Ongoing Process (ongoing + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts

"THEY COME IN PEASANTS AND LEAVE CITIZENS": Urban Villages and the Making of Shenzhen, China

ABSTRACT This essay examines the ongoing process of postsocialist transformation at the intersection of cultural and economic forces in an urban environment through the example of the so-called "urban villages"(chengzhongcun) in Shenzhen, China, a booming southern Chinese city and former Special Economic Zone next to Hong Kong. This essay ethnographically examines the role of former rural collectives encircled by a city that has exploded from farmland to an export-driven city of over 14 million people in little over one generation. These villages form an internal other that is both the antithesis and the condition of possibility for Shenzhen city. By co-opting the market economy in ways that weave them into the fabric of the contemporary global city, the villages become as much an experiment as the Special Economic Zone itself. This essay analyzes the urban,rural divide as complicit in each other's continued production and effacement and explores how village and city exploit the ambiguities of their juxtaposition in the making of Shenzhen. [source]

Sediment production in large gullies of the Mediterranean area (NE Spain) from high-resolution digital elevation models and geographical information systems analysis

J. A. Martínez-Casasnovas
Abstract Recent studies in the Mediterranean area have shown gully erosion to have a very significant contribution to total soil loss. In the Penedès vineyard region (NE Spain), between 15 and 27% of the land is affected by large gullies and gully-wall retreat seems to be an ongoing process. Multi-date digital elevation model (DEM) analysis has allowed computation of sediment production by gully erosion, showing that the sediment production rates are very high by the, up-to-date, usual global standards. Here, we present a study carried out using large-scale multi-date (1975 and 1995) aerial photographs (1 : 5000 and 1 : 7000) to monitor sediment yield caused by large gullies in the Penedès region (NE Spain). High-resolution DEMs (1 m grid) were derived and analysed by means of geographical information systems techniques to determine the gully erosion rates. Rainfall characteristics within the same study period were also analysed in order to correlate with the soil loss produced. Mass movement was the main process contributing to total sediment production. This process could have been favoured by rainfalls recorded during the period: 58% of the events were of an erosive character and showed high kinetic energy and erosivity. A sediment production rate of 846 ± 40 Mg ha,1 year,1, a sediment deposition rate of 270 ± 18 Mg ha,1 year,1 and a sediment delivery ratio of 68·1% were computed for a gully area of 0·10 km2. The average net erosion within the study period (1975,95) was 576 ± 58 Mg ha,1 year,1. In comparison with other methods, the proposed method also includes sediment produced by processes other than only overland flow, i.e. downcutting, headcutting, and mass movements and bank erosion. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


In their twenty years since their entry into Australia, foreign bank performance has been considered a failure. This paper will canvass this and related issues and argue that some of these perceptions may have been based upon inappropriate expectations. It will be argued that the foreign banks have been an important component in the ongoing process of Australian financial system efficiency improvement and globalisation. [source]

Allocating treatment options to patient profiles: clinical art or science?

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2006
Gerhard Bühringer
ABSTRACT Background For many researchers, the disappointing results of Project MATCH were the death blow for any further activities in the field of patient,treatment interactions. On the other hand, we have an increased knowledge of patient heterogeneity and a greater variety of treatment options than before, and allocation guidelines for an ongoing process of patient-placement decisions are of high practical relevance. Aims To analyse deficits in the current research and to provide suggestions for future action. Findings It is argued that (1) certain major design aspects of Project MATCH and other research studies,such as stringent patient exclusion criteria and low treatment ,dosage',minimize the chances of detecting possible patient,treatment interactions and (2) Project MATCH obscures our view of previous treatment-allocation research findings., Conclusions Several research strategies and specific research topics are suggested for (1) improving the theoretical and methodological basis for detecting possible patient,treatment interactions and (2) stimulating research on major treatment decision needs, such as site, setting, time in treatment (extensiveness and intensity), service components and specific treatment modules. More international research cooperation is needed to clarify the inconsistent findings. [source]

Globalizing Disaster Trauma: Psychiatry, Science, and Culture after the Kobe Earthquake

ETHOS, Issue 2 2000
Joshua Breslau
In January of 1995 a massive earthquake struck the city of Kobe, Japan. This article examines how this event became an opportunity for extending global networks of the science and medicine of trauma. The article is based on ethnographic research in Kobe and Los Angeles with psychiatrists who responded to the earthquake in its immediate aftermath. Three aspects of the process are examined: 1) changes in psychiatric institutions that were ongoing at the time of the earthquake, 2) the place of psychiatry in Japanese cultural self-criticism, and 3) the particular technologies for identifying and treating trauma. Globalization in this case cannot be seen as an imposition of Western cultural forms, but rather an ongoing process that reproduces differences between cultures as particular elements travel between them. [source]

A role for endogenous reverse transcriptase in tumorigenesis and as a target in differentiating cancer therapy

Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona
An unexpected result emerging from completion of the genome sequencing project is that a large portion of mammalian genomes is constituted by retrotransposons. A large body of published data supports the conclusion that retrotransposons are biologically active elements and indicates that retrotransposition is an ongoing process in mammalian genomes. Retroelements can act as insertional mutagens altering the coding integrity of genes and, recently, have been found to also affect the expression of cellular genes at the epigenetic level: in this light, they are a potential threat in that these events can trigger the onset of several pathologies including cancer. Retroelement genes, and particularly the gene coding for reverse transcriptase (RT), are typically expressed at high levels in transformed cells and tumors. In recent work, we have found that drug-mediated inhibition of the endogenous RT activity, or silencing of expression of active retrotransposons of the LINE-1 family by RNA interference, down-regulate cell growth and induce the activation of differentiating functions in several cancer cell lines. Moreover, the inhibition of endogenous RT activity in vivo antagonizes the growth of human tumors in animal models. In this review, we discuss newly emerging concepts on the role of retrotransposons and suggest that an abnormally high level of the RT activity that they encode may contribute to the loss of control in the proliferation and differentiation programs typical of transformed cells. In this light, RT-coding elements may be regarded as promising targets in the development of novel, differentiation-inducing approaches to cancer therapy. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ABSTRACT Recognizing the contingent entanglement between historiography's social and political roles and the conception of the discipline as purely factual, this essay provides a detailed analysis of "revision" and its connection to "revisionism." This analysis uses a philosophical approach that begins with the commonplaces of our understanding as expressed in dictionaries, which are compared and contrasted to display relevant confusions. The essay then turns to examining the questions posed by History and Theory's Call for Papers announcing its Theme Issue on Revision in History, and, where philosophically relevant, answers them. The issue of paradigm change proved to be quite significant and required particular attention. A "paradigm" is analyzed in terms of Quine's "web of belief," and that web is itself explained as an ongoing process of revision, in analogy with Rawls's concept of pure procedural justice. Adopting this approach helps clarify the entanglement between politics and historiographical revision. [source]

Decision making using time-dependent knowledge: knowledge augmentation using qualitative reasoning

Song Jin Yu
In this paper we propose a method to enhance the performance of knowledge-based decision-support systems, knowledge of which is volatile and incomplete by nature in a dynamically changing situation, by providing meta-knowledge augmented by the Qualitative Reasoning (QR) approach. The proposed system intends to overcome the potential problem of completeness of the knowledge base. Using the deep meta-knowledge incorporated into the QR module, along with the knowledge we gain from applying inductive learning, we then identify the ongoing process and amplify the effects of each pending process to the attribute values. In doing so, we apply the QR models to enhance or reveal the patterns which are otherwise less obvious. The enhanced patterns can eventually be used to improve the classification of the data samples. The success factor hinges on the completeness of the QR process knowledge base. With enough processes taking place, the influences of each process will lead prediction in a direction that can reflect more of the current trend. The preliminary results are successful and shed light on the smooth introduction of Qualitative Reasoning to the business domain from the physical laboratory application. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Revisiting the evaluation of clinical practice

Matthew J Leach PhD BN(Hons) ND RN MATMS
The evaluation of patient care is an ongoing process that is aimed at improving clinical outcomes, as well as advancing clinical practice. However, a number of elements need to be taken into account when evaluating clinical practice, including social, structural and process factors. Consideration of these factors, together with comprehensive and holistic assessment, clinical expertise, reflective thinking, and valid and reliable instrumentation, will allow practitioners to better evaluate clinical care, and in effect, improve client outcomes. [source]

Analyzing Focus Group Data: Content and Interaction

Erin Rothwell PhD
Erin Rothwell Column Editor: Lauren Clark Scientific Inquiry provides a forum to facilitate the ongoing process of questioning and evaluating practice, presents informed practice based on available data, and innovates new practices through research and experimental learning. [source]

Exploring strategic priorities for regional agricultural R&D investments in East and Central Africa

Liangzhi You
O13; O32; O55; Q16 Abstract The 11 countries of East and Central Africa have diverse but overlapping agroclimatic conditions, and could potentially benefit from spillovers of agricultural technology across country borders. This article uses high-resolution spatial data on actual and potential yields for 15 major products across 12 development domains to estimate the total benefits available from the spread of new agricultural technologies around the region. Market responses and welfare gains are estimated using the,Dynamic Research Evaluation for Management,model, taking account of current and future projections of local and international demand. Results suggest which crops, countries, and agroclimatic regions offer the largest total benefits. Downloadable data and program files permit different assumptions and additional information to be considered in the ongoing process of strategic priority setting. [source]

An ongoing process of inner negotiation , a Grounded Theory study of self-management among people living with chronic illness

Åsa Audulv RN
Aim., The aim of this study was to better understand the main concern of self-management processes among people with chronic illness. Background., One aspect of living with chronic illness is self-management that can reduce the illness impact on daily life and promote future health. Although factors that influence self-management have been identified in previous research, little attention has been brought to the process of making self-management decisions. In clinical settings, use of a theory could facilitate patient-empowering approaches. Method., The data collection for this Grounded Theory was mostly conducted in 2006. Data were collected by interviews with 26 adults with a variety of chronic illnesses, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis, ischaemic heart disease and chronic kidney failure. Results., Individuals are conflicted by competing preferences when taking decisions about self-management. Consequently, the decision-making process can be understood as an ongoing inner negotiation between different incompatible perspectives, e.g. social needs vs. medical needs. The process of negotiating self-management starts with the individual's considering beliefs about health and illness, which make the individual face illness threats and the need for self-management. Several aspects influence negotiating self-management namely, assessing effects of self-management; evaluating own capacity; perceiving normality or stigmatisation; and experiencing support and external resources. The process has been demonstrated in a model. Conclusions., The process of negotiating self-management is an ongoing inner debate rather than a one-time decision. This opens up new ways of understanding, and communicating with, patients. The described model also links behavioural theories and research findings in a comprehensive understanding. Relevance to clinical practice., This model could be applicable as a communication tool for health-care providers in identifying barriers to, and resources in, self-management behaviour among individuals with chronic illness. [source]

Creating relevant science through urban planning and gardening

Dana Fusco
The purpose of this article is to describe a community-based science project that was coproduced with urban teenagers and to elaborate on my understanding of what it means to create a practicing culture of science learning. This understanding will be positioned in relation to various educationally relevant discourses and research on urban science education, concluding with an exploration of these questions: In what ways did an urban planning and community gardening project help to create a learning environment in which science was relevant? To whom was science relevant and toward what ends? It is argued that in a practicing culture of science learning, science was relevant because (a) it was created from participants' concerns, interests, and experiences inside and outside science, (b) it was an ongoing process of researching and then enacting ideas, and (c) it was situated within the broader community. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 38: 860,877, 2001 [source]

Mapping the nation: street names and Arab-Palestinian identity: three case studies

Maoz Azaryahu
The naming of streets is part of the ongoing process of mapping the boundaries of the nation. This article examines three sets of Arab-Palestinian street names , pre-1948 Haifa and Jerusalem and post-1948 Umm el Fahm , as locally constructed ,texts of identity' in the historical and political context of their official creation. The investigation aims at charting the ideological orientations represented and the political messages entailed in these three different textual manifestations of Arab-Palestinian national identity. The analysis focuses on notions of historical and cultural heritage as expressed in the choice of street names. Finally, it offers an interpretative evaluation of this process, placing it within broader ideological and historical contexts. [source]

Qualitative research from a feminist perspective in the postmodern era: methodological, ethical and reflexive concerns

Carmel SeiboldArticle first published online: 25 DEC 200
Qualitative research from a feminist perspective in the postmodern era: methodological, ethical and reflexive concerns Developing methodology is an ongoing process in certain types of qualitative research. This paper describes the process in a study of single midlife women, detailing reflexive concerns on the ethics of data collection and dissemination of research findings from a feminist postmodern perspective, as well as the way in which modification of techniques of analysis occurred as the study progressed. Beginning research questions were concerned with identifying the impact of menopausal symptoms, and the debate surrounding HRT on the lives and decision-making processes of single midlife women. Initial analysis of data, using grounded theory techniques, indicated a need to place greater emphasis on the way the women constructed or talked about the self, including the embodied self. This led to an exploration of the literature relating to reflexivity, identity construction and embodiment, including feminist poststructuralist interpretations of the discursive and embodied construction of self, and informed both the theoretical framework and the method. The way in which a type of analysis fitting under the broad rubric of discourse analysis, that is one that gave added emphasis to gendered subjectivity, directed further analysis is discussed, as well as the influence on the women of social and scientific discourses in circulation. [source]

The United Nations as a Vehicle for Dialogue

PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 4 2003
Courtney B. Smith
The United Nations (UN) proclaimed 2001 as the Year of Dialogue among Civilizations in an effort to examine how confrontation and hostility in world politics could be replaced by discourse and understanding. However, in the midst of this process the world was witness to the tragic events of September 11, 2001. Since terrorism represents the antithesis to dialogue, the UN's discussion of these issues became more urgent and focused. Two major documents were produced, but they do not explore adequately the United Nations' potential role in regard to building dialogue. This article begins this undertaking by considering the UN as a forum for debate where different peoples of the world meet and as a catalyst for an ongoing process of interaction and change. In other words, serious thinking about the UN's role as a vehicle for dialogue requires appreciating both its passive and dynamic characteristics and functions. [source]

,Dark Matter': Institutional Constraints and the Failure of Party-based Euroscepticism in Germany

Charles Lees
The article is built on four propositions. First, there is a latent potential within the German polity for the mobilisation of what remains a significant level of popular unease about aspects of the ongoing process of European integration. Second, at present this potential is unfulfilled and, as a result, Euroscepticism remains the ,dark matter' of German politics. Third, the absence of a clearly stated Eurosceptical agenda is not due to the inherent ,enlightenment' of the German political class about the European project, but rather is the result of systemic disincentives shaping the preferences of rational acting politicians. Finally, these systemic disincentives are to be found within the formal institutions of the German polity. The key ideas here are of ,hard' versus ,soft' Eurosceptical narratives, sustained versus heresthetic agendas, and ,polis constraining' versus ,polis shaping' strategies for their promotion. Political agents' choice of strategy depends on the nature of the institutional setting within which they are operating. The institutional configuration of the Federal Republic provides poor returns for party-based Euroscepticism. The mobilisation of popular unease about aspects of European integration remains an unattractive option for rational acting political agents. [source]

Intensification of workplace regimes in British horticulture: the role of migrant workers

Ben Rogaly
Abstract In Britain, international migrants have very recently become the major workforce in labour-intensive horticulture. This paper explores the causes of the dramatic increase since the 1990s in the employment of migrant workers in this subsector. It locates this major change in a general pattern of intensification of horticultural production driven by an ongoing process of concentration in retailer power, and in the greater availability of migrant workers, shaped in part by state initiatives to manage immigration. The paper draws on concepts developed in the US literature on agrarian capitalism. It then uses case histories from British horticulture to illustrate how growers have directly linked innovations involving intensification through labour control to their relationships with retailers. Under pressure on ,quality', volume and price, growers are found to have ratcheted up the effort required from workers to achieve the minimum wage through reducing the rates paid for piecework, and in some cases to have changed the type of labour contractor they use to larger, more anonymous businesses. The paper calls for further, commodity-specific and spatially-aware research with a strong ethnographic component. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Numerical investigations on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste and mortar

Thorsten Leusmann
Autogenous shrinkage of cement paste and concrete is defined as the macroscopic length change occurring with no moisture transferred to the exterior surrounding environment. It is a result of chemical shrinkage affiliated with the hydration of cement particles and the ongoing process of self-desiccation. The process of self-desiccation can be modeled starting from the formation of the capillary pore space during hydration in the cement paste. In this proposal a working model will be introduced explaining the difficulties to obtain the autogenous shrinkage strains directly from a simulated or measured microstructure of cement paste. In a second step the autogenous shrinkage of a hardening cement mortar was described on a mesoscopic level. It based on measurements on cement paste. The mortar simply consists of cement paste and a defined fraction of spherical aggregates with a known modulus of elasticity. Furthermore the influence of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is studied in numerical simulations. The results of these finite-element-calculations are introduced and compared with testing results of the autogenous shrinkage of hardening mortar samples. (© 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Impacts of Restored Patch Density and Distance from Natural Forests on Colonization Success

Hans Jacquemyn
Abstract The reduction and fragmentation of forest habitats is expected to have profound effects on plant species diversity as a consequence of the decreased area and increased isolation of the remnant patches. To stop the ongoing process of forest fragmentation, much attention has been given recently to the restoration of forest habitat. The present study investigates restoration possibilities of recently established patches with respect to their geographical isolation. Because seed dispersal events over 100 m are considered to be of long distance, a threshold value of 100 m between recent and old woodland was chosen to define isolation. Total species richness, individual patch species richness, frequency distributions in species occurrences, and patch occupancy patterns of individual species were significantly different among isolated and nonisolated stands. In the short term no high species richness is to be expected in isolated stands. Establishing new forests adjacent to existing woodland ensures higher survival probabilities of existing populations. In the long term, however, the importance of long-distance seed dispersal should not be underestimated because most species showed occasional long-distance seed dispersal. A clear distinction should be made between populations colonizing adjacent patches and patches isolated from old woodland. The colonization of isolated stands may have important effects on the dynamics and diversity of forest networks, and more attention should be directed toward the genetic traits and viability of founding populations in isolated stands. [source]

Transformations in dreaming and characters in the psychoanalytic field,

Antonino Ferro
Having reviewed certain similarities and differences between the various psychoanalytic models (historical reconstruction/development of the container and of the mind's metabolic and transformational function; the significance to be attributed to dream-type material; reality gradients of narrations; tolerability of truth/lies as polar opposites; and the form in which characters are understood in a psychoanalytic session), the author uses clinical material to demonstrate his conception of a session as a virtual reality in which the central operation is transformation in dreaming (de-construction, de-concretization, and re-dreaming), accompanied in particular by the development of this attitude in both patient and analyst as an antidote to the operations of transformation in hallucinosis that bear witness to the failure of the functions of meaning generation. The theoretical roots of this model are traced in the concept of the field and its developments as a constantly expanding oneiric holographic field; in the developments of Bion's ideas (waking dream thought and its derivatives, and the patient as signaller of the movements of the field); and in the contributions of narratology (narrative transformations and the transformations of characters and screenplays). Stress is also laid on the transition from a psychoanalysis directed predominantly towards contents to a psychoanalysis that emphasizes the development of the instruments for dreaming, feeling, and thinking. An extensive case history and a session reported in its entirety are presented so as to convey a living impression of the ongoing process, in the consulting room, of the unsaturated co-construction of an emotional reality in the throes of continuous transformation. The author also describes the technical implications of this model in terms of forms of interpretation, the countertransference, reveries, and, in particular, how the analyst listens to the patient's communications. The paper ends with an exploration of the concepts of grasping (in the sense of clinging to the known) and casting (in relation to what is as yet undefined but seeking representation and transformation) as a further oscillation of the minds of the analyst and the patient in addition to those familiar from classical psychoanalysis. [source]

Making knowledge: explorations of the indissoluble relation between minds, bodies, and environment

Trevor H.J. Marchand
There is growing recognition among social and natural scientists that nature or nurture should not be studied in isolation, for their interdependence is not trivial, but vital. The aim of this volume is to progress anthropology's thinking about human knowledge by exploring the interdependence of nurture with nature; and more specifically the interdependence of minds, bodies, and environments. This introductory essay begins with an overview of the (often conflicting) positions that dominated the ,anthropology of knowledge' in the closing decades of the last century before proceeding to a discussion of recent convergences between cognitivists, phenomenologists, and practice theorists in their ,thinking about knowing'. In the following section I use my own studies with craftspeople to reflect on apprenticeship as both a mode of learning and a field method, since the majority of authors included in this volume also took up apprenticeships of one form or another. Next, the idea that ,cognition is individual' is firmly established, but it is equally conceded that ,making knowledge' is a process entailing interaction between interlocutors and practitioners with their total environment. Before concluding with a summary of the scope and contents of the volume, I briefly present a theory of ,shared production' in knowledge-making that draws upon recent literature in cognitive linguistics and neuroscience. Making knowledge, after all, is an ongoing process shared between people and with the world. Résumé Les chercheurs en sciences sociales et naturelles sont de plus en plus nombreux à reconnaître qu'il ne faut pas étudier séparément l'inné et l'acquis car leur interdépendance, loin d'être négligeable, est vitale. Le présent volume a pour but de faire progresser la réflexion anthropologique sur les connaissances humaines en explorant les interdépendances entre inné et acquis, et plus précisément l'interdépendance des esprits, des corps et des environnements. À titre d'introduction, le présent essai commence par une vue d'ensemble des prises de position (souvent conflictuelles) qui ont dominé« l'anthropologie de la connaissance » pendant les dernières décennies du XXe siècle, avant d'aborder les récentes convergences entre cognitivistes, phénoménologues et théoriciens de la pratique, dans leur « réflexion sur la connaissance ». Dans la section suivante, l'auteur s'appuie sur ses propres études des artisans pour réfléchir sur l'apprentissage, à la fois comme mode d'apprentissage et comme méthode de terrain, puisque la plupart des auteurs intervenant dans ce volume ont aussi entrepris l'une ou l'autre forme d'apprentissage. L'idée que « la cognition est individuelle » est ensuite solidement établie, mais il est également concédé que la « fabrication de connaissances » est un processus impliquant une interaction entre les interlocuteurs et praticiens et leur environnement global. Avant de conclure par un résumé de la portée et la teneur de ce volume, je présenterai rapidement une théorie de la « production partagée » de connaissances qui s'inspire de récentes publications en linguistique cognitive et en neurosciences. En définitive, la fabrication de connaissances est un processus continu, partagéentre les gens et avec le monde. [source]

The Economics of Organization Structure Changes: a US perspective on demutualization

Fabio R. Chaddad
We document waves of demutualization and review the empirical literature examining the economics of organizational structure changes that have occurred in the US savings and loan and insurance industries since the 1980s. Based on the review of the literature on the economics of conversions, we generate a set of general observations that might inform private and public policy perspectives on the future role of user owned and controlled organizations in market economies. In doing so, the paper may serve as a platform for further discussion among scholars, policymakers, practitioners, and cooperative leaders in their quest to understand and affect the ongoing process of demutualization. [source]

Local richness and distribution of the lizard fauna in natural habitat mosaics of the Brazilian Cerrado

Abstract We investigate local lizard richness and distribution in central Brazilian Cerrado, harbouring one of the least studied herpetofaunas in the Neotropical region. Our results are based on standardized samplings at 10 localities, involving 2917 captures of 57 lizard species in 10 families. Local richness values exceeded most presented in earlier studies and varied from 13 to 28 species, with modal values between 19 and 28 species. Most of the Cerrado lizard fauna is composed of habitat-specialists with patchy distributions in the mosaic of grasslands, savannas and forests, resulting in habitat-structured lizard assemblages. Faunal overlap between open and forested habitats is limited, and forested and open areas may act as mutual barriers to lizard distribution. Habitat use is influenced by niche conservatism in deep lineages, with iguanians and gekkotans showing higher use of forested habitats, whereas autarchoglossans are richer and more abundant in open habitats. Contrary to trends observed in Cerrado birds and large mammals, lizard richness is significantly higher in open, interfluvial habitats that dominate the Cerrado landscape. Between-localities variation in lizard richness seems tied to geographical distance, landscape history and phylogenetic constraints, factors operating in other well-studied lizard faunas in open environments. Higher richness in dominant, open interfluvial habitats may be recurrent in Squamata and other small-bodied vertebrates, posing a threat to conservation as these habitats are most vulnerable to the fast, widespread and ongoing process of habitat destruction in central Brazil. [source]

Optimal availability and security for IMS-based VoIP networks

Himanshu Pant
Consumers are continuously looking for ways of improving their productivity, simplifying their tasks, and streamlining communications both domestically and globally. This has resulted in the need to support different applications and thus the ongoing process of migrating many network services from traditional circuit-switched networks to Internet Protocol (IP) to converged networks. The circuit-switched public switched telephone network (PSTN) was a closed network where cyber-security threats were not amajor issue. With the advent of converged networks and IP-based services, service providers, government, and enterprises are concerned about the growing security threat. The new networks and equipment will be subject to many types of threats and their vulnerabilities may expose mission critical applications and infrastructure to risk. Realization of these threats can lead to service outage. Today's communications service provider must decide how to treat the effects of security breaches so as to minimize service downtime. This paper highlights amethodology, with examples to identify the effect of security-related failures and the critical design factors to be considered when modeling service reliability. The ITU-T X.805 standard (now also ISO standard 18028-2), based on the Bell Labs security model, is used to evaluate potential high impact threats and vulnerabilities. The analysis uses the Bell Labs domain technique known as security domain evaluation. One of the critical outputs provides a prioritized understanding of the threats the network is exposed to and the vulnerabilities in the security architecture. The next step in themethodology includes incorporating the threats (vulnerabilities) identified in a reliability model and quantifying the corresponding service degradation. In this paper, these concepts are applied to IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)-based VoIP (Voice over IP) networks. Using reliability metrics, our analysis shows that reliability models are optimistic if we do not consider security. We demonstrate how reliability models can be enhanced to take security issues into account and that the X.805 standard can be used to identify the security threats. Finally, the model shows themitigation in downtime by including intrusion-tolerance features in the product and network design. Consideration of security-caused downtimewill lead to increased focus on preventing security vulnerabilities that can lead to service outages and also allow service providers to save on maintenance costs. © 2006 Lucent Technologies Inc. [source]

Psychological research in educational technology in China

Ru-De Liu
Information and communication technology (ICT) has increasingly been bringing about significant changes in education in an ongoing process. The educational reform is not a mere technological issue but rather is based on an empirical grounding in a psychological research approach to learning and instruction. This paper introduces the research work on the application of ICT in education from the psychological perspective in China in the past three decades. The introduction focuses on four important issues with systemic theoretical thinking based on continuous empirical research and innovative practices. The first is dialectic constructivism which has offered some dialectic explanation for knowledge, learning and teaching, and balanced various contradictory aspects of learning and teaching. The second is theoretical thinking and instructional practice about the principles of learning environment design which emphasises learners' higher-order thinking, deep understanding, collaboration and self-regulated learning. The third is a model for the effectiveness and conditions of Computer-Assisted Instruction. The fourth is a framework for the integration of ICT and education and a zigzag training model for teacher training for integration. [source]

Business Ethics as Practice

Stewart Clegg
In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous, unpredictable, and subjective contexts of managerial action. Furthermore, we examine how discursively constituted practice relates to managerial subjectivity and the possibilities of managers being moral agents. The article concludes by discussing how the ,ethics as practice' approach that we expound provides theoretical resources for studying the different ways that ethics manifest themselves in organizations as well as providing a practical application of ethics in organizations that goes beyond moralistic and legalistic approaches. [source]

Short-term changes in parents' resolution regarding their young child's diagnosis of cerebral palsy

I. C. M. Rentinck
Abstract Objective This study aimed to describe changes in parents' resolution regarding their young child's diagnosis of cerebral palsy over a period of 1 year, and to describe the changes in strategies of resolution. Methods In this longitudinal study, 38 parents of children with cerebral palsy (mean age 18.4 months, SD = 1.1 at baseline) were followed with the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview, assessing their personal reactions to their child's diagnosis (i.e. resolution status). Changes at main and subclassification level of the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview were investigated using a binominal test. Results Twenty-nine parents (76%) were found to be stable with respect to their main resolution status (i.e. ,resolved' or ,unresolved'), while 24% of the parents either had changed from ,unresolved' to ,resolved' or in the opposite way. Furthermore, of the 28 parents who were classified as ,resolved' at both times, 15 (54%) had changed at subclassification level with respect to the specific strategies used. Conclusion Resolution at a main level of parental reactions to their child's diagnosis was predominantly stable. Most parents were classified as ,resolved' at both baseline and follow-up assessment. However, more detailed analyses at subclassification level showed that most parents with a ,resolved' main status showed changing patterns of resolution strategies to their child's diagnosis, suggesting that resolution is an ongoing process. [source]

Global Production Sharing and Sino,US Trade Relations

Prema-chandra Athukorala
F14; F23; O53 Abstract This paper examines Sino,US trade relations, focusing on the ongoing process of global production sharing, involving splitting of the production process into discrete activities that are then allocated across countries, and the resulting trade complementarities between the two countries in world manufacturing trade. The results suggest that the Sino,US trade imbalance is basically a structural phenomenon resulting from the pivotal role played by China as the final assembly centre in East Asia-centered global production networks. [source]

The Financialization of Urban Redevelopment

Ted Rutland
Spurred by the conviction that not only financial capital but also changes in finance and changes in its relations with non-financial activities have immense and complicated consequences for ongoing processes of urban redevelopment, this article puts the presently separate financialization and urban redevelopment literatures in conversation. The article begins with a review of the financialization literature, outlining and evaluating four different approaches to the topic and seeking to consider what, if anything, they might have to offer to an area of inquiry that has long considered finance to be a central concern. The second section examines how financial capital has been analyzed in the urban redevelopment literature since the pioneering work of David Harvey in the 1970s. The final section examines how financialization has played out in the medium-sized port city of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Drawing on interviews with financiers and property developments, as well as secondary research materials, the study describes how a recent urban design process in Halifax enlisted urban images and ideas to rewrite development regulations, eliminate popular political involvement in the development approvals process, and lever open the downtown landscape to the whims of worldwide financial markets. The essay concludes that studies of urban redevelopment would indeed gain something by engaging with the financialization literature, so long as the former continue to attend not just to financial capital but also to the material and ideological mechanisms through which property is continually reproduced as a financial asset. [source]