Ongoing Longitudinal Study (ongoing + longitudinal_study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rate of inpatient weight restoration predicts outcome in anorexia nervosa

Brian C. Lund PharmD
Abstract Objective: To examine weight restoration parameters during inpatient treatment as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: Adolescent and adult females admitted for inpatient eating disorder treatment were recruited for an ongoing longitudinal study. This analysis examined several weight restoration parameters as predictors of clinical deterioration after discharge among participants with AN. Results: Rate of weight gain was the only restoration parameter that predicted year 1 outcome. Clinical deterioration occurred significantly less often among participants who gained ,0.8 kg/week (12/41, 29%) than those below this threshold (20/38, 53%) (,2 = 4.37, df = 1, p = .037) and remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Discussion: Weight gain rate during inpatient treatment for AN was a significant predictor of short-term clinical outcome after discharge. It is unclear whether weight gain rate exerts a causal effect or is rather a marker for readiness to tolerate weight restoration and engage in the recovery process. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

Sleep Problems in Early Childhood and Early Onset of Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Adolescence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2004
Maria M. Wong
Abstract: Background: No prospective studies exist on the relationship between sleep problems early in life and subsequent alcohol use. Stimulated by the adult literature linking sleep problems to the subsequent onset of alcohol use disorders in some adults, we examined whether sleep problems in early childhood predicted the onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence and whether such a relationship was mediated by other known predictors of this relationship, namely, attention problems, anxiety/depression, and aggression in late childhood. Methods: This study is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of risk for alcohol and other substance use disorders. Study participants were 257 boys from a community-recruited sample of high-risk families. Results: Mothers' ratings of their children's sleep problems at ages 3 to 5 years significantly predicted an early onset of any use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, as well as an early onset of occasional or regular use of cigarettes by age 12 to 14. Additionally, although sleep problems in early childhood also predicted attention problems and anxiety/depression in later childhood, these problems did not mediate the relationship between sleep problems and onset of alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions: This is, to our knowledge, the first study that prospectively examines the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of alcohol use, a marker of increased risk for later alcohol problems and alcohol use disorders. Moreover, early childhood sleep problems seem to be a robust marker for use of drugs other than alcohol. Implications for the prevention of early alcohol and other drug use are discussed. [source]

Anxiety sensitivity and posttrauma stress symptoms in female undergraduates following a campus shooting,

Katherine L. Stephenson
Participants were recruited from female undergraduate students participating in an ongoing longitudinal study at the time of a campus shooting. Eighty-five percent (N = 691) of the 812 students who were invited to participate in the current study completed questionnaires an average of 27 days following a campus shooting. In a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design, the cognitive and the physical concerns dimensions of postshooting anxiety sensitivity accounted for unique variance in posttrauma stress symptom severity (cross-sectional), after controlling for preshooting psychological symptoms (longitudinal). The cognitive concerns dimension showed the strongest relationship. Anxiety sensitivity also appeared to moderate the relationships of hyperarousal symptoms with reexperiencing and numbing symptoms. [source]

Methodological considerations of measuring disability in bipolar disorder: validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning

Stefanie Berns
Objective:, Recent studies have highlighted the prevalence, severity and persistence of the disability associated with bipolar disorder (BPD). Reliable instruments are needed to support research into the factors associated with disability and treatment response. Contextual factors (e.g., availability of supported employment programs) can affect functionality, posing a challenge to such investigations. We present preliminary findings regarding the validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning (MSIF) in BPD. The MSIF provides discrete ratings of support separate from both role responsibility and performance quality in work, residential and educational environments. These distinctions allow the ,correction' for variability explained by contextual factors that allows the comparison of studies conducted in different environments and time. Methods:, Participants with BPD were administered the MSIF, the Social Adjustment Scale II (SAS-II) and an interview recording objective data regarding work, school and residential activities as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of BPD disability. Results:, Construct validity estimated using standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.76 (n = 58). MSIF global ratings were significantly lower (reflecting higher functionality) for subjects engaged in productive activity compared with participants who were not active (t = ,3.6, p = 0.001) demonstrating external validity. Inter-rater reliability estimates ranged from 0.86 to 0.99 (n = 49). Significant, high correlations were demonstrated between comparable MSIF and SAS-II global ratings (criterion validity = 0.70,0.79) and low correlations were found between non-comparable ratings (discriminant validity = ,0.07 to ,0.35) (n = 14). Conclusion:, We conclude that the MSIF is a valid and reliable instrument optimally designed for studying determinants of disability and treatment response in BPD. [source]

The extent and nature of family alcohol and drug use: findings from the belfast youth development study

Andrew Percy
Abstract Using data from an ongoing longitudinal study of adolescent drug use, this study examines the proportion of teenagers living with parents who are problem alcohol or drug users. Around two per cent of parents report high levels of problem drinking and one per cent report problem drug use. If a broader definition of hazardous drinking is used, the proportion of teenagers exposed increases to over 15 per cent. When substance use is examined at a family level (taking account of alcohol and drug use amongst dependent children in addition to that of parents), the proportion of families experiencing some form of substance use is considerable. These findings add further support to the call for increased recognition of the needs of dependent children within adult treatment services when working with parents. Likewise, the reduction of harm to children as a result of parental substance use should be an increasingly important priority for family support services. This is likely to be achieved through the closer integration of addiction and family services. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Continuity and Discontinuity of Attachment from Infancy through Adolescence

Claire E. Hamilton
This study reports relations between infant Ainsworth Strange Situation classifications, negative life events, and Adolescent Attachment Interview classifications. Overall, the stability of secure versus insecure classifications was 77%, and infant attachment classification was a significant predictor of adolescent attachment classification. Chi-square analyses indicate that negative life events are significantly related to change in attachment classification. The sample (n= 30) is drawn from the Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), an ongoing longitudinal study of children's development within the context of nonconventional family lifestyles. The distribution of family lifestyles within this study, unlike those in the full FLS sample, represent a higher proportion of conventional two-parent families (40%). There were no differences between adolescents reared in conventional or nonconventional families in the distribution of adolescent attachment security, the experience of negative life events, or the continuity of attachment from infancy through adolescence. [source]

Early motherhood and disruptive behaviour in the school-age child

P Trautmann-Villalba
Aim: To determine the significance of young maternal age, family adversity and maternal behaviour during mother-toddler interaction in the prediction of child disruptive behaviour at age eight. Methods: From an ongoing longitudinal study of infants at risk for later psychopathology (n= 362), 72 young mothers aged between 15 and 24 y (median 22 y) at first birth were compared with 197 primiparous older mothers ranging in age from 25 to 41 y (median 29 y). Family adversity at childbirth was assessed using a modified version of Rutter's Family Adversity Index (FAI) and measures of child disruptive behaviour at age eight were obtained using Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF). An observational procedure was used to assess maternal behaviour during mother-child interaction at the age of 2 y. Results: Young mothers encountered more adverse family characteristics and were more inadequate, restrictive and more negative during interaction with their toddlers. Their school-aged children showed higher scores on all disruptive behaviour scales of the TRF. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that family adversity and maternal behaviour during toddler interaction could account for most of the association between early motherhood and child disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: The impact of young motherhood on child mental health is not confined to teenage mothers and is mainly attributed to psychosocial and interactional factors. [source]