Opening Displacement (opening + displacement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Opening Displacement

  • crack opening displacement


  • Selected Abstracts


    On the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 3 2009
    A. J. McEVILY
    ABSTRACT This note discusses the cyclic crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)cyc. As is discussed, the correct expression for the (CTOD)cyc is based upon the effective range of the stress intensity factor. [source]


    ,25 Crack opening displacement parameter in cohesive zone models: experiments and simulations in asphalt concrete

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 10 2008
    S. H. SONG
    ABSTRACT Recent work with fracture characterization of asphalt concrete has shown that a cohesive zone model (CZM) provides insight into the fracture process of the materials. However, a current approach to estimate fracture energy, i.e., in terms of area of force versus crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD), for asphalt concrete overpredicts its magnitude. Therefore, the ,25 parameter, which was inspired by the ,5 concept of Schwalbe and co-workers, is proposed as an operational definition of a crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). The ,25 measurement is incorporated into an experimental study of validation of its usefulness with asphalt concrete, and is utilized to estimate fracture energy. The work presented herein validates the ,25 parameter for asphalt concrete, describes the experimental techniques for utilizing the ,25 parameter, and presents three-dimensional (3D) CZM simulations with a specially tailored cohesive relation. The integration of the ,25 parameter and new cohesive model has provided further insight into the fracture process of asphalt concrete with relatively good agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations. [source]


    Crack opening displacement in plate with bonded repair patch

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2006
    M. M. RATWANI
    ABSTRACT Mathematical techniques are extended to compute crack opening displacements in a cracked plate with an adhesively bonded composite patch. The plate and the patch are considered as orthotropic materials. The problem is reduced to the solution of integral equations. A software program is written to compute shear stresses in adhesive, stress intensity factors in the plate and the crack openings at the centreline of the crack. The effects of adhesive thickness, adhesive modulus, patch thickness and plate thickness on crack openings are investigated. A test program is carried out to obtain crack opening displacements in plate with bonded patch. A good agreement with analytical predictions is obtained. The effects of patches bonded on one or both sides of a plate on stress intensity factors are evaluated. [source]


    Nanoscopic fatigue and stress corrosion crack growth behaviour in a high-strength stainless steel visualized in situ by atomic force microscopy

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 11 2005
    K. MINOSHIMA
    ABSTRACT In situ atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging of the fatigue and stress corrosion (SC) crack in a high-strength stainless steel was performed, under both static and dynamic loading. The AFM systems used were (1) a newly developed AFM-based system for analysing the nanoscopic topographies of environmentally induced damage under dynamic loads in a controlled environment and (2) an AFM system having a large sample stage together with a static in-plane loading device. By using these systems, in situ serial clear AFM images of an environmentally induced crack under loading could be obtained in a controlled environment, such as in dry air for the fatigue and in an aqueous solution for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The intergranular static SC crack at the free corrosion had a sharp crack tip when it grew straight along a grain boundary. The in situ AFM observations showed that the fatigue crack grew in a steady manner on the order of sub-micrometre. The same result was obtained for the static SC crack under the free corrosion, growing straight along a grain boundary. In these cases, the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) remained constant. However, as the static SC crack was approaching a triple grain junction, the growth rate became smaller, the CTOD value increased and the hollow ahead of the crack tip became larger. After the crack passed through the triple grain junction, it grew faster with a lower CTOD value; the changes in the CTOD value agreed with those of the crack growth rate. At the cathodic potential, the static SC crack grew in a zigzag path and in an unsteady manner, showing crack growth acceleration and retardation. This unsteady crack growth was considered to be due to the changes in the local hydrogen content near the crack tip. The changes in the CTOD value also agreed with those of the crack growth rate. The CTOD value in the corrosive environment was influenced by the microstructure of the material and the local hydrogen content, showing a larger scatter band, whereas the CTOD value of the fatigue crack in dry air was determined by the applied stress intensity factor, with a smaller scatter band. In addition, the CTOD value in the corrosive environment under both static and dynamic loading was smaller than that of the fatigue crack; the environmentally induced crack had a sharper crack tip than the fatigue crack in dry air. [source]


    Hypersingular integral equation method for three-dimensional crack problem in shear mode

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2004
    Y. Z. ChenArticle first published online: 19 APR 200
    Abstract This paper presents the use of the hypersingular integral equation method for solving the flat crack problem in shear mode. In the method, the crack opening displacement (COD) functions are assumed to be polynomials with several undetermined coefficients. The involved hypersingular integral can be reduced into a repeat integral in a particular polar co-ordinate, and further integrated by a known quadrature rule. This technique considerably reduces the effort of derivation and computation to obtain the final solution. The undetermined coefficients in the COD functions are obtained from an algebraic equation. The stress intensity factors (SIF) along the boundary of the flat crack can then be easily calculated. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    An enriched meshless method for non-linear fracture mechanics

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2004
    B. N. Rao
    Abstract This paper presents an enriched meshless method for fracture analysis of cracks in homogeneous, isotropic, non-linear-elastic, two-dimensional solids, subject to mode-I loading conditions. The method involves an element-free Galerkin formulation and two new enriched basis functions (Types I and II) to capture the Hutchinson,Rice,Rosengren singularity field in non-linear fracture mechanics. The Type I enriched basis function can be viewed as a generalized enriched basis function, which degenerates to the linear-elastic basis function when the material hardening exponent is unity. The Type II enriched basis function entails further improvements of the Type I basis function by adding trigonometric functions. Four numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed method. The boundary layer analysis indicates that the crack-tip field predicted by using the proposed basis functions matches with the theoretical solution very well in the whole region considered, whether for the near-tip asymptotic field or for the far-tip elastic field. Numerical analyses of standard fracture specimens by the proposed meshless method also yield accurate estimates of the J -integral for the applied load intensities and material properties considered. Also, the crack-mouth opening displacement evaluated by the proposed meshless method is in good agreement with finite element results. Furthermore, the meshless results show excellent agreement with the experimental measurements, indicating that the new basis functions are also capable of capturing elastic,plastic deformations at a stress concentration effectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Micromechanical analysis of silicon nitride: a comparative study by fracture mechanics and Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, Issue 9 2002
    Shigemi Tochino
    Raman microprobe spectroscopy was used to characterize in situ microstress fields which develop during fracture of a toughened silicon nitride (Si3N4) polycrystal. Maps of microscopic stress were collected in the neighborhood of a propagating crack both at zero and at critical loading conditions. Micromechanics results by Raman spectroscopy were analyzed and compared with conventional fracture mechanics assessments, such as the evaluation of rising R -curve behavior and crack opening displacement. Outcomes of these assessments illustrate that, despite the approximations involved in the piezo-spectroscopic equations used for calculating the microstress field from a local Raman shift, Raman microprobe spectroscopy is a viable method for semi-quantitative investigations of microfracture mechanisms in advanced ceramic materials. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Effects of Matrix Cracks on the Thermal Diffusivity of a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 9 2001
    Kathleen R. McDonald
    Effects of matrix cracks and the attendant interface debonding and sliding on both the longitudinal and the transverse thermal diffusivities of a unidirectional Nicalon/MAS composite are investigated. The diffusivity measurements are made in situ during tensile testing using a phase-sensitive photothermal technique. The contribution to the longitudinal thermal resistance from each of the cracks is determined from the longitudinal diffusivity along with measurements of crack density. By combining the transverse measurements with the predictions of an effective medium model, the thermal conductance of the interface (characterized by a Biot number) is determined and found to decrease with increasing crack opening displacement, from an initial value of ,1 to ,0.3. This degradation is attributed to the deleterious effects of interface sliding on the thermal conductance. Corroborating evidence of degradation in the interface conductance is obtained from the inferred crack conductances coupled with a unit cell model for a fiber composite containing a periodic array of matrix cracks. Additional notable features of the material behavior include: (i) reductions of ,20% in both the longitudinal and the transverse diffusivities at stresses near the ultimate strength, (ii) almost complete recovery of the longitudinal diffusivity following unloading, and (iii) essentially no change in the transverse diffusivity following unloading. The recovery of the longitudinal diffusivity is attributed to closure of the matrix cracks. By contrast, the degradation in the interface conductance is permanent, as manifest in the lack of recovery of the transverse diffusivity. [source]


    Thermal Conductance of Delamination Cracks in a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 3 2000
    Kathleen R. McDonald
    The thermal conductance of delamination cracks in a unidirectionally reinforced ceramic composite is investigated. A phase-sensitive photothermal technique is used to measure the crack conductance in situ under load. Special emphasis is given to the effects of the local crack opening displacement (,). A crack conductance model that considers the contributions from both the air and the fibers within the crack is developed and compared with the measurements. Despite considerable scatter in the experimental data, the model adequately predicts the increased conductance that is associated with fiber bridging, as well as the overall trend that is observed with ,. [source]


    On the calculation of crack face opening displacements in fiber reinforced composites under plane loading

    PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2009
    Mike Richter
    This paper concerns with the calculation of the crack face opening displacement in fiber reinforced composites using analytical, semi-analytical and numerical approaches. Crack bridging is one of the most characteristic effects of fibers on the material behavior of the composite. Knowing the crack face opening displacement the additional strain due to cracks can be calculated and used in homogenization procedures. ( 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Crack opening displacement in plate with bonded repair patch

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2006
    M. M. RATWANI
    ABSTRACT Mathematical techniques are extended to compute crack opening displacements in a cracked plate with an adhesively bonded composite patch. The plate and the patch are considered as orthotropic materials. The problem is reduced to the solution of integral equations. A software program is written to compute shear stresses in adhesive, stress intensity factors in the plate and the crack openings at the centreline of the crack. The effects of adhesive thickness, adhesive modulus, patch thickness and plate thickness on crack openings are investigated. A test program is carried out to obtain crack opening displacements in plate with bonded patch. A good agreement with analytical predictions is obtained. The effects of patches bonded on one or both sides of a plate on stress intensity factors are evaluated. [source]


    Closure of plane-strain cracks under large-scale yielding conditions

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 2 2002
    C. H. Wang
    Abstract ,This paper presents computational and theoretical investigations of the plasticity-induced crack-closure of a plane-strain crack under large-scale yielding conditions. Solutions of the crack-tip opening displacements for a stationary crack and a growing fatigue crack have been obtained using the finite element method. The self-similar crack-closure model has been extended to the plane strain case by introducing two plastic constraint factors: one for tension yielding and the other for compression yielding. These two plastic constraint factors are identified by matching the model predictions with the computational results. It is shown that the first constraint factor decreases rapidly with the applied stress while the second constraint factor is approximately equal to unity. The findings of this study allow the cohesive-zone based crack-closure model to be extended to plane-strain cracks, especially under large-scale yielding conditions. [source]


    Dual boundary element method for anisotropic dynamic fracture mechanics

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, Issue 9 2004
    E. L. Albuquerque
    Abstract In this work, the dual boundary element method formulation is developed for effective modelling of dynamic crack problems. The static fundamental solutions are used and the domain integral, which comes from the inertial term, is transformed into boundary integrals using the dual reciprocity technique. Dynamic stress intensity factors are computed from crack opening displacements. Comparisons are made with quasi-isotropic as well as anisotropic results, using the sub-region technique. Several examples are presented to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    On the calculation of crack face opening displacements in fiber reinforced composites under plane loading

    PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2009
    Mike Richter
    This paper concerns with the calculation of the crack face opening displacement in fiber reinforced composites using analytical, semi-analytical and numerical approaches. Crack bridging is one of the most characteristic effects of fibers on the material behavior of the composite. Knowing the crack face opening displacement the additional strain due to cracks can be calculated and used in homogenization procedures. ( 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]