Old Question (old + question)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


TIN ISOTOPY,A NEW METHOD FOR SOLVING OLD QUESTIONS

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2010
M. HAUSTEIN
Tin was a vital commodity in times past. In central Europe, the earliest finds of tin-bronze date to about 2200 bc, while in Greece they are c. 400,500 years earlier. While there is evidence for prehistoric copper mining,for example, in the Alps or mainland Greece, among other places,the provenance of the contemporary tin is still an unsolved problem. This work deals with a new approach for tracing the ancient tin via tin isotope signatures. The tin isotope ratios of 50 tin ores from the Erzgebirge region (D) and 30 tin ores from Cornwall (GB) were measured by MC,ICP,MS. Most ore deposits were found to be quite homogeneous regarding their tin isotope composition, but significant differences were observed between several deposits. This fact may be used to distinguish different tin deposits and thus form the basis for the investigation of the provenance of ancient tin that has been sought for more than a century. Furthermore, the tin-isotope ratio of the ,Himmelsscheibe von Nebra' will be presented: the value fits well with the bulk of investigated tin ores from Cornwall. [source]


Gene Induction by Phenobarbital: An Update on an Old Question that Receives Key Novel Answers,

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Laurent Corcos
The drug is the representative of a myriad of lipophilic molecules able to evoke a pleiotropic response in the liver and also in prokaryotes and flies. A great deal of novel information has been obtained in recent years regarding the mechanism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene induction by phenobarbital. Most importantly, a nuclear orphan receptor, the constitutive androstane receptor has been identified as a primary determinant of the transcriptional activation of CYP genes in response to phenobarbital-like inducers in mammals. Another nuclear receptor, the pregnane X receptor can also mediate some of the phenobarbital response, but the functional overlap of the two inductive pathways is only partial. The response of mammalian CYP2B genes to phenobarbital was abolished in the liver of mice carrying a null allele of the constitutive androstane receptor gene, whereas that of CYP3A genes was lost in pregnane X receptor knock-out mice. [source]


Old Questions, Fresh Angles: Escalation in Vietnam

DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 4 2010
Mark Atwood Lawrence
First page of article [source]


Congregate care for infants and toddlers: Shedding new light on an old question

INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 5 2002
Brenda Jones Harden
With the advent of the "crack" epidemic and the concurrent decrease in available foster homes for young children, the placement of infants and toddlers in residential congregate care settings has resurfaced in some of the larger urban areas of the United States. Despite the controversy surrounding this type of placement, current research on congregate care settings is almost nonexistent. The present study examines the congregate care facilities that were established in an urban area in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as a response to the placement crisis for young children in foster care. In addition, the study compares the development of a group of children placed in these settings with a group who were placed in foster home settings. Findings suggest that congregate care facilities differ in their appropriateness for young children based on the number of children in the home and the practice philosophy of the group home. The study documented that children reared in foster family homes fared better than their group-reared counterparts on a variety of variables, including mental development and adaptive skills. In contrast, children reared in congregate care facilities were similar to foster home-reared children regarding observed and reported behavior problems. Implications of these finding for policies and practices related to congregate care placements are discussed. 2002 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]


What's Wrong with Exploitation?

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2007
ROBERT MAYER
abstract,This paper offers a new answer to an old question. Others have argued that exploitation is wrong because it is coercive, or degrading, or fails to protect the vulnerable. But these answers only work for certain cases; counter-examples are easily found. In this paper I identify a different answer to the question by placing exploitation within the larger family of wrongs to which it belongs. Exploitation is one species of wrongful gain, and exploiters always gain at the expense of others by inflicting relative losses on disadvantaged parties. They do harm to their victims, even when their interactions are mutually advantageous, by failing to benefit the disadvantaged party as fairness requires. This failure is the essential wrong in every case of wrongful exploitation. At the end of the paper I assess how wrong this failure is as a way to gain at another's expense. [source]


The Administrative Presidency and Bureaucratic Control: Implementing a Research Agenda

PRESIDENTIAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2009
ANDREW RUDALEVIGE
As Richard Nathan pointed out in The Administrative Presidency 25 years ago, much contemporary policy making occurs through the execution of the laws and the management process. Thus, the conditions under which administrative power can be effectively exercised are important components of future research. In short, we must revisit an old question: Who controls the bureaucracy? This article sets out a research agenda for doing so by examining a set of related strategies that presidents have utilized in their efforts to assert control over the bureaucracy,namely, centralization, politicization, and reorganization,in the course of linking two strands of literature with significant overlap but little conversation between them: the largely quantitative bureaucratic control literature, and the largely qualitative "politicized presidency" literature focused on presidential structures. Each strand, I suggest, can inform and enrich the other; both would benefit from better measures of inputs, outputs, and, crucially, the processes that connect the two and influence the success of policy implementation. [source]


A new answer to an old question: does ageing modify baroreflex control of vascular sympathetic outflow in humans?

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
Kevin D. Monahan
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Recent Progress and New Perspectives in Studying T Cell Responses to Allografts

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2010
A. Valujskikh
Studies in the past decade advanced our understanding of the development, execution and regulation of T-cell-mediated allograft rejection. This review outlines recent progress and focuses on three major areas of investigation that are likely to guide the development of graft-prolonging therapies in the future. The discussed topics include the contribution of recently discovered molecules to the activation and functions of alloreactive T cells, the emerging problem of alloreactive memory T cells and recently gained insights into the old question of transplantation tolerance. [source]


Alcohol and liver cirrhosis: old questions and weakly explored opportunities

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2000
Giovanni Corrao
First page of article [source]


IS A NEW AND GENERAL THEORY OF MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS EMERGING?

EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2009
Scott V. Edwards
The advent and maturation of algorithms for estimating species trees,phylogenetic trees that allow gene tree heterogeneity and whose tips represent lineages, populations and species, as opposed to genes,represent an exciting confluence of phylogenetics, phylogeography, and population genetics, and ushers in a new generation of concepts and challenges for the molecular systematist. In this essay I argue that to better deal with the large multilocus datasets brought on by phylogenomics, and to better align the fields of phylogeography and phylogenetics, we should embrace the primacy of species trees, not only as a new and useful practical tool for systematics, but also as a long-standing conceptual goal of systematics that, largely due to the lack of appropriate computational tools, has been eclipsed in the past few decades. I suggest that phylogenies as gene trees are a "local optimum" for systematics, and review recent advances that will bring us to the broader optimum inherent in species trees. In addition to adopting new methods of phylogenetic analysis (and ideally reserving the term "phylogeny" for species trees rather than gene trees), the new paradigm suggests shifts in a number of practices, such as sampling data to maximize not only the number of accumulated sites but also the number of independently segregating genes; routinely using coalescent or other models in computer simulations to allow gene tree heterogeneity; and understanding better the role of concatenation in influencing topologies and confidence in phylogenies. By building on the foundation laid by concepts of gene trees and coalescent theory, and by taking cues from recent trends in multilocus phylogeography, molecular systematics stands to be enriched. Many of the challenges and lessons learned for estimating gene trees will carry over to the challenge of estimating species trees, although adopting the species tree paradigm will clarify many issues (such as the nature of polytomies and the star tree paradox), raise conceptually new challenges, or provide new answers to old questions. [source]


Eosinophil trafficking: new answers to old questions

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 5 2004
A. Wardlaw
First page of article [source]