an adverse event. Increases in ammonia levels were observed. No other clinically significant changes were observed in laboratory values, vital signs, rating scales, or electrocardiograms. Median 4-week migraine headache days decreased 75% between the first and the fourth months of the study (from 4.0 to 1.0) and remained at or below this level for the remainder of the study. Conclusions., In this long-term open-label study of adolescents with migraine, the safety and tolerability profile of divalproex sodium extended-release was consistent with findings from previous trials in adults, as well as 2 studies recently completed in adolescents. In general, divalproex sodium extended-release was well-tolerated in adolescents with migraine. [source]

Eletriptan in Migraine Patients Reporting Unsatisfactory Response to Rizatriptan

HEADACHE, Issue 7 2006
Jerome Goldstein MD
Objective.,The objective of this open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy of switching patients who had a previous unsatisfactory response to rizatriptan to eletriptan 40 mg. Background.,The characteristics of individual migraine patients can vary tremendously and can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes. In addition, clinical experience has demonstrated that the triptans are not identical or interchangeable and that patients who respond poorly or who are dissatisfied with one agent can derive benefit by being switched to another agent within the triptan class. Methods.,Patients were eligible if they met International Headache Society criteria for migraine, with a frequency of 1 to 6 migraine attacks per month, and had documented "unsatisfactory treatment response" to rizatriptan within the past year (54% on the melt formulation; 46% on tablets). Reasons for dissatisfaction with rizatriptan (>1 could be cited) included inadequate (84%) or slow onset (50%) of pain relief, high recurrence rate (69%), and lack of improvement in associated symptoms (60%). One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible for treatment. Patients were instructed to take eletriptan 40 mg as soon as they were certain that their headache was a migraine, regardless of level of pain severity (8% treated headaches that were mild). Results.,Headache response at 2 hours (first-attack data) was 64%. Absence of nausea (from baseline to 2 hours) increased from 50% to 78%, absence of photophobia from 30% to 72%, and absence of phonophobia from 39% to 77%. Functional response at 2 hours was 63%, with 41% of patients reporting normal functioning. Treatment with eletriptan 40 mg was associated with a 27% to 40% reduction in migraine attack-related functional impairment, as measured by the PQ-7. Recurrence rates were 36.6%. Overall, 72% of patients rated eletriptan as a "good-to-excellent" treatment, and 78% reported overall satisfaction with the degree of headache relief. Conclusion.,The results of this study suggest that eletriptan is an efficacious treatment option for patients who are dissatisfied with their response to rizatriptan. [source]

Long-Term Tolerability of Sumatriptan Nasal Spray in Adolescent Patients With Migraine

HEADACHE, Issue 10 2004
Shankar Natarajan MD
Objective.,This 1-year, open-label, multicenter study was designed to assess the long-term tolerability and efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray 20 mg in adolescent patients with migraine. Methods.,A prospective, multicenter, open-label study was conducted in patients aged 12 to 17 years who were allowed to treat an unlimited number of migraines at severe, moderate, or mild pain intensity with sumatriptan nasal spray for up to 1 year. All patients started the study at the 20-mg dose of sumatriptan nasal spray. Dose could be adjusted downward to 5 mg at the discretion of the investigator to optimize therapy. Results.,A total of 484 adolescent migraineurs treated 4676 migraines with sumatriptan nasal spray 20 mg (3593 during the first 6 months and 1083 during the second 6 months). A total of 3940 migraines and 699 migraines were treated with one and two 20-mg doses of sumatriptan nasal spray, respectively. Only 10 patients (treating 42 migraines) took the 5-mg dose of sumatriptan nasal spray. The overall percentage of migraines treated with either one 20-mg dose or one, two, or three 20-mg doses with at least 1 drug-related adverse event was 19%. The most common specific drug-related adverse event was unpleasant taste, reported in 17% of migraines. No other single drug-related adverse event was reported in more than 1% of migraines over the 1-year treatment period. When unpleasant taste was excluded from the adverse-event tabulations, the percentages of migraines with at least 1 drug-related adverse event after one or one, two, or three 20-mg doses declined to 4% and 3%, respectively. No patient experienced any drug-related changes in 12-lead ECGs, vital signs, or nasal assessments; and no clinically meaningful changes in clinical laboratory values were observed. Across all migraines with evaluable efficacy data (n = 4334), headache relief was reported in 43% of migraines at 1 hour and in 59% at 2 hours after dosing with sumatriptan nasal spray 20 mg. Of the 2561 migraines with headache relief 2 hours postdose, headache recurrence was reported within 24 hours of initial dosing in 7% of migraines. None of the efficacy or tolerability results varied as a function of time in the study (ie, first 6 months vs. second 6 months). Conclusion.,Sumatriptan nasal spray 20 mg is generally well tolerated and may be beneficial during long-term use by adolescent migraineurs ages 12 to 17 years. [source]

Tolerability and Safety of Frovatriptan With Short- and Long-term Use for Treatment of Migraine and in Comparison With Sumatriptan

HEADACHE, Issue 2002
Gilles Géraud MD
Objective.,To evaluate the tolerability and safety of frovatriptan 2.5 mg in patients with migraine. Background.,Frovatriptan is a new, selective serotonin agonist (triptan) developed for the acute treatment of migraine. Dose range-finding studies identified 2.5 mg as the dose that conferred the optimal combination of efficacy and tolerability. Methods.,The tolerability and safety of frovatriptan 2.5 mg were assessed during controlled, acute migraine treatment studies, including a study that compared frovatriptan 2.5 mg with sumatriptan 100 mg, as well as a 12-month open-label study during which patients could take up to three doses of frovatriptan 2.5 mg within a 24-hour period. Safety and tolerability were assessed through the collection of adverse events, monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure performance of 12-lead electrocardiogram, hematology screen, and blood chemistry studies. Results.,In the short-term studies, 1554 patients took frovatriptan 2.5 mg and 838 took placebo. In the 12-month study, 496 patients treated 13 878 migraine attacks. Frovatriptan was well tolerated in the short- and long-term studies with 1% of patients in the short-term studies and 5% of patients in the long-term study withdrawing due to lack of tolerability. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the frovatriptan-treated patients than in the patients who took placebo (47% versus 34%) and the spectrum of adverse events was similar. When compared to sumatriptan 100 mg, significantly fewer patients taking frovatriptan experienced adverse events (43% versus 36%; P=.03) and the number of adverse events was lower (0.62 versus 0.91), there were also fewer adverse events suggestive of cardiovascular symptoms in the frovatriptan group. Analysis of the entire clinical database (n=2392) demonstrated that frovatriptan was well tolerated by the patients regardless of their age, gender, race, concomitant medication, or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. No effects of frovatriptan on heart rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, hematology screen, or blood chemistry were observed. No patient suffered any treatment-related serious adverse event. Conclusions.,Short- and long-term use of frovatriptan 2.5 mg was well tolerated by a wide variety of patients. Frovatriptan treatment produced an adverse events profile similar to that of placebo, and in a direct comparison study was better tolerated than sumatriptan 100 mg. [source]

Antiepileptic Drugs in the Management of Cluster Headache and Trigeminal Neuralgia

HEADACHE, Issue 2001
Todd D. Rozen MD
Cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia are relatively rare but debilitating neurologic conditions. Although they are clinically and diagnostically distinct from migraine, many of the same pharmacologic agents are used in their management. For many patients, the attacks are so frequent and severe that abortive therapy is often ineffective; therefore, chronic preventive therapy is necessary for adequate pain control. Cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia have several distinguishing clinical features. Cluster headache is predominantly a male disorder; trigeminal neuralgia is more prevalent in women. Individuals with cluster headaches often develop their first attack before age 25; most patients with trigeminal neuralgia are between age 50 and 70. Cluster headaches are strongly associated with tobacco smoking and triggered by alcohol consumption; trigeminal neuralgia can be triggered by such stimuli as shaving and toothbrushing. Although the pain in both disorders is excruciating, cluster headache pain is episodic and unilateral, typically surrounds the eye, and lasts 15 to 180 minutes; the pain of trigeminal neuralgia lasts just seconds and is usually limited to the tissues overlying the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Cluster headache is unique because of its associated autonomic symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia are not completely understood, both appear to have central primary processes, and these findings have prompted investigations of the effectiveness of the newer antiepileptic drugs for cluster headache prevention and for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. The traditional antiepileptic drugs phenytoin and carbamazepine have been used for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia for a number of years, and while they are effective, they can sometimes cause central nervous system effects such as drowsiness, ataxia, somnolence, and diplopia. Reports of studies in small numbers of patients or individual case studies indicate that the newer antiepileptic drugs are effective in providing pain relief for trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache sufferers, with fewer central nervous system side effects. Divalproex has been shown to provide effective pain control and to reduce cluster headache frequency by more than half in episodic and chronic cluster headache sufferers. Topiramate demonstrated efficacy in a study of 15 patients, with a mean time to induction of cluster headache remission of 1.4 weeks (range, 1 day to 3 weeks). In the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, gabapentin has been shown to be effective in an open-label study. When added to an existing but ineffective regimen of carbamazepine or phenytoin, lamotrigine provided improved pain relief; it also may work as monotherapy. Topiramate provided a sustained analgesic effect when administered to patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The newer antiepileptic drugs show considerable promise in the management of cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia. [source]

Albinterferon alfa-2b dosed every two or four weeks in interferon-naïve patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C,,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Stefan Zeuzem
The efficacy and safety of albinterferon alfa-2b (alb-IFN), a novel recombinant protein consisting of interferon alfa-2b genetically fused to human albumin, was evaluated in a phase 2b, open-label study of patients with genotype 1, chronic hepatitis C. In all, 458 IFN-alfa treatment-naïve patients were randomized to 48-week treatment with peginterferon alfa (PEG-IFN,)-2a 180 ,g one time per week (qwk), or alb-IFN 900 or 1,200 ,g once every two weeks (q2wk), or 1,200 ,g once every four weeks (q4wk), administered subcutaneously, plus weight-based oral ribavirin 1,000 or 1,200 mg/day. Hepatitis C virus RNA was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (limit of detection: 10 IU/mL). The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response (hepatitis C virus RNA <10 IU/mL 24 weeks after the end of treatment). By intention-to-treat analysis, sustained virologic response rates were 58.5% (69/118) with alb-IFN 900 ,g q2wk, 55.5% (61/110) with 1,200 ,g q2wk, and 50.9% (59/116) with 1,200 ,g q4wk, and 57.9% (66/114) with PEG-IFN,-2a (P = 0.64 for overall test). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were 9.3% with alb-IFN 900 ,g q2wk, 18.2% with 1,200 ,g q2wk and 12.1% with 1,200 ,g q4wk, and 6.1% with PEG-IFN,-2a (P = 0.04). Hematologic reductions were lowest in the q4wk group and comparable across other groups. At week 12, mean treatment-associated missed workdays were significantly lower with alb-IFN 900 ,g q2wk versus PEG-IFN,-2a (1.1 versus 4.3 days; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Alb-IFN administered q2wk or q4wk may offer comparable efficacy, with an improved dosing schedule, compared with PEG-IFN,-2a. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:407,417.) [source]

Effect of food on the antiviral activity of didanosine enteric-coated capsules: a pilot comparative study,

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
B Hernández-Novoa
Objectives To determine the effect of food on the antiviral activity of enteric-coated (EC) capsules of didanosine (ddI). Methods We conducted a pilot, randomized, open-label study of 28-day ddI-EC capsules monotherapy-administered in a fasted state (group 1, n=11) or with food (group 2, n=10) to treatment-naïve chronically HIV-1-infected individuals. To assess the antiviral efficacy, HIV-1 RNA was determined at baseline, day 3, day 7 and weekly thereafter. The area under the HIV-1 RNA curve minus baseline weighted by time (AUCMB/day) was calculated. Results Mean baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.2 log10 copies/mL in group 1 and 3.8 log10 copies/mL in group 2. After 28 days, the mean HIV-1 RNA reduction was 0.99 log10 copies/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45,1.53] for group 1 and 0.89 log10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.38,1.40) for group 2. AUCMB/day values were 0.775 log10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.33,1.22) and 0.774 log10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.48,1.07), respectively, showing no difference in the rate of decrease of HIV-1 RNA (P=0.995). Mean ddI plasma levels at day 28 were 0.0234 mg/L for group 1 and 0.0227 mg/L for group 2 (P=0.96). Conclusions In this pilot study, the administration of food did not have any significant effect on the antiviral activity of ddI-EC capsules. [source]

Effectiveness of antipsychotic polypharmacy for patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia: an open-label trial of olanzapine plus risperidone for those who failed to respond to a sequential treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone

Takefumi Suzuki
Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of antipsychotic polypharmacy in a methodologically sound manner. Methods In this open-label study, 17 patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia, who failed to respond to a sequential monotherapy with olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone, were subsequently treated with a combination therapy with olanzapine plus risperidone for at least 8 weeks. Results Seven responded according to the primary endpoint defined as the post-treatment Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale being less than 70% of the pretreatment values, and they were classified as such an average of 10 weeks after the initiation of polypharmacy. Two of them were successful in a later conversion to monotherapy. None dropped out prematurely. Four (out of 13 inpatients) got better enough to be discharged from the hospital, while six patients did not show any response. The Global Assessment of Functioning score improved from 37.1 to 53.0 in responders (mean maximum dose: olanzapine 12.9,mg; risperidone 3.14,mg), while it showed non-significant changes among others (mean maximum dose: olanzapine 14.5,mg; risperidone 5.50,mg). Body weight, prolactin, and total cholesterol increased significantly. Conclusions Antipsychotic polypharmacy might be sometimes helpful for difficult populations but at the cost of adverse effects. More studies of antipsychotic combination therapy versus clozapine, augmentation strategies or tenacious longer- term monotherapy are warranted for refractory schizophrenia. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An open study of risperidone liquid in the acute phase of schizophrenia

Reiji Yoshimura
Abstract An open-label study was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and mechanisms of risperidone liquid in ameliorating positive symptoms in the acute phase of schizophrenia. Eighty-eight patients (M/F: 50/38; age: 18,74 years;, mean±SD =32±16 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and treated with risperidone liquid (14 patients also used lorazepam) were evaluated with regard to their clinical improvement and extrapyramidal side effects using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and the Simpson and Angus scale (SAS), while plasma concentrations of HVA and MHPG were analysed by HPLC-ECD before and 4 weeks after risperidone liquid administration. Patients showing a 50% or greater improvement in PANSS scores were defined as responders. An improvement in the PANSS scores related to excitement, hostility and poor impulse control was seen within 7 days after administration of risperidone liquid, and an improvement with regard to hallucinatory behaviour and uncooperativeness was seen within 14 days after its administration. Finally, 68% of patients were classified as responders 4 weeks after risperidone liquid administration. The scores of SAS were not changed after risperidone liquid administration. Pretreatment plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) levels in the responders (8.1±2.9,ng/ml) were higher than those in nonresponders (5.9±1.9,ng/ml). In addition, a negative correlation was seen between the changes in plasma HVA levels and the percentage of improvement in PANSS scores. On the other hand, there were no differences between pretreatment plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) levels and those of nonresponders. These results suggest that risperidone liquid is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute phase schizophrenic patients, and that efficacy is related to its affects on dopaminergic activity, not noradrenergic activity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The efficacy of reboxetine in the treatment-refractory patients with panic disorder: an open label study

P. N. Dannon
Abstract Background and Objective Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently the first-line treatment for panic disorder, although up to 30% of patients either do not respond to SSRIs or withdraw due to adverse events. Reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (selective NRI), is effective in treating depression and may alleviate depression-related anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of reboxetine in the treatment of patients with panic disorder who did not respond to SSRIs. Method In this 6-week, open-label study, 29 adult outpatients with panic disorder who had previously failed to respond to SSRI treatment received reboxetine 2,mg/day, titrated to a maximum of 8,mg/day over the first 10 days. Efficacy was assessed using the Panic Self-Questionnaire (PSQ), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale. Results The 24 patients who completed the study responded well to reboxetine treatment. Significant improvement (p,<,0.001) was observed in the number of daily panic attacks, and on the scales measuring anxiety, depression and functioning. Reboxetine was generally well tolerated. Five patients withdrew due to adverse events. Conclusions Reboxetine appears to be effective in the treatment of SSRI-refractory panic disorder patients and warrants further clinical investigation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Efficacy of infliximab in pediatric Crohn's disease: A randomized multicenter open-label trial comparing scheduled to on demand maintenance therapy

Frank M. Ruemmele MD
Abstract Background: Infliximab (IFX) is efficacious in inducing remission in severe forms of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Adult studies indicate that IFX is also safe and well tolerated as maintenance therapy. The present study aimed to evaluate in a prospective manner the efficacy and safety of IFX as maintenance therapy of severe pediatric CD comparing scheduled and "on demand" treatment strategies. Methods: Forty children with CD (nonpenetrating, nonstricturing as well as penetrating forms, mean age: 13.9 ± 2.2 years) with a severe flare-up (Harvey,Bradshaw Index [HBI] ,5, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] >20 mm/h) despite well-conducted immunomodulator therapy (n = 36 azathioprine, n = 1 mercaptopurine, n = 3 methotrexate) combined with steroids were included in this randomized, multicenter, open-label study. Three IFX infusions (5 mg/kg) were administered at week (W)0/W2/W6. At W10, clinical remission (HBI <5) and steroid withdrawal were analyzed and IFX responders were randomized to maintenance therapy over 1 year: group A, scheduled every 2 months; group B, "on demand" on relapse. Results: In all, 34/40 children came into remission during IFX induction therapy (HBI: 6.7 ± 2.5 (WO) vs. 1.1 ± 1.5 (W10); P < 0.001). At the end of phase 2, 15/18 (83%) patients were in remission in group A compared to 8/13 (61%) children in group B (P < 0.01), with a mean HBI of 0.5 versus 3.2 points (group A versus B, P = 0.011). In group A, 3/13 (23.1%) children experienced a relapse compared to 11/12 (92%) children in group B. No severe adverse event occurred during this trial. Conclusions: IFX is well tolerated and safe as maintenance therapy for pediatric CD, with a clear advantage when used on a scheduled 2-month basis compared to an "on demand" basis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

Probiotic administration in patients with ileal pouch,anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis is associated with expansion of mucosal regulatory cells

Annamaria Pronio MD
Abstract Background: Probiotics have anti-inflammatory effects in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and appear to regulate mucosal immune response through reductions in proinflammatory cytokines. The probiotic VSL#3 prevents pouchitis if started within a week of ileostomy closure and maintains remission following antibacterial treatment in patients with refractory or recurrent pouchitis. However, the efficacy of probiotics and their effects on regulatory cells if started at a greater time after surgery in patients undergoing ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis are unknown. Methods: We conducted an open-label study in which 31 patients at different periods from surgery without signs and symptoms of pouchitis were randomized to 2 sachets of VSL#3 once daily or no treatment for 12 months. Pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI) was evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 and the inactive form of transforming growth factor-, [latency-associated peptide (LAP)] were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and mucosal biopsies. Variation in tissue interleukin-1, and Foxp3 mRNA expression was also evaluated. Results: During the study period, VSL#3-treated patients showed a significant reduction in PDAI score and a significant increase in the percentage of mucosal CD4+CD25high and CD4+ LAP-positive cells compared with baseline values. Tissue samples at different points showed a significant reduction in IL-1, mRNA expression, and a significant increase in Foxp3 mRNA expression. Conclusions: We conclude that VSL#3 administration in patients with IPAA modulates the PDAI and expands the number of mucosal regulatory T cells. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Long-term oral tacrolimus therapy in refractory to infliximab fistulizing Crohn's disease.

A Pilot Study
Abstract Aims: To evaluate efficacy and safety of oral tacrolimus in cases of fistulizing Crohn's disease (FCD), which is refractory to conventional therapy including infliximab. Methods: Patients with fistulas, previously and unsuccessfully treated with all conventional therapy (i.e., antibiotics, azathioprine, or 6-mercaptopurine and infliximab), were enrolled in a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study of long-term treatment with oral tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg every12 h). The evaluation of the clinical response was complemented by use of the perianal Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) and magnetic resonance imaging-based score (MRS) with determined periodicity. Results: Ten patients were included in the study (enterocutaneous fistula, 3 patients; perianal fistula, 4 patients; rectovaginal fistula, 3 patients) with 6 to 24 months of follow-up. Five patients were steroid-dependent, and 4 patients needed maintenance treatment with immunosuppressant agents. Four patients (40%) achieved complete clinical responses, which were verified by PCDAI and MRS. Five patients (50%) achieved partial responses (i.e., important decreases in fistula drainage, size, discomfort, and PCDAI/MRS values). Decreases in both the PCDAI and MRS were statistically significant (P < 0.05). All steroid-dependent patients stopped therapy with prednisone, and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy was tapered. The response was maintained, and no new flare-up of the disease was observed. Only mild adverse events were detected (1 patient withdrew from treatment due to headache), and no case of nephrotoxicity or diabetes was detected. One patient had received no benefit from therapy after 6 months. Conclusions: Oral tacrolimus could be an effective and safe treatment for patients with FCD, even if there has been no response to infliximab treatment. Randomized studies are needed to compare oral tacrolimus with infliximab in terms of efficacy, safety, and costs. [source]

Effects of flexible-dose fesoterodine on overactive bladder symptoms and treatment satisfaction: an open-label study

J.-J. Wyndaele
Summary Aims:, To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment. Methods:, This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (, 8 micturitions and , 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject's and physician's subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed. Results:, Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p < 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement , 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p < 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified. Conclusion:, Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy. [source]

The effect of tadalafil on psychosocial outcomes in Swedish men with erectile distress: a multicentre, non-randomised, open-label clinical study

Summary A multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study assessed whether personal distress caused by erectile dysfunction (ED) affected psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. Eligible Swedish men at least 18 years old reporting ,3-month history of ED were stratified into two groups (manifest or mild/no distress) based upon a distress question administered at enrolment. Tadalafil 20 mg was taken as needed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference between the two distress groups in change from baseline in the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS) spontaneity domain. Secondary outcome measures were PAIRS sexual self-confidence and time concerns domains, Life Satisfaction (LiSat-11) checklist and a Global Assessment of Treatment Response. The study also assessed tolerability. Of 662 men enrolled, 88% had manifest distress and 12% had mild/no distress. Baseline-to-endpoint changes for PAIRS domains were not significantly different between groups. Baseline-to-endpoint changes in LiSat-11 items were not significantly different between groups except for satisfaction with sexual life. Compared with men without ED, below normal baseline satisfaction with partner relationship and family life were normalised at endpoint. Over 90% of men reported improved erection and ability to engage in sexual activity. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache, myalgia, dyspepsia, flushing and back pain. One man discontinued because of myalgia; 630 (95%) completed the study. In conclusion, erectile distress levels vary among patients with ED and distress can affect intra-familiar aspects of life, which may have implications for clinical practise. However, distress does not appear to hinder improvement in both mechanical and psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. [source]

Pregabalin for peripheral neuropathic pain: results of a multicenter, non-comparative, open-label study in Indian patients

Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety and efficacy of pregabalin in Indian patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. In this prospective, multicenter, non-comparative, open-label study, patients with peripheral neuropathic pain (n = 111) received pregabalin in doses ranging from 75 to 300 mg twice daily for 3 weeks. Primary efficacy measures included weekly pain score and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Despite a short study duration, a significant reduction was seen in weekly pain score (p < 0.0001), as well as VAS score of SF-MPQ (p < 0.0001). Significant improvements were also seen in other pain-related endpoints, weekly sleep interference score, quality of life measures, and patient and clinician ratings of global improvement. Pregabalin was well tolerated, and the most common adverse events were dizziness and somnolence. The short study duration precluded the assessment of longer term safety issues such as weight gain. This study has demonstrated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of pregabalin for peripheral neuropathic pain in Indian patients. [source]

Effectiveness and safety of eprosartan on pulse pressure for the treatment of hypertensive patients

N. R. Robles
Summary A multicentre, prospective, non-comparative open-label study was conducted to assess the effect of eprosartan, 600 mg/day, on pulse pressure (PP) in patients with hypertension (stage I or II, Joint National Committee, sixth report) treated in the primary care setting, as well as safety and compliance. The duration of treatment was 16 weeks. Eprosartan decreased PP (,13 mmHg), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (,26 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (,13 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (,17.4 mmHg) significantly (p < 0.0001). The PP/MAP ratio changed significantly from 62 to 59%, so that the reduction of PP was 3% higher than the overall decrease in MAP. Twenty adverse events, mostly gastrointestinal complaints, were recorded in 12 patients (1.9%). Compliance with treatment at the end of the study was 94%. Eprosartan was a well-tolerated and an effective drug in reducing PP, SBP and DBP below the recommended levels in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension, allowing a high therapeutic compliance. [source]

Clinical efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine in fungal mycetoma

Bassirou N'Diaye MD
Objectives, An open-label study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of terbinafine in the treatment of eumycetoma. Methods, Single-center, open-label study, including 27 patients with signs and symptoms of eumycetoma which had developed within 5 years and was confirmed by mycological examination. The intention-to-treat population (n = 23) received 500 mg of terbinafine bid for 24,48 weeks. Efficacy evaluations included clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. sinuses open or closed, degree of tumefaction, and emission of grains either present or absent); mycological examinations from Week 24 onwards; and investigators' overall assessment of efficacy (cure, improved since baseline, unchanged since baseline, or deterioration since baseline). Safety evaluations included monitoring of adverse events, laboratory assessments, vital signs and physical examinations. Results, Good clinical improvement was seen in patients who completed the study (n = 20). Tumefaction was absent or improved in 80% of patients; sinuses were closed in 50% of patients, and grain emissions were absent in 65% of patients. Of the 16 patients who had repeat mycological assessment, four (25%) were mycologically cured. In the investigators' overall opinion at the end of the study, five (25%) were cured and 11 (55%) were clinically improved. The majority of adverse events reported were mild to moderate, and consistent with the known tolerability profile of terbinafine. Conclusion, High-dose terbinafine (1000 mg/day) is well tolerated and clinically effective in patients with eumycetoma, a difficult-to-treat subcutaneous mycoses. [source]

The European NEAT Program: An Integrated Approach Using Acamprosate and Psychosocial Support for the Prevention of Relapse in Alcohol-Dependent Patients With a Statistical Modeling of Therapy Success Prediction

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2002
Isidore Pelc
Background A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in five European countries to observe outcome in alcohol misusers treated for 24 weeks with acamprosate and various psychosocial support techniques, within the setting of standard patient care. Methods Patients diagnosed as alcohol dependent using DSM-III-R criteria were treated, for 24 weeks, with acamprosate and appropriate psychosocial support. Potential predictor variables were recorded at inclusion. Drinking behavior was monitored throughout; the proportion of cumulative abstinence days was the principal outcome measure. The influence of baseline clinical and demographic variables on outcome was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Adverse events were recorded systematically. Results A total of 1289 patients were recruited; 1230 took at least one dose of the drug and provided at least one set of follow-up data; 543 (42.1%)patients were observed for the full 24-week period. The overall proportion of cumulative abstinence days was 0.48. Multiple physical and psychiatric comorbidities and a history of drug addiction were negatively correlated with outcome, as were, to a lesser extent, multiple previous episodes of detoxification, unemployment, and living alone. Older age and stable employment were positively associated with outcome. The difference in the unadjusted proportion of cumulative abstinence days between countries was significant (p < 0.001) but less so when adjusted for the predictive factors identified in the multivariate model (p < 0.019). Overall, outcome was not influenced by the nature of the psychosocial support provided. Adverse events were generally mild, with gastrointestinal disorders, which occurred in 21.5% of patients, being the most frequent. Conclusions This open-label study confirms the efficacy and safety of acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence in the setting of standard patient care. Treatment benefit was observed irrespective of the nature of the psychosocial support provided. Predictors of the response to treatment were identified; their heterogeneous distribution within the study population explained, at least in part, the differences in outcome between countries. [source]

Imiquimod 5% cream is an acceptable treatment option for external anogenital warts in uncircumcised males

RD Maw
Abstract Objectives To determine the safety and efficacy of imiquimod (AldaraÔ) 5% cream in the treatment of prepuce-associated warts in uncircumcised males. Methods An open-label study in six UK medical centres with 35 uncircumcised males with prepuce-associated warts treated with imiquimod 5% cream three times per week for up to 16 weeks. Other anogenital warts were also treated. Results Three times weekly application of imiquimod was found to be safe, with erythema as the most commonly reported local skin reaction. Forty per cent of patients had complete clearance of anogenital warts within 16 weeks. Conclusions Imiquimod cream at a dosing regimen of three times per week, is effective and has an acceptable safety profile in the treatment of prepuce associated warts and other external anogenital warts in uncircumcised males. [source]

Efficacy and safety of secondary prophylactic vs. on-demand sucrose-formulated recombinant factor VIII treatment in adults with severe hemophilia A: results from a 13-month crossover study

Summary.,Background: Hemarthroses in severe hemophilia precipitate physical, psychosocial and financial difficulties. Objective: To compare the effects of secondary prophylaxis with on-demand sucrose-formulated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII-FS) therapy in severe hemophilia A. Patients and methods: This open-label study included patients aged 30,45 years with factor VIII (FVIII) coagulant activity < 1 IU dL,1 who were using on-demand FVIII treatment. Patients were treated with rFVIII-FS on demand for 6 months, followed by 7 months prophylaxis (20,40 IU kg,1, three times per week, with the first month considered a run-in). The primary endpoint was the number of hemarthroses. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled (n = 19 completed); the mean age was 36.4 years, and 16 had target joints. The median (25,75%) number of joint bleeds decreased significantly with prophylaxis [0 (0,3)] vs. on-demand [15 (11,26); P < 0.001] therapy. The number of all bleeds was 0 (0,3) vs. 20.5 (14,37; P < 0.001), respectively. Median (range) total Gilbert scores improved after prophylaxis [18 (3,39)] compared with on-demand [25 (4,46)] therapy, predominantly reflecting the improved bleeding score. Median time from last prophylactic infusion to bleed was 2 days; 82.5% of bleeds occurred 2,3 days after the last infusion. Median 48-h and 72-h FVIII trough levels measured during months 10 and 13 were consistently > 6 and > 4 IU dL,1, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, and no inhibitor formation was observed. Conclusion: Secondary prophylaxis with rFVIII-FS significantly reduced the frequency of hemarthroses compared with on-demand therapy in adult patients with severe hemophilia A. [source]