Old Age (old + age)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Old Age

  • very old age

  • Terms modified by Old Age

  • old age groups
  • old age psychiatry

  • Selected Abstracts

    Old Age and Outcome After Primary Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Menko-Jan De Boer MD
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of age as an independent factor determining the prognosis and outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated using primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DESIGN: A retrospective analysis from a dedicated database. SETTING: A high-volume interventional cardiology center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand nine hundred thirty-three consecutive patients with AMI. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes after 30 days and 1 year were compared according to age categorized in three groups: younger than 65, 65 to 74, and 75 and older. A more-detailed analysis was performed with six age groups, from younger than 40 to 80 and older. RESULTS: Of the 4,933 consecutive patients with AMI treated with PCI between 1992 and 2004, 643 were aged 75 and older. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients aged 65 to 75 had a greater risk of 1-year mortality than those younger than 65 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.15,2.16) and that those aged 75 and older had a greater risk of 1-year mortality than those younger than 65 (AOR=3.03, 95% CI=2.14,4.29). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective analysis, older age was independently associated with greater mortality after PCI for AMI. Patients aged 65 and older had a higher risk of mortality than younger patients, and those aged 75 and older had the highest risk of mortality. [source]

    Holocaust Survivors in Old Age: The Jerusalem Longitudinal Study

    Jochanan Stesssman MD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. SETTING: Community-based home assessments. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. RESULTS: Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greter 7-year mortality. CONCLUSION: Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality. [source]

    Serum Calcium and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    Miranda T. Schram PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether serum calcium is associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals in the general population. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of two independent, population-based cohorts. SETTING: The Rotterdam Study (median follow-up 11 years) and the Leiden 85-plus Study (median follow-up 5 years). PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand nine hundred ninety-four individuals, mean age 71, from the Rotterdam Study and 560 individuals, all aged 85, from the Leiden 85-plus Study. MEASUREMENTS: Global cognitive function was assessed in both cohorts using the Mini-Mental State Examination; attention, psychomotor speed, and memory function were assessed in the Leiden 85-plus Study only. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: In the Rotterdam Study, high serum calcium was associated with worse global cognitive function at baseline (P<.05) and a faster rate of decline in cognitive function during follow-up (P=.005) in individuals aged 75 and older but not in younger individuals. In the Leiden 85-plus Study, high serum calcium was associated with worse global cognitive function from age 85 through 90 (P<.001). This observation also held for the specific cognitive domains tested (all P<.01). These results did not change when individuals with serum calcium levels greater than normal (>2.55 mmol/L) were excluded from the analyses. CONCLUSION: In the general population, high serum calcium levels are associated with faster decline in cognitive function over the age of 75. [source]

    Cholesterol and Health in Old Age: Risk Factor or Risk Marker?

    Tamara B. Harris MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Highlights of Papers in Clinical Investigations Section: Depressive Disorder as a Predictor of Physical Disability in Old Age

    S-L Kivela
    In this longitudinal study with a 5-year follow-up, 786 subjects were assessed for the impact of depression on physical disability. Depression present at baseline did not predict lowering of functional abilities during the follow-up period. However, new-onset depression that was relapsing or long-term in course was associated with increased risk for lowering functional abilities, even when age, sociodemographic factors, physical diseases, and baseline disabilities were controlled. Depressed older people should be placed on a program to maintain their functional abilities through physical exercise and training in activities of daily living and intermediate activities of daily living. [source]

    Construction of the Femoral Neck During Growth Determines Its Strength in Old Age,

    Roger M D Zebaze
    Abstract Study of the design of the FN in vivo in 697 women and in vitro in 200 cross-sections of different sizes and shapes along each of 13 FN specimens revealed that strength in old age was largely achieved during growth by differences in the distribution rather than the amount of bone material in a given FN cross-section from individual to individual. Introduction: We studied the design of the femoral neck (FN) to gain insight into the structural basis of FN strength in adulthood and FN fragility in old age. Materials and Methods: Studies in vivo were performed using densitometry in 697 women and in vitro using high-resolution ,CT and direct measurements in 13 pairs of postmortem specimens. Results: The contradictory needs of strength for loading yet lightness for mobility were met by varying FN size, shape, spatial distribution, and proportions of its trabecular and cortical bone in a cross-section, not its mass. Wider and narrower FNs were constructed with similar amounts of bone material. Wider FNs were relatively lighter: a 1 SD higher FN volume had a 0.67 (95% CI, 0.61,0.72) SD lower volumetric BMD (vBMD). A 1 SD increment in height was achieved by increasing FN volume by 0.32 (95% CI, 0.25,0.39) SD with only 0.15 (95% CI, 0.08,0.22) SD more bone, so taller individuals had a relatively lighter FN (vBMD was 0.13 [95% CI, 0.05,0.20 SD] SD lower). Greater periosteal apposition constructing a wider FN was offset by even greater endocortical resorption so that the same net amount of bone was distributed as a thinner cortex further from the neutral axis, increasing resistance to bending and lowering vBMD. This was recapitulated at each point along the FN; varying absolute and relative degrees of periosteal apposition and endocortical resorption focally used the same amount of material to fashion an elliptical FN of mainly cortical bone near the femoral shaft to offset bending but a more circular FN of proportionally more trabecular and less cortical bone to accommodate compressive loads adjacent to the pelvis. This structural heterogeneity was largely achieved by adaptive modeling and remodeling during growth,most of the variance in FN volume, BMC, and vBMD was growth related. Conclusions: Altering structural design while minimizing mass achieves FN strength and lightness. Bone fragility may be the result of failure to adapt bone's architecture to loading, not just low bone mass. [source]

    Beyond Parental Status: Psychological Well-Being in Middle and Old Age

    Tanya Koropeckyj-Cox
    Surveys show little evidence of psychosocial disadvantage among childless middle-aged and older adults, but less is known about the diverse experiences that influence subjective well-being among parents and childless adults. In this article, the author uses the National Survey of Families and Households to test a parental-status typology on the basis of attitudes among childless adults and parent-child relationship quality and the connection of these factors with loneliness and depression. Poorer parent-child relationships are linked to worse outcomes for both mothers and fathers, net of other factors. For childless adults, negative attitudes about childlessness are associated with greater distress for women than for men. [source]

    Diabetes in Old Age.

    Edited by Alan J Sinclair.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Quality of Care After Early Childhood Trauma and Well-Being in Later Life: Child Holocaust Survivors Reaching Old Age

    Elisheva van der Hal-van Raalte PhD
    The link between deprivation and trauma during earliest childhood and psychosocial functioning and health in later life was investigated in a group of child Holocaust survivors. In a nonconvenience sample 203 survivors, born between 1935 and 1944, completed questionnaires on Holocaust survival experience and several inventories on current health, depression, posttraumatic stress, loneliness, and attachment style. Quality of postwar care arrangements and current physical health independently predicted lack of well-being in old age. Loss of parents during the persecution, year of birth of the survivors (being born before or during the war), and memories of the Holocaust did not significantly affect present well-being. Lack of adequate care after the end of World War II is associated with lower well-being of the youngest Holocaust child survivors, even after an intervening period of 60 years. Our study validates Keilson's (1992) concept of "sequential traumatization," and points to the importance of aftertrauma care in decreasing the impact of early childhood trauma. [source]

    Treatment of erythema multiforme, Stevens,Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Klemens Rappersberger
    The "erythema multiforme disease spectrum" comprises four distinct, severe, clinical subvariants: (1) bullous erythema multiforme (bullous-EM), (2) Stevens,Johnson syndrome (SJS), (3) SJS,toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-overlap syndrome, and (4) TEN. These diseases are closely related to severe mucocutaneous intolerance reactions that are mostly elicited by drugs/drug metabolites and associated with a high mortality rate. Old age and area of detached skin negatively influence the course of disease, and early withdrawal of causative drugs with short half-life is a positive prognostic factor. Therapeutic management represents a multidisciplinary challenge for colleagues from various specialities including specialized nurses and usually can be performed at a dermatologic ward unless technical equipment of an intensive care unit is needed. Topical therapy with biologic and (semi-)synthetic dressings is aimed at early re-epithelialization and the prevention of scarring, synechia formation, and infection. Systemic treatment includes antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement, protein preparations and blood products, etc. Various anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment regimens with corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide, plasmapheresis have been considered to halt ongoing immunologic pathomechanisms, and some of these have shown significant efficacy. However, because we lack formal clinical trials, none of these regimens can be definitively proposed as a therapy of choice in any of the severe clinical variants of the EM spectrum. [source]

    Deliberate self-harm in older adults: a review of the literature from 1995 to 2004

    Jenifer Chan
    Abstract Background The prevention of suicide is a national and international policy priority. Old age is an important predictor of completed suicide. Suicide rates in old age differ markedly from country to country but there is a general trend towards increasing rates with increasing age. In 1996 Draper reviewed critically the evidence on attempted suicide in old age in the 10 years between 1985 and 1994. The review highlighted a need for prospective controlled studies in older people with more representative samples as well as studies examining the interaction of risk factors, precipitants, motivations, psychopathology and response to treatment. The aim of this paper is to update this review and to summarise the advances in our understanding of DSH in later life. Method We have critically reviewed relevant studies published between 1995 and 2004 to summarise the advances in our understanding of factors associated with deliberate self-harm in later life. Results The main advances in understanding have been to clarify the effect of personality and cultural factors, service utilisation pre and post attempt, and the (lesser) impact of socio-economic status and physical illness. Methodological weaknesses continue to include inadequate sample sizes performed on highly selected populations, inconsistent age criteria and lack of informant data on studies relating to role of personality. Conclusions Future studies should include prospective, cross-cultural research with adequate sample sizes and which are population-based. Such approaches might confirm or refute the results generated to date and improve knowledge on factors such as the biological correlates of deliberate self-harm, service utilisation, costs and barriers to health care, and the interaction of these factors. Intervention studies to elucidate the impact of modifying these factors and of specific treatment packages are also needed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Energy Regulation and Aging: Recent Findings and Their Implications

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 4 2000
    Susan B. Roberts Ph.D.
    Old age is a time of vulnerability to unintentional weight loss, a factor that is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Many possible causes of weight loss in old age have been suggested. The so-called anorexia of aging may play a particular role, by either reducing food intake directly or reducing food intake in response to such adverse factors as age-associated reductions in taste and smell, poor dentition, use of multiple prescription medicines, and depression. Recent studies also raise the question of whether a reduction in dietary variety may be important. These findings emphasize the need for regular monitoring of body weight to detect unintentional weight loss in older individuals and suggest testable ways to minimize the impact of the anorexia of aging on body weight through improved dietary management. [source]

    Primary melioidotic prostatic abscess: Presentation, diagnosis and management

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2002
    James K. Tan
    Introduction:, In South-East Asia and Northern Australia, melioidosis (infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei) is a known cause of severe community-acquired sepsis. However, melioidosis presenting primarily as prostatic abscesses is very rare. Methods:, The presenting features, investigations and management outcome of five patients who developed melioidotic prostatic abscesses from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed in the present study. Results:, The mean age at presentation was 53 years (range: 29,69). Old age and diabetes mellitus were predisposing factors. All patients had a fever of at least 38.5°C and presented with obstructive urinary symptoms culminating in urinary retention. Presence of prostatic abscess was demonstrated by transrectal ultrasound in all cases. The abscesses were drained with transurethral resection of the prostate. One patient required re-resection while another patient developed severe septic shock requiring intensive care and ­inotropic support. There was no mortality in our series. Conclusions:, Elderly diabetic men presenting with fever and urinary tract obstruction in endemic areas may harbour an unusual but potentially life threatening melioidotic prostatic abscess. Transrectal ultrasound and bacteriological confirmation are mandatory. Prompt surgical drainage coupled with appropriate antibiotics are keys to a favourable outcome. [source]

    Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function: genes to proteins

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    I. R. Lanza
    Abstract The impact of ageing on mitochondrial function and the deterministic role of mitochondria on senescence continue to be topics of vigorous debate. Many studies report that skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function are reduced with ageing and metabolic diseases associated with insulin resistance. However, an accumulating body of literature suggests that physical inactivity typical of ageing may be a more important determinant of mitochondrial function than chronological age, per se. Reports of age-related declines in mitochondrial function have spawned a vast body of literature devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms. These mechanisms include decreased abundance of mtDNA, reduced mRNA levels, as well as decreased synthesis and expression of mitochondrial proteins, ultimately resulting in decreased function of the whole organelle. Effective therapies to prevent, reverse or delay the onset of the aforementioned mitochondrial changes, regardless of their inevitability or precise underlying causes, require an intimate understanding of the processes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, which necessitates the coordinated regulation of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Herein we review the current thinking on regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by transcription factors and transcriptional co-activators and the role of hormones and exercise in initiating this process. We review how exercise may help preserve mitochondrial content and functionality across the lifespan, and how physical inactivity is emerging as a major determinant of many age-associated changes at the level of the mitochondrion. We also review evidence that some mitochondrial changes with ageing are independent of exercise or physical activity and appear to be inevitable consequences of old age. [source]

    Free radical generation and oxidative stress with ageing and exercise: Differential effects in the myocardium and liver

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2000
    Reactive oxygen species and other oxidants are implicated in the mechanisms of biological ageing and exercise-induced tissue damage. The present study examined the effects of ageing and an acute bout of exercise on intracellular oxidant generation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione (GSH) status in the heart and liver of young adult (8 month, N=24) and old (24 month, N=24) male Fischer 344 rats. Young rats ran on treadmill at 25 m min,1, 5% grade until exhaustion (55.4 ± 2.7 min), whereas old rats ran at 15 m min,1, 5% until exhaustion (58.0 ± 2.7 min). Rate of dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) oxidation, an indication of intracellular oxidant production, was significantly higher in the homogenates of aged heart and liver compared with their young counterparts. In the isolated heart and liver mitochondria, ageing increased oxidant production by 29 and 32% (P < 0.05), respectively. Acute exercise increased oxidant production in the aged heart but not in the liver. When nicodinamide dinucleotide phosphate (reduced), adenosine diphosphate and Fe3+ were included in the assay, DCFH oxidation rate was 47 and 34% higher (P < 0.05) in the aged heart and liver homogenates, respectively, than the young ones. The age differences in the induced state reached 83 and 140% (P < 0.01) in isolated heart and liver mitochondria, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was increased in the aged liver and exercised aged heart, whereas protein carbonyl content was elevated only in the aged heart (P < 0.05). Although our data using DCFH method probably underestimated cellular oxidant production because of time delay and antioxidant competition, it is clear that oxidative stress was enhanced in both heart and liver with old age. Furthermore, aged myocardium showed greater susceptibility to oxidative stress after heavy exercise. [source]

    The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population.

    A 5-year follow-up
    Karlsson B, Sigström R, Waern M, Östling S, Gustafson D, Skoog I. The prognosis and incidence of social phobia in an elderly population. A 5-year follow-up. Objective:, To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years. Method:, A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78,86) was investigated in 2000,2001 and in 2005,2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results:, Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005. Conclusion:, These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age. [source]

    Developmental delay and unstable state of the testes in the rdw rat with congenital hypothyroidism

    Yasuhiro Sakai
    From the present study of the rdw rat, it is clear that the thyroid hormone is essential for the development and maintenance of the testes. In previous studies, the thyroid hormone has few serious effects on the testes except during the neonatal stage when the thyroid hormone receptor is mainly present. However, there is little knowledge concerning the prolonged effect of thyroid hormone deficiency throughout the rat's life span. In the present study, a morphological analysis was performed on the testes of rdw rats with congenital hypothyroidism. The rdw testes required a longer time to develop into the normal adult structure. Moreover, the developed, normal structure began to degenerate after full maturation. Specific characteristics of the rdw testes include: (i) a prolonged proliferation of Sertoli cells during postnatal development; (ii) a developmental delay in the appearance of spermatocytes and spermatid; (iii) direct contact with each other for both spermatocytes and spermatids, without Sertoli cell cytoplasm completely intervening between adjacent germ cells; (iv) subsequent apoptosis of germ cells after maturation; (v) reduction in the height of the seminiferous epithelium; and (vi) lower testosterone levels in the rdw rats, especially during old age. Thus, we conclude that the thyroid hormone plays an important role in developing and maintaining normal function of testes. [source]

    Cross-sectional analysis of the association between age and corpus callosum size in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    William D. Hopkins
    Abstract The CC is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres and provides for interhemispheric integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has been frequently used as a marker of brain development in humans. We report the first investigation into the development of the corpus callosum and its regional subdivisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Magnetic resonance images were collected from 104 chimpanzees (female n,=,63, male n,=,41) ranging in age from 6 years (pre-pubescent period) to 54 years (old age). Sustained linear growth was observed in the area of the CC subdivision of the genu; areas of the posterior midbody and anterior midbody displayed nonlinear growth during development. After adjusting for total brain size, we observed linear growth trajectories of the total CC and CC subdivisions of the genu, posterior midbody, isthmus and splenium, and nonlinear growth trajectories of the rostral body and anterior midbody. These developmental patterns are similar to the development of the CC in humans. As the growth curves of the CC mirrors growth seen in the percentage of white matter in humans, our results suggest chimpanzees show continued white matter development in regions related to cognitive development. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52:133,141, 2010 [source]

    Psychiatric epidemiology of old age: the H70 study , the NAPE Lecture 2003

    I. Skoog
    Objective: To describe methodological issues and possibilities in the epidemiology of old age psychiatry using data from the H70 study in Göteborg, Sweden. Method: A representative sample born during 1901,02 was examined at 70, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99 and 100 years of age, another during 1906,07 was examined at 70 and 79 years of age, and samples born between 1922 and 1930 were examined at 70 years of age. The study includes psychiatric examinations and key informant interviews performed by psychiatrists, physical examinations performed by geriatricians, psychometric testings, blood sampling, computerized tomographies of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, anthropometric measurements, and psychosocial background factors. Results: Mental disorders are found in approximately 30% of the elderly, but is seldom detected or properly treated. Incidence of depression and dementia increases with age. The relationship between blood pressure and Alzheimer's disease is an example of how cross-sectional and longitudinal studies yield completely different results. Brain imaging is an important tool in epidemiologic studies of the elderly to detect silent cerebrovascular disease and other structural brain changes. The high prevalence of psychotic symptoms is an example of the importance to use several sources of information to detect these symptoms. Dementia should be diagnosed in all types of studies in the elderly, as it influences several outcomes such as mortality, blood pressure, and rates of depression. Suicidal feelings are rare in the elderly and are strongly related to mental disorders. Conclusion: Modern epidemiologic studies in population samples should be longitudinal and include assessments of psychosocial risk factors as well as comprehensive sets of biologic markers, such as brain imaging, neurochemical analyses, and genetic information to maximize the contribution that epidemiology can provide to increase our knowledge about the etiology of mental disorders. [source]

    Poverty among the elderly in late Victorian England1

    Despite rapid increases in manual workers' wages, poverty rates among the elderly remained high in late Victorian England, although they varied significantly across Poor Law Unions. This paper begins by examining the ability of workers to provide for their old age. A data set is constructed, consisting of all English Poor Law Unions in 1891,2, and regression equations are estimated in order to explain variations across unions in pauperism rates. This is followed by the testing of several conjectures made by contemporaries, and repeated by historians, regarding the deterrent effect of workhouse relief, the effects of wages and of the industrial character of Poor Law Unions on pauperism rates, and regional differences in workers' reliance on the poor law. The paper then examines the implications of these results for the debate over national old age pensions in the decades before the adoption of the Old Age Pension Act. [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2007
    This paper studies investment in health and human capital in a life cycle model. Health investment enhances survival to old age by improving health from its endowed level. The model predicts two distinctive phases of development. When income is low enough, the economy has no health investment and little savings, leading to slow growth. When income grows, health investment will become positive and the saving rate will rise, leading to higher life expectancy and faster growth. A health subsidy can move the economy from the first phase to the next. Subsidies on health and human capital investments can improve welfare. (JEL I00, J10, H50, O10) [source]

    Early detection and prevention of delirium in older patients with cancer

    K. MILISEN phd, rn 1
    Delirium poses a common and multifactorial complication in older patients with cancer. Delirium independently contributes to poorer clinical outcomes and impedes communication between patients with cancer, their family and health care providers. Because of its clinical impact and potential reversibility, efforts for prevention, early recognition or prompt treatment are critical. However, nurses and other health care providers often fail to recognize delirium or misattribute its symptoms to dementia, depression or old age. Yet, failure to determine an individual's risk for delirium can initiate the cascade of negative events causing additional distress for patients, family and health care providers alike. Therefore, parameters for determining an individual's risk for delirium and guidelines for the routine and systematic assessment of cognitive functioning are provided to form a basis for the prompt and accurate diagnosis of delirium. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of delirium are also discussed. [source]

    ADP-induced platelet aggregation in acute ischemic stroke patients on aspirin therapy

    J.-K. Cha
    Background and purpose:, Aspirin is an important therapeutic regimen to prevent the recurrent ischemic events or death after acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the extent of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -induced platelet aggregation and outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients on aspirin therapy. Methods:, We selected 107 acute ischemic stroke patients who had been prescribed aspirin and evaluated platelet function test by using optic platelet aggregometer test after 5 days of taking it and investigated the prognosis 90 days after ischemic events. Kaplan,Meyer curve was used for survival analysis. Results:, After stratification of the subjected patients by tertiles of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, the events rates were 7.4%, 9.3% and 30.8% (P = 0.023). In multiple logistic regression analysis, old age over 70 years (OR, 13.7; 95% CI, 2.14,88.07; P = 0.001) and the increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation had independent significance to the risk of primary end-points after acute ischemic stroke (OR, 1.1; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; P = 0.026). Conclusions:, This study showed that the increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation under using aspirin is associated with poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke. [source]

    The role of NGF uptake in selective vulnerability to cell death in ageing sympathetic neurons

    Kliment P. Gatzinsky
    Abstract We have examined the hypothesis that differences in nerve growth factor (NGF) uptake and transport determine vulnerability to age-related neurodegeneration. Neurons projecting to cerebral blood vessels (CV) in aged rats are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration than those projecting to the iris. Uptake of NGF was therefore examined in sympathetic neurons projecting from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) to CV and iris in young and old rats by treating the peripheral processes of these neurons with different doses of I125 -NGF. Total uptake of I125 -NGF was reduced in old CV-projecting, but not iris-projecting, neurons. Numbers of radiolabelled neurons projecting to each target were counted in sectioned ganglia. The data showed age-related reductions in numbers of labelled neurons projecting to CV, but no change in numbers of neurons projecting to the iris. Calculation of uptake of I125 -NGF per neuron unexpectedly showed no major age-related differences in either of the two neuron populations. However, uptake per neuron was considerably lower for young and old CV-projecting, compared to iris-projecting, SCG neurons. We hypothesized that variations in NGF uptake might affect neuronal survival in old age. Counts of SCG neurons using a physical disector following retrograde tracing with Fluorogold confirmed the selective vulnerability of CV-projecting neurons by showing a significant 37% loss of these neurons in the period between 15 and 24 months. In contrast, there was no significant loss of iris-projecting neurons. We conclude that vulnerability to, or protection from, age-related neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death are associated with life-long low, or high, levels of NGF uptake, respectively. [source]

    Myotendinous plasticity to ageing and resistance exercise in humans

    N. D. Reeves
    The age-related loss of muscle mass known as senile sarcopenia is one of the main determinants of frailty in old age. Molecular, cellular, nutritional and hormonal mechanisms are at the basis of sarcopenia and are responsible for a progressive deterioration in skeletal muscle size and function. Both at single-fibre and at whole-muscle level, the loss of force exceeds that predicted by the decrease in muscle size. For single fibres, the loss of intrinsic force is mostly due to a loss in myofibrillar protein content. For whole muscle, in addition to changes in neural drive, alterations in muscle architecture and in tendon mechanical properties, exemplified by a reduction in tendon stiffness, have recently been shown to contribute to this phenomenon. Resistance training can, however, cause substantial gains in muscle mass and strength and provides a protective effect against several of the cellular and molecular changes associated with muscle wasting and weakness. In old age, not only muscles but also tendons are highly responsive to training, since an increase in tendon stiffness has been observed after a period of increased loading. Many of the myotendinous factors characterizing ageing can be at least partly reversed by resistance training. [source]

    Different roles of natural and sexual selection on senescence of plumage colour in the barn swallow

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Ismael Galván
    Summary 1Colour may show effects of senescence because the pigment or structures involved in production of colouration deteriorate with age. 2We tested this hypothesis by investigating age-related changes in plumage colour for two feather tracts coloured by eumelanin or pheomelanin in a longitudinal study of a cohort of barn swallows Hirundo rustica that reached very old age (at least 5 years). 3The level of melanization of the throat increased with age in both sexes, but particularly in females. In contrast, the black colour of the plumage of the back was unrelated to age in both sexes. 4These age-dependent patterns of colouration of different feather tracts of male and female barn swallows suggest that effects of senescence are trait-specific depending on their importance in sexual signalling. The red throat colour based on pheomelanin is involved in sexual selection, with a strong effect in males, but not in females. In contrast, the black colour of the back based on eumelanin is unrelated to sexual selection, but is under natural selection due to intense abrasion of this feather tract. 5These findings suggest that the relative importance of natural and sexual selection are important determinants of the pattern and rate of senescence of colour. [source]

    Fashion, Time and the Consumption of a Renaissance Man in Germany: The Costume Book of Matthäus Schwarz of Augsburg, 1496,1564

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2002
    Gabriele MentgesArticle first published online: 11 FEB 200
    This article uses the perspective of cultural anthropology to consider the construction of an early modern perception of time and its relation to the dress and personal consumption of a male subject. It focuses on a costume book from the Renaissance compiled by Matthäus Schwarz, a member of the bourgeoisie, who lived in Augsburg from 1496 to 1574. The book contains a collection of 137 drawings, portraying Schwarz's personal choice of dress. It is also an account of Schwarz's life, beginning with his parents, then covering his life,stages from birth to old age. The relationships between body and dress and between the male subject and the world run as a major thread through the book. This article shows how closely connected Schwarz's body is with the life of commodities (dress) and consumption. The life,story of this Renaissance man is expressed in terms of changing fashions, which act as his subjective measure of time. [source]

    Predictors and correlates of edentulism in the healthy old people in Edinburgh (HOPE) study

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    John M. Starr
    Objectives:, To determine the extent to which correlates of edentulism are explained by an association between tooth loss and cognitive ability. Methods:, Participants in the Healthy Old People in Edinburgh (HOPE) study aged 70 or more at baseline were assessed and health, cognitive, socio-economic and socio-environmental data collected on four consecutive occasions. It was noted whether the participant had any retained teeth and if not, the age when the last tooth was lost. Prior determinants of edentulism were investigated with binary logistic regression models. At the 9-year follow-up, associations with edentulism were examined using general linear models with edentulism as an independent factor. Results:, 201 participants were adequately tested, of whom 104 (51.7%) were edentulous. A logistic regression model that considered age, sex, education, social class, deprivation index of residence, objective distance from dentist, participant's estimate of distance from dentist and NART-estimated IQ (NARTIQ) found age (p = 0.032), occupational class (p = 0.019) and NARTIQ (p = 0.027) as significant predictors of edentulism. Cox's proportional hazards modelling found only NARTIQ (p = 0.050) to be correlated. Being edentulous was associated with poorer respiratory function but not hand grip strength (p = 0.23). Edentulous participants had lower self esteem scores (p = 0.020) and poorer dietary assessment scores (p = 0.028). Being edentulous was also associated with significantly lower mean scores on all cognitive testing, although these associations became non-significant after adjustment for NARTIQ and age. Conclusions:, In healthy older people, edentulism is associated with relative impairment of cognitive ability, although this association is explained by the fact that lower original intelligence predisposes to edentulism and poorer performance on cognitive tests in old age. Once original intelligence is adjusted for, tooth loss is not related to cognitive ability. Tooth loss is, however, associated with poorer status across a wide range of health measures: physical health, nutrition, disability and self-esteem. Establishing the degree to which these health outcomes are causally related to edentulism could usefully be factored into cost,benefit analyses of programmes designed to prevent tooth loss. [source]

    Stem/progenitor cell proliferation factors FGF-2, IGF-1, and VEGF exhibit early decline during the course of aging in the hippocampus: Role of astrocytes

    GLIA, Issue 3 2005
    Ashok K. Shetty
    Abstract Dentate neurogenesis, important for learning and memory, declines dramatically by middle age. Although studies have shown that this age-related decrease can be reversed to some extent by exogenous applications of mitogenic factors, it is unclear whether one or more of these factors exhibits decline by middle age. We hypothesize that multiple stem/progenitor cell proliferation factors exhibit early decline during the course of aging in the hippocampus, and some of these declines are linked to age-related alterations in hippocampal astrocytes. We measured the concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hippocampus of young, middle-aged, and aged F344 rats, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, we quantified the total number of FGF-2 immunopositive (FGF-2+) and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive (GFAP+) cells in the dentate gyrus and the entire hippocampus. Our results provide new evidence that the concentrations of FGF-2, IGF-1, and VEGF decline considerably by middle age but remain steady between middle age and old age. Further, decreased concentrations of FGF-2 during aging are associated with decreased numbers of FGF-2+ astrocytes. Quantification of GFAP+ cells, and GFAP and FGF-2 dual immunostaining analyses, reveal that aging does not decrease the total number of astrocytes but fractions of astrocytes that express FGF-2 decline considerably by middle age. Thus, dramatically decreased dentate neurogenesis by middle age is likely linked to reduced concentrations of FGF-2, IGF-1, and VEGF in the hippocampus, as each of these factors can individually influence the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus. Additionally, the results demonstrate that decreased FGF-2 concentration during aging is a consequence of age-related impairment in FGF-2 synthesis by astrocytes. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The effects of income, education and age on health

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 8 2007
    Olga Kiuila
    Abstract We use the core interviews of the US Health Interview Survey for the years 1987,1994, to study the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality and self-reported health. We find, consistent with previous studies, that the relationship between mortality and indicators such as education and income diminishes with age. We consider new explanations for this result and conclude that general biological deterioration at old age is probably the principal one. One important piece of evidence for this conclusion is the finding that there is no relationship at all between mortality and SES for people whose self-reported health status at baseline is either fair or poor. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]