Old Cells (old + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The transcriptome: malariologists ride the wave

BIOESSAYS, Issue 4 2004
R.J.M.(Iain) Wilson
The Plasmodium falciparum genome-sequencing project has provided malariologists with vast amounts of new information pertinent to a multitude of cellular processes that previously were only guessed about. In exploring this morass of predicted genes and proteins, there is now a danger of simply re-inventing the cell. Fortunately, new global transcriptional analyses reassure malariologists that they are not dealing with just "any old cell." The informative papers on the plasmodial transcriptome by Le Roch et al. (2003)1 and Bozdech et al. (2003)2 discussed below forge a bridge between the genomics and proteomics of P. falciparum. They are likely to act as a fulcrum upon which much future research will turn: for example, the study of regulation and feed-back loops. BioEssays 26:339,342, 2004. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Slit-flow ektacytometry: Laser diffraction in a slit rheometer

CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
Sehyun Shin
Abstract Background Deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) is a determinant of blood flow resistance as RBCs pass through small capillaries of the microcirculation. Available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require a washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use. Methods A laser diffraction technique has been combined with slit-flow rheometry, which shows significant advances in ektacytometric design, operation, and data analysis. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element that is in contact with the blood sample. Results With slit ektacytometry, the deformation of RBCs subjected to continuously decreasing shear stress in a slit flow can be quickly measured with extremely small quantities of blood. The measurements with the slit ektacytometer were compared with those of LORCA and a strong correlation was apparent. The deformability of the hardened RBCs was markedly lower than that of the normal RBCs. In addition, the young cells showed higher values of the elongation index than did the old cells. Conclusions The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, the slit ektacytometer can be easily used in a clinical setting owing to the incorporation of a disposable element that holds the blood sample. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A new fate for old cells: brush cells and related elements

A. Sbarbati
Abstract Over the past 50 years, hundreds of studies have described those cells that are characterized by a brush of rigid apical microvilli with long rootlets, and which are found in the digestive and respiratory apparatuses. These cells have been given names such as brush cells, tuft cells, fibrillovesicular cells, multivesicular cells and caveolated cells. More recently, it has been realized that all these elements may represent a single cell type, probably with a chemosensory role, even if other functions (e.g. secretory or absorptive) seem to be possible. Very recent developments have permitted a partial definition of the chemical code characterizing these elements, revealing the presence of molecules involved in chemoreceptorial cell signalling. A molecular cascade, similar to those characterizing the gustatory epithelium, seems to be present in these elements. These new data suggest that these elements can be considered solitary chemosensory cells with the presence of the apical ,brush' as an inconsistent feature. They seem to comprise a diffuse chemosensory system that covers large areas (probably the whole digestive and respiratory apparatuses) with analogies to chemosensory systems described in aquatic vertebrates. [source]

Age-related differences in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling regulates Akt/FOXO3a and ERK/Fos pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells

Muyao Li
Advanced age is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, but how aging per se influences pathogenesis is not clear. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) promotes aortic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, migration, and extracellular matrix formation, but how IGF-1R signaling changes with age in VSMC is not known. We previously found age-related differences in the activation of Akt/FOXO3a and ERK1/2 pathways in VSMC, but the upstream signaling remains unclear. Using explanted VSMC from Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats shown to display age-related vascular pathology similar to humans, we compared IGF-1R expression in early passages of VSMC and found a constitutive activation of IGF-1R in VSMC from old compared to young rats, including IGF-1R expression and its tyrosine kinase activity. The link between IGF-1R activation and the Akt/FOXO3a and ERK pathways was confirmed through the induction of IGF-1R with IGF-1 in young cells and attenuation of IGF-1R with an inhibitor in old cells. The effects of three kinase inhibitors: AG1024, LY294002, and TCN, were compared in VSMC from old rats to differentiate IGF-1R from other upstream signaling that could also regulate the Akt/FOXO and ERK pathways. Genes for p27kip-1, catalase and MnSOD, which play important roles in the control of cell cycle arrest and stress resistance, were found to be FOXO3a-targets based on FOXO3a-siRNA treatment. Furthermore, IGF-1R signaling modulated these genes through activation of the Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Therefore, activation of IGF-1R signaling influences VSMC function in old rats and may contribute to the increased risk for atherosclerosis. J. Cell. Physiol. 217: 377,387, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Aging-dependent upregulation of IL-23p19 gene expression in dendritic cells is associated with differential transcription factor binding and histone modifications

AGING CELL, Issue 5 2009
Rabab El Mezayen
Summary Age-associated changes in immune response increase the risk of infection and promote inflammation and autoimmunity in older adults. The newly discovered cytokine IL-23 contributes to the maintenance and expansion of Th-17 cells, which promote proinflammatory responses. Our preliminary findings suggested that Th-17 responses are increased in aged mice. IL-23 consists of p40 and p19 subunits. Expression of the p19 subunit is regulated at the transcriptional level by NF-,B p65 and c-Rel transcription factors. Using bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from C57BL/6 mice, we show that IL-23 protein production and p19 subunit mRNA levels are significantly increased in DCs from aged mice after activation with TLR ligands (LPS + R848) when compared with DCs of young adult mice. We found that the increase in p19 expression in aged cells is associated with chromatin remodeling characterized by di- and tri-methylation of histone H3K4 and binding of mainly c-Rel at the p19 promoter. In young DCs, the promoter is tri-methylated only at H3K4 and bound by both p65 and c-Rel. C-Rel knockdown restores p65 binding in aged cells but does not activate p19 expression, suggesting that c-Rel is critical for p19 expression. In addition, p65 knockdown significantly increases c-Rel binding and p19 expression in young DCs to levels close to those detected in old cells. Furthermore, the decrease in p65 binding at the p19 promoter in old DCs was specific to the p19 gene since p65 binding to the IL-12p40 promoter was not significantly different between old and young DCs. Our results demonstrate that selective changes in H3K4 methylation, and c-Rel and p65 binding at the p19 promoter occur in DCs and contribute to the upregulation of the p19 subunit expression and IL-23 protein production observed in aged mice. This suggests epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms contribute to dysregulated inflammatory and autoimmune responses associated with aging. [source]

The acute inflammatory reaction: new concepts for old cells

Proceedings of a Gunnar Birke Symposium
First page of article [source]

Human thiopurine methyltransferase activity varies with red blood cell age

L. Lennard
Aims, Inherited differences in thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity are an important factor in the wide interindividual variations observed in the clinical response to thiopurine chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to establish a population range for red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at disease diagnosis. An additional aim was to investigate factors that can influence TPMT activity within the RBC. Methods,Blood samples were collected from children with ALL at disease diagnosis, prior to any blood transfusions, as part of the nationwide UK MRC ALL97 therapeutic trial. RBC TPMT activity was measured by h.p.l.c. RBCs were age-fractionated on Percoll density gradients. Results,Pretreatment blood samples were received from 570 children within 3 days of venepuncture. TPMT activities at disease diagnosis ranged from 1.6 to 23.6 units/ml RBCs (median 7.9) compared with 0.654,18.8 units (median 12.9), in 111 healthy control children (median difference 4.5 units, 95% CI 3.9, 5.1 units, P < 0.001). A TPMT quality control sample, aliquots of which were assayed in 60 analytical runs over a 12 month period, contained a median of 11.98 units with a CV of 11.6%. Seven children had their RBCs age-fractionated on density gradients. TPMT activities in the top gradient (young cells) ranged from 4.2 to 14.1 units (median 7.5) and in the bottom gradient (old cells) 1.5,12.6 units (median 4.7 units), median difference 2.3 units, 95% CI 0.7, 4.1, P = 0.035. Conclusions,Circulating RBCs do not constitute a homogeneous population. They have a life span of around 120 days and during that time undergo a progressive ageing process. The anaemia of ALL is due to deficient RBC production. The results of this study indicate that RBC TPMT activities are significantly lower in children with ALL at disease diagnosis. This may be due, at least in part, to a relative excess of older RBCs. [source]

Eosinophils: ,new' roles for ,old' cells

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2004
A. Munitz
Prominent blood and tissue eosinophilia is manifested in a number of inflammatory states, particularly in allergic diseases. Eosinophils are a source of numerous cytokines and growth factors, thus in principle they can display both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities as well as immunoregulatory ones. In this review, we will discuss the cross-talk between eosinophils and other cell types that they come in contact with in the inflammatory milieu, such as mast cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. ,New' roles for eosinophils in cancer and novel activatory signals will also be described. [source]