Old Male (old + male)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Old Male

  • year old male

  • Selected Abstracts


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Alexander Easton MBBS PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Differences in sino-atrial and atrio-ventricular function with age and sex attributable to the Scn5a+/, mutation in a murine cardiac model

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    K. Jeevaratnam
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate the interacting effects of age and sex on electrocardiographic (ECG) features of Scn5a+/, mice modelling Brugada syndrome. Methods:, Recordings were performed on anaesthetized wild-type (WT) and Scn5a+/, mice and differences attributable to these risk factors statistically stratified. Results:,Scn5a+/, exerted sex-dependent effects upon sino-atrial function that only became apparent with age. RR intervals were greater in old male than in old female Scn5a+/,. Atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction was slower in young female mice, whether WT and Scn5a+/,, than the corresponding young male WT and Scn5a+/,. However, PR intervals lengthened with age in male but not in female Scn5a+/, giving the greatest PR intervals in old male Scn5a+/, compared with either old male WT or young male Scn5a+/, mice. In contrast, PR intervals were similar in old female Scn5a+/, and in old female WT. QTc was prolonged in Scn5a+/, compared with WT, and female Scn5a+/, compared with female WT. Age-dependent alterations in durations of ventricular repolarization relative to WT affected male but not female Scn5a+/,. Thus, T-wave durations were greater in old male Scn5a+/, compared with old male WT, but indistinguishable between old female Scn5a+/, and old female WT. Finally, analysis for combined interactions of genotype, age and sex demonstrated no effects on P wave and QRS durations and QTc intervals. Conclusion:, We demonstrate for the first time that age, sex and genotype exert both independent and interacting ECG effects. The latter suggest alterations in cardiac pacemaker function, atrio-ventricular conduction and ventricular repolarization greatest in ageing male Scn5a+/,. [source]

    Successful medication withdrawal after cognitive-behavioral therapy in a treatment-resistant preadolescent male with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Robert B. Goldstein M.D.
    Abstract There are no reports of a child taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and an atypical anti-psychotic being successfully tapered from these medications after completion of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. With this in mind, we report the case of an 8.5-year,old male who was taking risperidone 0.5,mg bid, sertraline 100,mg, and atomoxetine 25,mg at presentation. After a successful course of CBT, we describe how medications were systematically withdrawn. Implications of this case on practice parameters (e.g., CBT may be an effective augmenting agent for those non-responsive to initial pharmacological treatments) are highlighted. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Case of Hemodialysis Patients with Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis (EPS)-like Finding

    H Kawanishi
    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is recognized as a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Involvement of the inflammation is indispensable as the EPS emission factor. We experienced the surgery of the EPS-like case that emits it to the hemodialysis (HD) patient without the PD. Patient: In November 1996 the patients, a 47-year old male developed end-stage renal failure due to chronic nephritis and started HD. Before and during HD, he complicated alcohol liver cirrhosis with ascites. In September 2001 he had intestinal obstructive symptoms and recovered with repeated puncture and drainage of ascites. Abdominal CT examination revealed the intestine oppression by the ascites with thick tunic formation. At May 2002, he underwent a laparotomy. Thick capsules formed surroundings to the ascites. This capsules covered parietal peritoneum and intestine surface and oppressed the intestine. The total ablation of small intestine was succeeded. Ascites examinations IL-6 20,350 pg/mL FDP 80 micro-g/mL TAT 1090 micro-g/L, was suspected to conjecture the involvement of inflammation and coagulate-fibrinolysis. Histology of peritoneum showed absence of mesothelium but not fibrosis and sclerosis. Discussion: EPS is caused by the inflammation on the deteriorated peritoneum, resulting in encapsulation after the accumulation of inflammatory products such as fibrin. Even if there is not the peritoneum deterioration, chronic inflammation and stimulation that continues for long-time causing EPS-like findings with encapsulation. The encapsulating ileus findings irrespective of the peritoneum deterioration should call with encapsulated peritonitis (EP). [source]

    Severe aphthous stomatitis associated with oral calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors

    Nancy Habib BS
    Background, Aphthous stomatitis, a common mucocutaneous disorder, is a well accepted complication of sirolimus therapy. This association has been reported less frequently with tacrolimus. Case, We present an 11-year old male with Budd-Chiari syndrome who experienced profound worsening of chronic aphthous ulcers after immunosuppressive therapy was changed from tacrolimus to sirolimus. Conclusion, Since these drugs are used widely in the pediatric transplantation population, this report serves to heighten awareness of this debilitating phenomenon, and to stress the importance of exercising caution when sirolimus and tacrolimus are administered in combination to pediatric patients. [source]

    Severe eating disorder initially diagnosed in a 72-year-old man

    Susan G. Manejías Parke MD
    Abstract Objective: Eating disorders in our society mainly affect young women. Cases in males are far less common, and reported cases in elderly males are rare. Method: We report the case of 72-year- old male admitted to a geriatric psychiatry service for grave passive neglect with mild dementia thought to be due to nutritional deficiency. Results: The patient was found to have an eating disorder not otherwise specified, most closely resembling anorexia nervosa, which was believed to be the cause of the nutritional problem. Conclusion: This case highlights the need for diagnostic awareness regarding eating disorders in patients of all ages and of both genders. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

    Sexual dimorphism in cortical bone size and strength but not density is determined by independent and time-specific actions of sex steroids and IGF-1: Evidence from pubertal mouse models

    Filip Callewaert
    Abstract Although it is well established that males acquire more bone mass than females, the underlying mechanism and timing of this sex difference remain controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the relative contribution of sex steroid versus growth hormone,insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH,IGF-1) action to pubertal bone mass acquisition longitudinally in pubertal mice. Radial bone expansion peaked during early puberty (3 to 5 weeks of age) in male and female mice, with significantly more expansion in males than in females (+40%). Concomitantly, in 5,week old male versus female mice, periosteal and endocortical bone formation was higher (+70%) and lower (,47%), respectively, along with higher serum IGF-1 levels during early puberty in male mice. In female mice, ovariectomy increased radial bone expansion during early puberty as well as the endocortical perimeter. In male mice, orchidectomy reduced radial bone expansion only during late puberty (5 to 8 weeks of age), whereas combined androgen and estrogen deficiency modestly decreased radial bone expansion during early puberty, accompanied by lower IGF-1 levels. GHRKO mice with very low IGF-1 levels, on the other hand, showed limited radial bone expansion and no skeletal dimorphism. From these data we conclude that skeletal sexual dimorphism is established during early puberty and depends primarily on GH,IGF-1 action. In males, androgens and estrogens have stimulatory effects on bone size during late and early puberty, respectively. In females, estrogens limit bone size during early puberty. These longitudinal findings in mice provide strong evidence that skeletal dimorphism is determined by independent and time-specific effects of sex steroids and IGF-1. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

    Histopathology of a granulomatous lobular panniculitis in acute Q fever: a case report

    R Soulard
    Q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. Two forms of the disease have been described: an acute form with pneumonia, hepatitis or a flu-like syndrome; and a chronic form in which endocarditis is the most frequent clinical expression. We report a 77 year old male with fever and an erythematous nodule on the right leg. Biopsy revealed a granulomatous lobular panniculitis with some granulomas rimmed by an eosinophilic material, giving a "doughnut" or "fibrin-ring" appearance. Q fever serological studies were positive. Cutaneous signs, among them panniculitis, are probably underestimated during the acute phase of the disease, and recognizing different granulomatous patterns may contribute to the diagnosis. Soulard R. Histopathology of a granulomatous lobular panniculitis in acute Q fever: a case report. [source]

    Iliac vein compression syndrome: An underdiagnosed cause of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis,

    Ami Naik BS
    Abstract Iliac vein compression syndrome (CS) is a rare cause of deep venous thrombosis. It is caused by an anatomic anomaly in which the right common iliac artery overlies the left common iliac vein causing mechanical compression. Subsequent endothelial changes within the vessels have the potential to spur thrombus formation. Aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions must be implemented upon suspicion to avoid long-term complications. We report on a 19 year old male who presented with ICS. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and current treatment options. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010. © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Synchronous reconstruction of the floor of mouth and chin with a single skin island fibular free flap

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 4 2008
    F.A.C.S., Richard O. Wein M.D.
    Objectives: The goal this presentation is to: 1) Review the reconstructive options for anterior mandible through-and-through composite defects and 2) Instruct the audience in the application of the double-skin paddle fibular flap in selected patients. Methods: Case presentation with review of the literature. Results: A 70-year old male with an anterior floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma underwent composite resection that included resection of a 5-cm ovoid component of overlying chin skin. The defect was reconstructed with a fibular osteocutaneous flap with a double skin paddle technique. Conclusions: Several reconstructive options have been described in the literature for extended oral cavity defects including the use of multiple free flaps, combinations of regional and distant flaps, and sequential reconstruction. This case report reviews the use of a single flap reconstruction of these defects for selected patients. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with factor XIII deficiency and a novel mutation

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 1 2008
    Hassan Khalife MD
    Abstract We report a novel mutation in factor XIIIA gene that caused severe congenital factor XIII deficiency in a 6 year and 8 month old male. The mutation is a GA deletion in the core domain leading to a premature stop at codon 502. The child had severe deficiency with two episodes of intracerebral hemorrhage. He also developed spontaneous splenic rupture, an unusual complication of this disorder. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:113,114. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Relatedness in wild chimpanzees: Influence of paternity, male philopatry, and demographic factors

    Eiji Inoue
    Abstract In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), high-ranking males are expected to have high reproductive success and females typically emigrate upon reaching maturity. Although high average relatedness among males in the same social groups has been assumed, previous reports have indicated that relatedness among males is not necessarily significantly higher than that among females. The paternity of 11 offspring and the relatedness of 50 individuals in the M group of chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, were investigated using DNA analyses. We determined the fathers of 10 offspring. Two different alpha males sired a total of five offspring, whereas the other males had low reproductive success. The proportion of paternal half-sibling pairs among the 10 offspring was 15.6%. The average relatedness among mature males was significantly higher than that among mature females. The existence of an old male and the long tenure of one alpha male may have contributed to this significant difference. The average dyadic relatedness among mature natal individuals was significantly higher than that in natal-immigrant pairs in which the individuals came from different groups. The average relatedness among immigrant females was similar to that in pairs of natal and immigrant females, suggesting that the immigrants came from various groups. Thus, female transfer acts to maintain low average relatedness within the group. A comparison of our results to those from other study sites suggests that although the average relatedness among adult males does not reach the level of half-siblings, under some circumstances it can exceed the relatedness of females. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Variation in dental wear and tooth loss among known-aged, older ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): a comparison between wild and captive individuals

    Frank P. Cuozzo
    Abstract Tooth wear is generally an age-related phenomenon, often assumed to occur at similar rates within populations of primates and other mammals, and has been suggested as a correlate of reduced offspring survival among wild lemurs. Few long-term wild studies have combined detailed study of primate behavior and ecology with dental analyses. Here, we present data on dental wear and tooth loss in older (>10 years old) wild and captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Among older ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar (n=6), the percentage of severe dental wear and tooth loss ranges from 6 to 50%. Among these six individuals, the oldest (19 years old) exhibits the second lowest frequency of tooth loss (14%). The majority of captive lemurs at the Indianapolis Zoo (n=7) are older than the oldest BMSR lemur, yet display significantly less overall tooth wear for 19 of 36 tooth positions, with only two individuals exhibiting antemortem tooth loss. Among the captive lemurs, only one lemur (a nearly 29 year old male) has lost more than one tooth. This individual is only missing anterior teeth, in contrast to lemurs at BMSR, where the majority of lost teeth are postcanine teeth associated with processing specific fallback foods. Postcanine teeth also show significantly more overall wear at BMSR than in the captive sample. At BMSR, degree of severe wear and tooth loss varies in same aged, older individuals, likely reflecting differences in microhabitat, and thus the availability and use of different foods. This pattern becomes apparent before "old age," as seen in individuals as young as 7 years. Among the four "older" female lemurs at BMSR, severe wear and/or tooth loss do not predict offspring survival. Am. J. Primatol. 72:1026,1037, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Oldest Patient with Bronchial Asthma

    Koichi Kurishima
    This case report purports to describe the oldest asthma patient ever reported, a 96-year old male with a 46-year asthma history. We emphasize not only his age, but also the fact that he continues to have significant reversibility, at least he did at age more than 90-year old. [source]

    Transcatheter occlusion of a residual muscular ventricular septal defect using an Amplatzer duct occluder in a child with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Gary E. Stapleton MD
    Abstract Transcatheter occlusion has become an acceptable alternative to surgery in patients with congenital muscular and residual post-surgical ventricular septal defects (VSD). We present a case of an 11 year old male with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, dextrocardia, pulmonary atresia, VSD, and advanced second degree atrioventricular block who underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of a residual post-surgical VSD with an Amplatzer duct occluder, in preparation for transvenous pacemaker implantation. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Granular cell tumour of the lacrimal gland

    Purpose To report the clinical and histopathological characteristics of a patient with a granular cell tumour (GCT) of the lacrimal gland. Methods Surgical excision and histological examination. Results A 38-year old male presented with a painful swelling located temporally in the right upper eyelid. Clinical examination revealed proptosis and displacement of the right eye and a tumour was palpated at the site of the lacrimal gland. MRI scan revealed a solid tumour in the lacrimal fossa. The tumour was excised. Microscopically the tumour was composed of tumour cells with coarsely granular cytoplasm. The tumour cells were arranged in clusters and ribbons separated by collagen bundles and no necrosis or mitosis were present. The granules were PAS positive, diastase resistant and the tumour cells expressed focal staining for S100. Electron microscopy showed numerous secondary lysosomes. The diagnosis is consistent with a GCT. Conclusion This case presents for the first time a GCT of the lacrimal gland. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
    Dany Garant
    Abstract Despite great interest in sexual selection, relatively little is known in detail about the genetic and environmental determinants of secondary sexual characters in natural populations. Such information is important for determining the way in which populations may respond to sexual selection. We report analyses of genetic and large-scale environmental components of phenotypic variation of two secondary sexual plumage characters (forehead and wing patch size) in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis over a 22-year period. We found significant heritability for both characters but little genetic covariance between the two. We found a positive association between forehead patch size and a large-scale climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, but not for wing patch. This pattern was observed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting that the population response to NAO index can be explained as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Heritability of forehead patch size for old males, calculated under favorable conditions (NAO index median), was greater than that under unfavorable conditions (NAO index < median). These changes occurred because there were opposing changes in additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR) under favorable and unfavorable conditions, with VA increasing and VR decreasing in good environments. However, no such effect was detected for young birds, or for wing patch size in either age class. In addition to these environmental effects on both phenotypic and genetic variances, we found evidence for a significant decrease of forehead patch size over time in older birds. This change appears to be caused by a change in the sign of viability selection on forehead patch size, which is associated with a decline in the breeding value of multiple breeders. Our data thus reveal complex patterns of environmental influence on the expression of secondary sexual characters, which may have important implications for understanding selection and evolution of these characters. [source]

    Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Abstract Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy. [source]

    How female reed buntings benefit from extra-pair mating behaviour: testing hypotheses through patterns of paternity in sequential broods

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
    Abstract Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in broods of individual reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), both within and between seasons, to test four hypothesized female benefits: (1) assessing potential future partners and seeking (2) genetic diversity (3) good genes, or (4) compatible genes. Reed buntings are socially monogamous, multibrooded passerines with extremely high levels of extra-pair paternity. We studied a population of reed buntings in the Netherlands in 2002 and 2003; 51% of offspring in 74% of nests were extra-pair. We showed that patterns of EPP did not support the first and second hypotheses, since females did not form a pair with previous extra-pair partners, EPP was not evenly distributed among broods and more broods than expected were sired by a single male. Furthermore, there was no relation between a male's within- and extra-pair fertilization success, no consistency in EPP between breeding attempts, no effect of parental relatedness on EPP and several cases of reciprocal paternity. These patterns do not support the good genes hypothesis and are most consistent with the genetic compatibility hypothesis. However, our previous finding that older males are more successful in gaining EPP, suggests some effect of good genes. These hypotheses need not be mutually exclusive, as females may select compatible males above a certain quality threshold (e.g. old males). [source]

    Escaping parasitism in the selfish herd: age, size and density-dependent warble fly infestation in reindeer

    OIKOS, Issue 3 2007
    Per Fauchald
    It has been suggested that animals may escape attack from mobile parasites by aggregating in selfish herds. A selfish herd disperses the risk of being attacked among its members and the per individual risk of parasite infection should therefore decrease with increasing animal density through the encounter,dilution effect. Moreover, in a selfish herd, dominant and agile animals should occupy the best positions and thereby receive fewer attacks compared to lower ranked animals at the periphery. We tested these predictions on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) parasitized by warble flies (Hypoderma tarandi). Warble flies oviposit their eggs on reindeer during summer and induce strong anti-parasitic behavioural responses in the herds. In this period, reindeer are sexually segregated; females and calves form large and dense herds while males are more solitary. After hatching, the warble fly larvae migrate under the skin of their host where they encyst. In the present study encysted larvae were counted on newly slaughtered hides of male calves and 1.5 year old males from 18 different reindeer herds in Finnmark, northern Norway with large contrasts in reindeer density. In reindeer, body mass is correlated with fitness and social status and we hypothesized that individual carcass mass reflected the animal's ability to occupy the best positions within the herd. Larval abundance was higher among the 1.5 year old males than among the calves. For calves we found in accordance with the selfish herd hypothesis a negative relationship between larval abundance and animal density and between larval abundance and body mass. These relationships were absent for the 1.5 year old males. We suggest that these differences were due to different grouping behaviour where calves and females, but not males, aggregated in selfish herds where they escaped parasitism. [source]

    Quantification of cockroach allatostatin-like peptide and its myotropic effects in males of the earwig Euborellia annulipes

    Roy Phitayakorn
    Summary A monoclonal antibody to allatostatin I of the cockroach Diploptera punctata was used to establish a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of allatostatin-like peptides in the hindgut of the adult male earwig, Euborellia annulipes. Hindguts of 0-day males contained significantly more allatostatin-positive material than those of 8-day males fed on catfood. However, males starved for the first 8 days of adult life had significantly higher levels of allatostatin-positive material than those of either 0-day or of 8-day fed males. Hindguts from 0-day old males exhibited lower spontaneous motility in vitro than those from 8-day males. Hindguts from males at both ages responded to allostatin with reversible, dosage-dependent decreases in hindgut motility, and responded to proctolin with reversible, dosage-dependent increases in hindgut motility. When both allatostatin and proctolin were applied to hindgut preparations simultaneously and in equal concentrations, the response varied with the stage of the male. Starvation enhanced hindgut motility and abolished the response to allatostatin, but not to proctolin. These results indicate the presence of material similar to cockroach allatostatins in male earwigs, and that the levels change with age and physiological stage. Furthermore, such peptides may indeed be regulatory neuropeptides and could modulate hindgut contraction. There was an increase in sensitivity to exogenous allatostatin in the hindgut during development from day 0 to day 8 in feeding males, but a loss in sensitivity in response to starvation; sensitivity to exogenous proctolin also increased with age, but such responsiveness was not diminished by starvation. [source]

    Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta)

    L. Gould
    Abstract In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male,male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f,T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829,846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male,male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f,T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f,T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f,T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f,T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f,T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f,T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male,male aggression, f,T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male,male aggression in the early breeding period. Am. J. Primatol. 69:1325,1339, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparison of trends in method-specific suicide rates in Australia and England & Wales, 1968,97

    David Wilkinson
    Objective: To compare secular trends in method-specific suicide rates among young people in Australia and England & Wales between 1968 and 1997. Methods: Australian data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and for England & Wales from the Office for National Statistics. Overall and method-specific suicide rates for 15,34 year old males and females were calculated using ICD codes E950,9 and E980,9 except E988.8. Results: In both settings, suicide rates have almost doubled in young males over the past 30 years (from 16.8 to 32.9 per 100,000 in Australia and from 10.1 to 19.0 in England & Wales). Overall rates have changed little in young females. In both sexes and in both settings there have been substantial increases in suicide by hanging (5,7 fold increase in Australia and four-fold increase in England & Wales). There have also been smaller increases in gassing in the 1980s and'90s. In females, the impact of these increases on overall rates has been offset by a decline in drug overdose, the most common method in females. Conclusions: Rates of male suicide have increased substantially in both settings in recent years, and hanging has become an increasingly common method of suicide. The similarity in observed trends in both settings supports the view that such changes may have common causes. Research should focus on understanding why hanging has increased in popularity and what measures may be taken to diminish it. [source]

    An Almost Universal Scheme of National Service in Australia in the 1950s,

    Pam Maclean
    While the Australian Government partly justified the introduction of a universal National Service Training Scheme for eighteen-year old males in 1951 by highlighting the threat of imminent war and the consequent need for military preparedness, advocates also believed that national service encouraged the development of a sense of civil responsibility. Its confidence in the potential of national service to promote citizenship explains why the government was so strongly committed to the scheme's universality. Nonetheless, although the government went to great lengths to enforce compliance, Aborigines and those from other "non-white" backgrounds were actively discouraged from participation and women were only reluctantly admitted to the professional army. As would be expected in this period, they were never considered for national service. An examination of the rationale for national service and the associated discourse for inclusion and exclusion not only indicates the social assumptions shaping policy-making by government and bureaucratic elites in 1950s Australia, but also reveals their wider social aspirations. [source]

    Effect of short duration electromagnetic field exposures on rat mass

    Michelle A. Sandrey
    Abstract Daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements of 65 rats (young males and females, old males) a proprietary pulsed wound healing field, pulsed electromagnetic field, (PEMF), or their control fields for 4 h/day for 21 days. Statistical analysis of mass changes over time showed that young rats exposed to PEMF lost more mass and recovered it more slowly compared to controls (2,4% more loss) than did older PEMF exposed rats or any 60 Hz exposed rats. We conclude that daily preexposure and postexposure mass measurements are needed to adequately assess the effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass. Bioelectromagnetics 23:2,6, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]