Old Infants (old + infant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fluoride content of powdered infant formula meets Australian Food Safety Standards

Helen Clifford
Abstract Objectives: To identify the fluoride content of powdered formula for infants 0-12 months in products available from Brisbane stores in 2006/07 and compare this with the fluoride content of infant formula products available in Australia 10 years earlier. Methods: A range of available infant formula powders were collected from major supermarkets and chemists in Brisbane, Queensland. The fluoride levels in infant formula powder samples were determined using a modification of the micro-diffusion method of Silva and Reynolds1 utilising perchloric acid and silver sulphate and measured with an ion selective (fluoride) electrode/meter. Fluoride content both prior to and after reconstitution, as well as estimated daily intake according to age was calculated. Results: Formula samples contained an average of 0.49 ,g F/g of powder (range 0.24,0.92 ,g F/g). After reconstitution with water containing 0mg/L fluoride, the fluoride content averaged 7.09,g F/100mL (range 3.367,22.72 ,g F/100mL). Estimated infant fluoride intakes ranged from 0.0039 mg/kg/day for a 6-12 month old infant when reconstituting milk-based formula with non-fluoridated water (0 mg/L), to 0.1735 mg/kg/day for a 0-3 month old infant when reconstituting soy-based formula with fluoridated water (1.0 mg/L). Conclusions: Infant formula powders contain lower levels of fluoride than previously found in Australia in 1996. Implications: This confirms that infants consume only a small amount of fluoride from milk-based powdered infant formula. Although soy-based infant formulas contain more fluoride than milk-based products, the levels still comply with national food standards. [source]

Neonatal renal vein thrombosis and prothrombotic risk

SL Harris
Abstract A case of extensive deep venous thrombosis in a four a day old infant was presented. Unusually this patient was shown to be heterozygous for three thrombophilia genes; Factor V Leiden, prothrombin and antithrombin gene mutations, the latter being novel. Conclusion: There are no randomized controlled trials to guide management in deep venous thrombosis in the newborn but knowledge of the prothrombotic risk factors may help direct treatment. [source]

Expression of negative affect during face-to-face interaction: a double video study of young infants' sensitivity to social contingency

Hanne C. Braarud
Abstract The purpose was to assess infants' sensitivity to social contingency, taking affective state into account, during face-to-face interaction with the mother in a double video set-up. Infants' behaviour during three sequences of live face-to-face interaction were compared to two sequences where the interaction between the infant and the mother was set out of phase, by presenting either the infant or the mother with a replay of their partners' behaviour during earlier live interaction. We found a significant negative correlation between the infant's degree of negative affect and the average time of looking at the mother during the live sequences. A median split was calculated to separate the infants into a high-negative-affect group and a low-negative-affect group on the basis of their emotional responses during the experiment. The low-negative-affect infants looked significantly more at their mothers than other foci during the live but not the replay sequences, while the high-negative-affect infants did not show this difference. The results suggest that 2,4-month old infants are able to distinguish between experimental distortion of contingent aspects in live and replay sequences, but that this effect of the replay condition may not be shown by moderate to highly distressed infants. Our findings underline the importance of taking infants' emotional state into account in experiments intended to assess their capacity for intersubjective communication. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Translation and restandardization of an instrument: the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire

Elisabeth O.C. Hall PhD RN
Aims of the study. ,To test the psychometric properties of a Danish translation of the Early Infant Temperament Questionnaire (EITQ) and to establish standards for scoring the questionnaire. Rationale. ,The general aim was to create a translation that remained close to the original version, was meaningful for the Danish participants, and had acceptable psychometric properties. Background. ,Patterns of temperament can be discerned early in life and tend to persist over time and across situations. For the past 50 years, temperament has been studied by theorists, clinicians and nurse clinicians to predict behaviour, discover interventions that prevent serious behaviour disturbances, and help parents understand the implications of their child's temperament. Thomas and Chess's conceptualization of temperament in nine categories was the framework for the development of the English-language EITQ. Research methods. ,The translation followed a stepwise process of translation, back translation and consensus. A convenience sample of 204 Danish mothers with 1,4-month old infants completed the translated questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire in 1999. Results. ,Alpha coefficients for the nine subscales ranged from 0·59 to 0·82. All alpha coefficients were comparable to or higher than those reported on the original United States standardization study. There were statistically significant differences between reported United States mean scores and those in the Danish sample. Discussion. ,The psychometric properties of the Danish translation are equal to or better than those reported for the United States study. Differences in mean scores or most subscales point to the need to create Danish profiles for scoring. Conclusions. ,The Danish version of the EITQ has acceptable reliability and is ready for use in Denmark. [source]

Evaluation of the birthweight values of newborns presenting at the Mother,Child Health and Family Planning Center in Yenibosna, Istanbul, Turkey

Gülümser Dolgun rn
Abstract This study was conducted to examine the effect of a number of variables related to the mother (age, educational level, employment status, cigarette smoking during pregnancy) and to the baby (sex and birth order) on newborns' birthweight. The research was carried out in the province of Istanbul, one of Turkey's large metropolises, at the Mother,Child Health and Family Planning Center in the district of Yenibosna, where 0,1 month old infants had been brought in for phenylketonuria screening and vaccinations. The mean age of the mothers was 26.1 ± 4.8 years and the mean birthweight of the newborns was 3236.7 ± 542.2 g. Of the infants, 6.3% were classified as having a low birthweight and 8.3% were large infants. The mean birthweight showed a statistical significance depending upon the infants' sex and birth order. The mean birthweight of the infants of the working mothers, as opposed to the unemployed mothers and the mothers in nuclear families, as opposed to the mothers in extended families, was higher. [source]

Effect of formula thickened with reduced concentration of locust bean gum on gastroesophageal reflux

R Miyazawa
Abstract Aim: Previous studies showed that HL-350, a formula thickened with a reduced concentration of locust bean gum, decreased frequent regurgitation in 4-month old infants with reflux. In this study, we investigated the effect of HL-350 in younger infants. Methods: We studied 20 infants less than 2 months old who had three or more episodes of regurgitation or vomiting per day. Ten infants (group A) were fed with HL-350 for the first week, and with control milk, HL-00, for the following week. The other 10 infants (group B) were fed in reverse order. Mothers recorded number of regurgitation episodes, feeding volume and time and number of bowel movements. To evaluate gastric emptying we measured antral cross sectional areas ultrasonographically at various time points after feeding. Results: The median number of regurgitation episodes decreased significantly with feeding of HL-350 (2.3/day) compared to feeding with control milk (5.2/day) (p = 0.00048). No significant difference was evident in feeding volume and time, body weight gain, or gastric emptying rate between HL-350 and control milk. Conclusion: HL-350 decreased the number of regurgitation episodes without affecting gastric emptying delay in very young infants with recurrent vomiting. [source]