Old World Monkeys (old + world_monkey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rhesus macaque milk: Magnitude, sources, and consequences of individual variation over lactation

Katherine Hinde
Abstract Lactation represents the greatest postnatal energetic expenditure for mammalian mothers, and a mother's ability to sustain the costs of lactation is influenced by her physical condition. Mothers in good condition may produce infants who weigh more, grow faster, and are more likely to survive than the infants of mothers in poor condition. These effects may be partially mediated through the quantity and quality of milk that mothers produce during lactation. However, we know relatively little about the relationships between maternal condition, milk composition, milk yield, and infant outcomes. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of the magnitude, sources, and consequences of individual variation in milk for an Old World monkey. Rhesus macaques produce dilute milk typical of the primate order, but there was substantial variation among mothers in the composition and amount of milk they produced and thus in the milk energy available to infants. Relative milk yield value (MYV), the grams of milk obtained by mammary evacuation after 3.5,4 h of maternal-infant separation, increased with maternal parity and was positively associated with infant weight. Both milk gross energy (GE) and MYV increased during lactation as infants aged. There was, however, a trade-off; those mothers with greater increases in GE had smaller increases in MYV, and their infants grew more slowly. These results from a well-fed captive population demonstrate that differences between mothers can have important implications for milk synthesis and infant outcome. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ubiquitination of E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM5, and its potential role

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2008
Keiko Yamauchi
HIV-1 efficiently infects susceptible cells and causes AIDS in humans. Although HIV can also enter the cells of Old World monkeys, it encounters a block before reverse transcription. Data have shown that this species-specific restriction is mediated by tripartite motif (TRIM)5,, whose molecular function is still undefined. Here, we show that TRIM5, functions as a RING-finger-type E3 ubiquitin ligase both in vitro and in vivo and ubiquitinates itself in cooperation with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5B. In addition to the self-ubiquitination, we show that TRIM5, is ubiquitinated by another E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ro52, and deubiquitinated by YopJ, one of the pathogenic proteins derived from Yersinia species. Thus, the ubiquitination of TRIM5, is catalyzed by itself and Ro52 and downregulated by YopJ. Unexpectedly, although TRIM5, is ubiquitinated, our results have revealed that the proteasome inhibitors MG115 and MG132 do not stabilize it in HeLa cells, suggesting that the ubiquitination of TRIM5, does not lead to proteasomal degradation. Importantly, TRIM5, is clearly conjugated by a single ubiquitin molecule (monoubiquitination). Our monoubiquitin-fusion assay suggests that monoubiquitination is a signal for TRIM5, to translocate from cytoplasmic bodies to the cytoplasm. [source]

Palindromic AT-rich repeat in the NF1 gene is hypervariable in humans and evolutionarily conserved in primates,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2005
Hidehito Inagaki
Abstract Palindromic sequences are dispersed in the human genome and may cause chromosomal translocations in humans. They constitute unsequenced gaps in the human genome because of their resistance to PCR amplification, cloning into vectors, and sequencing. We have overcome these difficulties by using a combination of optimized PCR conditions, cloning in a recombination-deficient E. coli strain, and RNA polymerases in sequencing. Using these methods, we analyzed a palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene on chromosome 17 (17PATRR). The 17PATRR manifests a size polymorphism due to a highly variable length of (AT)n dinucleotide repeats within the PATRR. 17PATRRs can be categorized into two types: a longer one that comprises a nearly or completely perfect palindrome, and a shorter one that represents its deleted asymmetric derivative. In vitro analysis shows that the longer 17PATRR is more likely to form a cruciform structure than the shorter one. Two reported t(17;22)(q11;q11) patients with NF1, whose breakpoints were identified within the 17PATRR, have translocations that are derived from perfect or nearly perfect palindromic alleles. This implies that the symmetric structure of a PATRR can induce a translocation. We identified conserved PATRRs within the NF1 gene in great apes and similar inverted repeats in two Old World monkeys, but not in New World monkeys or other mammals. This indicates that the palindromic region appeared approximately 25 million years ago and elongated during primate evolution. Although such palindromic regions are usually unstable and disappear rapidly due to deletion, the 17PATRR in the NF1 gene was stably conserved during evolution for reasons that are still unknown. Hum Mutat 26(4), 332,342, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Species-specific evolution of MHC class I genes in the higher primates

Erin J. Adams
Summary: Humans express three highly polymorphic ,classical' (HLA-A,B and C) and three conserved ,non-classical' (HLA-E, F and G) MHC class I genes. Their comparison with the MHC class I genes of apes and monkeys reveals the differential extent to which MHC class I genes have been preserved during primate evolution. African apes have orthologues of all six human genes, and although allelic lineages of the A and C loci are shared, these species share none of the human alleles. In Asian apes, several MHC class I genes show significant differences from the human genes, a trend which continues with the Old World monkeys, and even more so in the New World monkeys, where E and F are the only human gene orthologues. The C locus is confined to humans and apes. Multiple A -related and B -related loci have been identified in apes and Old World monkeys showing that duplication of these loci has been a common event during primate evolution. Certain of the daughter loci exhibit low polymorphism, suggesting they have adopted a non-classical function. The differing rates at which MHC class I genes have evolved during primate evolution likely reflects their differing functions in the immune response. [source]

Evolutionary and comparative anatomical investigations of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the African cercopithecidae

Tomokazu Kawashima
Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the general architecture and morphological variations of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) in the African Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys), and to discuss the evolutionary changes between this system in African/Asian Cercopithecidae and humans. A detailed macroscopic comparative morphological investigation of the ACNS was performed by examining the left and right sides of 11 African cercopithecid specimens, including some previously unreported species (Abyssinian colobus, Angola pied colobus, Savanna monkey, and lesser white-nosed guenon). The common characteristics of the ACNS in the African Cercopithecidae are described in detail. Consequently, homologies of the ACNS between Asian (macaques) and African Cercopithecidae, and differences between the Asian/African Cercopithecidae and humans, were found. In particular, differences in the sympathetic (cardiac) systems of the Cercopithecidae and humans were recognized, despite the similar morphology of the parasympathetic vagal (cardiac) system. These differences include the composition of the cervicothoracic ganglion, the lower positions of the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia, and the narrow range for the origin of the cardiac nerves in the Cercopithecidae, compared with that in humans. In conclusion, these findings are considered with regard to the morphology of the last common ancestors of the Cercopithecidae. J. Morphol., 2007 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding

Emma Nelson
Abstract The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a biomarker reflecting prenatal androgen effects (PAE), such that individuals with lower ratios have experienced higher PAE than those with higher ratios. 2D:4D has been correlated with a number of sex-linked traits in humans such as aggression, promiscuity, and competitiveness. In addition, polygynous societies reportedly have lower 2D:4D (higher PAE) than more monogamous populations. This evidence suggests that PAE may be implicated in the development of sexually selected behaviors in humans. To place 2D:4D research into a broader context, we test the relationship between digit ratios and behavior across nonhuman anthropoids; polygynous species, with higher levels of intrasexual competition, should have more pronounced markers of PAE (lower 2D:4D) than pair-bonded species. Our results accord with those found in humans: 2D:4D is lower in polygynous species and higher (lower PAE) in pair-bonded species. Old World monkeys have low, and relatively invariant 2D:4D (high PAE), which is coupled with high levels of intrasexual competition. This contrasts with higher and more variable ratios in both great apes and New World monkeys. In addition, both male and female ratios decrease with increasing levels of intrasexual competition. Human ratios are intermediate between pair-bonded and more promiscuous hominoids. We propose that PAE may be involved in promoting species characteristic social behavior in anthropoids. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Variations in the structure of the prelunate gyrus in Old World monkeys

Estel Van Der Gucht
Abstract Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have revealed a complex organization in the macaque prelunate gyrus. We investigated the morphology and architecture of the prelunate gyrus in Old World monkeys. In Macaca nemestrina, we observed a sulcus crossing the prelunate gyrus within 2 mm of the vertical meridian representation. In other macaque species and other cercopithecines, we observed substantial variations in sulcal morphology across the prelunate gyrus. We did not find a sulcus in all species, and the location and depth of that indentation on the gyrus varied among species. A deep sulcus was observed in all species that emerged earlier in evolution than macaques, such as guenons, baboons, and colobines. We analyzed the regional and parcellation features of the prelunate gyrus in three macaque species, M. maura, M. mulatta, and M. radiata, and in Erythrocebus patas, with emphasis on the relation of structure to the distribution of prelunate visual areas. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein immunoreactivity permitted the delineation of a novel area in the prelunate gyrus of Old World monkeys, located around the prelunate sulcus. Species-specific patterns were also observed in the prelunate gyrus of the patas monkey compared to macaques. These observations, as well as a cladistic analysis of the data, suggest an expanded and diversified organization of the prelunate gyrus in some cercopithecoids that may reflect adaptation to specific ecological environments. It was, however, progressively lost in most macaques, being retained only in species that diverged early in the evolution of the genus Macaca, such as M. nemestrina and M. maura. Anat Rec Part A, 288A:753,775, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

High-fiber diet promotes weight loss and affects maternal behavior in vervet monkeys

Lynn A. Fairbanks
Abstract The dramatic increase in obesity in western societies has shifted the emphasis in nutrition research from the problems of undernutrition to the adverse consequences of being overweight. As with humans, Old World monkeys are at increased risk for type II diabetes and other chronic diseases when they gain excessive weight. To prevent overweight and obesity, promote animal health, and provide a more natural level of fiber in the diet, the standard commercial monkey chow diet at a vervet monkey breeding colony was changed to a higher fiber formulation in 2004. The new diet was also higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate and energy density than the standard diet. Because maternal behavior is known to be sensitive to differences in resource availability, data on weight and mother,infant interactions for 147 mothers with 279 infants born from 2000 through 2006 were assessed for effects of the diet change. The results showed that, even though food was provided ad libitum, the mean body weight of breeding females was 10% lower after the transition to the high-fiber diet. Behaviorally, mothers on the high-fiber diet were significantly more rejecting to their infants, and their infants had to play a greater role in maintaining ventral contact in the first few months of their lives. The effects of the diet change on maternal rejection were significantly related to the mother's body weight, with lower-weight mothers scoring higher in maternal rejection. These results demonstrate that maternal behavior is responsive to changes in maternal condition, and that beneficial changes in the diet may have unintended consequences on behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 72:234,241, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Fetal, infant, adolescent and adult phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys

David H. Abbott
Abstract Old World monkeys provide naturally occurring and experimentally induced phenotypes closely resembling the highly prevalent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women. In particular, experimentally induced fetal androgen excess in female rhesus monkeys produces a comprehensive adult PCOS-like phenotype that includes both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction found in PCOS women. Such a reliable experimental approach enables the use of the prenatally androgenized (PA) female rhesus monkey model to (1) examine fetal, infant and adolescent antecedents of adult pathophysiology, gaining valuable insight into early phenotypic expression of PCOS, and (2) to understand adult pathophysiology from a mechanistic perspective. Elevated circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are the earliest indication of reproductive dysfunction in late gestation nonhuman primate fetuses and infants exposed to androgen excess during early (late first to second trimester) gestation. Such early gestation-exposed PA infants also are hyperandrogenic, with both LH hypersecretion and hyperandrogenism persisting in early gestation-exposed PA adults. Similarly, subtle metabolic abnormalities appearing in young nonhuman primate infants and adolescents precede the abdominal adiposity, hyperliplidemia and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes that characterize early gestation-exposed PA adults. These new insights into the developmental origins of PCOS, and progression of the pathophysiology from infancy to adulthood, provide opportunities for clinical intervention to ameliorate the PCOS phenotype thus providing a preventive health-care approach to PCOS-related abnormalities. For example, PCOS-like traits in PA monkeys, as in PCOS women, can improve with better insulin,glucose homeostasis, suggesting that lifestyle interventions preventing increased adiposity in adolescent daughters of PCOS mothers also may reduce their risk of acquiring many PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. Am. J. Primatol. 71:776,784, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand

Michael D. Gumert
Abstract Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions. Am. J. Primatol. 71:594,608, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dental topography and diets of four old world monkey species

Jonathan M. Bunn
Abstract Dental topographic analysis allows comparisons of variably worn teeth within and between species to infer relationships between dental form and diet in living primates, with implications for reconstructing feeding adaptations of fossil forms. Although analyses to date have been limited mainly to the M2s of a few primate taxa, these suggest that dental topographic analysis holds considerable promise. Still, larger samples including a greater range of species and different tooth types are needed to determine the potential of this approach. Here we examine dental topography of molar teeth of Cercocebus torquatus (n=48), Cercopithecus campbelli (n=50), Colobus polykomos (n=50), and Procolobus badius (n=50). This is the first such study of large samples of Old World monkeys, and the first to include analyses of both M1s and M2s. Average slope, relief, and surface angularity were computed and compared among tooth types, wear stages, and species. Results suggest that (1) data for M1s and M2s cannot be compared directly; (2) slope and relief decline with wear on M2s of all taxa, and M1s of the colobines, whereas angularity does not generally change except in the most worn specimens; and (3) folivorous colobines tend to have more sloping surfaces and more relief than do frugivorous cercopithecines, though angularity does not clearly separate taxa by diet. Am. J. Primatol. 71:466,477, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Perceptual considerations in the use of colored photographic and video stimuli to study nonhuman primate behavior

Corri Waitt
Abstract The use of photographs, slides, computerized images, and video to study behavior is increasingly being employed in nonhuman primates. However, since these mediums have been designed to simulate natural coloration for normal trichromatic human vision, they can fail to reproduce color in meaningful and accurate ways for viewers with different visual systems. Given the range of color perception that exists both across and within different species, it is necessary to consider this variation in order to discern the suitability of these mediums for experimental use. Because of the high degree of visual similarity among humans, Old World monkeys, and apes, the use of photographic and video stimuli should be acceptable in terms of replicating naturalistic coloration and making noticeable color manipulations. However, among New World primates and prosimians, there exists a considerable degree of variation in color perceptual abilities depending on the species, sex, and allelic combination of the animals involved. Therefore, the use of these mediums to study behavior is problematic for these species, and should be done with caution. Am. J. Primatol. 68:1054,1067, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Exchange, affiliation, and protective interventions in semifree-ranging brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

Renata G. Ferreira
Abstract The "social intelligence" hypothesis proposes that intelligence evolved as a consequence of the need for behavioral maneuvering to deal with the complexities of social life. As a result, coalitions have received considerable attention. Here we present the patterns of coalitionary behavior observed in a semifree-ranging group of Cebus apella and explore the effects of kinship, spatial proximity, and rank. In contrast to descriptions of Old World monkeys and to some descriptions of capuchins, kinship did not influence the pattern of coalitionary behavior, although individuals tended to help those that remained in close proximity. Rank had the greatest influence on coalitions: those that interfered in conflicts (often the alpha) were higher ranking than both contestants and supported the most subordinate (younger) interactant. However, rank did not influence the coalitionary support when conflicts involved only adults. We found no evidence that individuals were making use of triadic knowledge, and most of the coalitions can best be described as protective interventions involving immatures. The overall low rate of coalitions may be due to a period of social stability. Am. J. Primatol. 68:765,776, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Chromosome painting shows that the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) has a derived karyotype and is phylogenetically nested within asian colobines,

F Bigoni
Abstract The exceptional diploid number (2n=48) of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) has played a pivotal role in phylogenies that view the proboscis monkey as the most primitive colobine, and a long-isolated genus of the group. In this report we used molecular cytogenetic methods to map the chromosomal homology of the proboscis monkey in order to test these hypotheses. Our results reveal that the N. larvatus karyotype is derived and is not primitive in respect to other colobines (2n=44) and most other Old World monkeys. The diploid number of 2n=48 can be best explained by derived fissions of a segment of human chromosomes 14 and 6. The fragmentation and association of human chromosomes 1 and 19 as seen in other Asian colobines, but not in African colobines, is best explained as a derived reciprocal translocation linking all Asian colobines. The alternating hybridization pattern between four segments homologous to human chromosomes 1 and 19 on N. larvatus chromosome 6 is the result of the reciprocal translocation followed by a pericentric inversion. N. larvatus shares this pericentric inversion with Trachypithecus, but not with Pygathrix. This inversion apparently links Nasalis and Trachypithecus after the divergence of Pygathrix. The karyological data support the view that Asian colobines, including N. larvatus, are monophyletic. They share many linking karyological features separating them from the African colobines. The hybridization pattern also suggests that Nasalis is nested within Asian Colobines and shares a period of common descent with other Asian colobines after the divergence of Pygathrix. Am. J. Primatol. 60:85,93, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comparison of chorionic gonadotropin expression in human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) trophoblasts

Jason A. Wilken
Abstract We have designed novel DNA primers that allow us to detect the expression of the subunits of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) from a variety of species of the order Primates. Using these primers, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and standard cloning techniques, we detected the expression of a single gene for the common glycoprotein hormone (GPH) ,-subunit and at least two genes for the CG ,-subunit in trophoblasts of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgous macaque (cm)) at gestational day (GD) = 26 ( 2d). No cmCG expression was detected at GD = 35,40. When sequences of cmGPH-, and cmCG-, genes were compared to the corresponding genes of other primates, we found that the ,-subunit of M. fascicularis was highly conserved compared to other primate species. However, cmCG ,-subunits appeared to be less conserved, residing between those of human CG-, and baboon CG-, when analyzed phylogenetically. Of particular interest was a three amino acid stretch in one of the expressed cmCG-, genes that is distinct from all other primates studied. Our findings imply that not only does the expression of multiple CG ,-subunit genes appear to be common to Old World monkeys, but that the presented methodology will greatly facilitate our ability to understand primate evolution. Am. J. Primatol. 56:89,97, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Male and female western gorilla diet: Preferred foods, use of fallback resources, and implications for ape versus old world monkey foraging strategies

D. Doran-Sheehy
Abstract Most of what is currently known about western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) diet is based on indirect studies using fecal samples and trail signs rather than measures based on direct observations. Here we report results on adult male and female western gorilla foraging behavior, based on systematic focal observations and nutritional analyses of foods. We found that western gorillas, like other apes, are highly selective ripe fruit specialists, seeking fruit high in energy, low in antifeedants, and rare in the environment. During seasonal fruiting peaks, fruit accounted for up to 70% of feeding time. When ripe fruit was scarce, gorillas increased time spent feeding on leaves and nonpreferred fruits and herbs. Leaves were the major fallback food, accounting for up to 70% of feeding time in males and 50% in females during periods of fruit scarcity. In spite of large differences in body size, the sexes were remarkably similar in their overall diet, not differing in time spent feeding on fruit or preferred herbs. However, the male consistently fed more often and on a greater variety of leaves than did females, whereas females fed more often on fallback herbs and termites. Our findings, when considered in light of previous findings on sympatric mangabeys, indicate that the foraging strategy of western gorillas is broadly similar to that of chimpanzees and orangutans, and distinct from that of old world monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:727,738, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]