Old Adults (old + adult)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


An 8-Year Prospective Study of the Relationship Between Cognitive Performance and Falling in Very Old Adults

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2006
Kaarin J. Anstey PhD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cognitive performance, as distinct from cognitive impairment, predicts falling during an 8-year follow-up in a community-based sample of very old adults and to evaluate how cognitive change is associated with falling. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study including three waves of data collected in 1992, 1994, and 2000. SETTING: Population based, with the baseline sample drawn from the electoral roll. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria were completion of at least three cognitive tests at baseline and completion of the falls questionnaire at Wave 6 (N=539). MEASUREMENTS: Assessments of health and medical conditions, visual acuity, cognitive function, functional reach, semitandem stand, and grip strength were conducted in 1992 (baseline), 1994, and 2000. Self-report information on falls in the previous 12 months was obtained on each of these occasions. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline cognitive performance and falling over 8 years, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and sensorimotor variables. Random effects models were used to assess the relationship between change in cognitive performance and change in fall rate and fall risk over 8 years. RESULTS: Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal reasoning at baseline predicted rate of falling over an 8-year period. Within individuals, declines in verbal ability, processing speed, and immediate memory were associated with increases in rates of falling and fall risk. CONCLUSION: Cognitive performance is associated with falling over 8 years in very old adults and should be assessed in clinical practice when evaluating short- and long-term fall risk. [source]


Practice and endpoint accuracy with the left and right hands of old adults: The right-hemisphere aging model

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2008
Brach Poston PhD
Abstract The purpose of the study was to quantify the aging-related differences in endpoint accuracy during isometric contractions of the left and right hands based on the prediction that declines in motor performance with aging may be greater for muscles controlled by the right hemisphere. Twelve young (6 men, 25 5 years) and 12 old (6 men, 76 6 years) adults performed a task that involved matching the peak of a force,time trajectory to a target. The old adults were less accurate than the young men and exhibited greater endpoint error with the left hand than the right hand on day 1, but not on days 2 and 3. Although electromyographic amplitude was similar between hands, old adults exhibited greater timing variability. These findings indicate that given sufficient practice there was no difference in endpoint accuracy between the left and right hands of old adults, which is not consistent with the prediction of an asymmetrical decline in motor performance by the right-hemisphere aging model. Conversely, an inability by an old adult to achieve similar accuracy with both hands during such tasks likely indicates an underlying motor impairment. Muscle Nerve, 2007 [source]


The neural control of bimanual movements in the elderly: Brain regions exhibiting age-related increases in activity, frequency-induced neural modulation, and task-specific compensatory recruitment

HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 8 2010
Daniel J. Goble
Abstract Coordinated hand use is an essential component of many activities of daily living. Although previous studies have demonstrated age-related behavioral deficits in bimanual tasks, studies that assessed the neural basis underlying such declines in function do not exist. In this fMRI study, 16 old and 16 young healthy adults performed bimanual movements varying in coordination complexity (i.e., in-phase, antiphase) and movement frequency (i.e., 45, 60, 75, 90% of critical antiphase speed) demands. Difficulty was normalized on an individual subject basis leading to group performances (measured by phase accuracy/stability) that were matched for young and old subjects. Despite lower overall movement frequency, the old group "overactivated" brain areas compared with the young adults. These regions included the supplementary motor area, higher order feedback processing areas, and regions typically ascribed to cognitive functions (e.g., inferior parietal cortex/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Further, age-related increases in activity in the supplementary motor area and left secondary somatosensory cortex showed positive correlations with coordinative ability in the more complex antiphase task, suggesting a compensation mechanism. Lastly, for both old and young subjects, similar modulation of neural activity was seen with increased movement frequency. Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time that bimanual movements require greater neural resources for old adults in order to match the level of performance seen in younger subjects. Nevertheless, this increase in neural activity does not preclude frequency-induced neural modulations as a function of increased task demand in the elderly. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


An 8-Year Prospective Study of the Relationship Between Cognitive Performance and Falling in Very Old Adults

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 8 2006
Kaarin J. Anstey PhD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cognitive performance, as distinct from cognitive impairment, predicts falling during an 8-year follow-up in a community-based sample of very old adults and to evaluate how cognitive change is associated with falling. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study including three waves of data collected in 1992, 1994, and 2000. SETTING: Population based, with the baseline sample drawn from the electoral roll. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria were completion of at least three cognitive tests at baseline and completion of the falls questionnaire at Wave 6 (N=539). MEASUREMENTS: Assessments of health and medical conditions, visual acuity, cognitive function, functional reach, semitandem stand, and grip strength were conducted in 1992 (baseline), 1994, and 2000. Self-report information on falls in the previous 12 months was obtained on each of these occasions. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline cognitive performance and falling over 8 years, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and sensorimotor variables. Random effects models were used to assess the relationship between change in cognitive performance and change in fall rate and fall risk over 8 years. RESULTS: Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal reasoning at baseline predicted rate of falling over an 8-year period. Within individuals, declines in verbal ability, processing speed, and immediate memory were associated with increases in rates of falling and fall risk. CONCLUSION: Cognitive performance is associated with falling over 8 years in very old adults and should be assessed in clinical practice when evaluating short- and long-term fall risk. [source]


Comparative postnatal ontogeny of the skull in the australidelphian metatherian Dasyurus albopunctatus (Marsupialia: Dasyuromorpha: Dasyuridae)

JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
David A. Flores
Abstract We describe the cranial ontogeny of an australidelphian marsupial, Dasyurus albopunctatus, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. We examined in detail qualitative morphological changes of just-weaned individuals as compared to old adults; specifically, changes in 31 morphological structures (e.g., processes, foramina) and 38 changes in cranial joints. We also interpreted growth-invariant structures in terms of their functional relevance. We performed a multivariate allometry analysis based on 14 cranial measurements taken from 31 specimens encompassing the entire postweaning period. Three variables (height of occipital plate, breadth of braincase, and height of mandible) showed the same allometric trends in D. albopunctatus and the three marsupial species studied previously in the same framework (Didelphis albiventris, Lutreolina crassicaudata, and Dromiciops gliroides). In addition, D. albopunctatus shared allometric trends in two variables (length of the upper postcanine row and length of the orbit) with the microbiotheriid D. gliroides. Most of the growth trends observed are interpreted as linked to the predominantly carnivorous dietary habit of adult D. albopunctatus. Because dasyuromorphians are most likely basal to the major Australasian radiation of marsupials, knowledge of ontogenetic changes in D. albopunctatus may shed light on the evolution of ontogeny in the highly diverse Australasian marsupial fauna. J. Morphol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Age and gender-related differences in premolar and molar functional areas

JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 4 2007
P. BOURDIOL
summary, The aim of the present study was to underline the difference in premolar,molar functional areas according to both age and gender in a human adult population. Premolar and molar series were marked manually on opposed casts with articulating paper and functional areas were evaluated by quantification of these markings. It was noticed that on average larger functional areas were displayed by the older group (19 individuals, mean age 712 years, minimum 68 years, maximum 73 years) in comparison with the younger one (24 individuals, mean age 274 years, minimum 22 years; maximum 33 years). It was also observed that the average total functional area (4 hemiarches) was larger in the male subgroup (n: 23; mean age 45; young adults, 14; old adults, 9) compared with the female one (n: 20; mean age 49; young adults, 10; old adults, 10). Nevertheless, this gender difference in premolar,molar functional areas was related to the individual occlusal areas. As a matter of fact, when the individual occlusal area was taken into account for each series in the form of a ratio (functional area/occlusal area), the values obtained were not different between both gender subgroups studied. When comparing premolar and molar functional ratios (functional area/occlusal area) between age groups, it appears that the values obtained were slightly higher for the premolar series (ratios for young and older adults, respectively: Premolar series: 236 75%, 30 65%; Molar series: 231 68%, 273 67%). This difference was interpreted in relation to the reference (occlusal area) chosen. [source]


Practice and endpoint accuracy with the left and right hands of old adults: The right-hemisphere aging model

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2008
Brach Poston PhD
Abstract The purpose of the study was to quantify the aging-related differences in endpoint accuracy during isometric contractions of the left and right hands based on the prediction that declines in motor performance with aging may be greater for muscles controlled by the right hemisphere. Twelve young (6 men, 25 5 years) and 12 old (6 men, 76 6 years) adults performed a task that involved matching the peak of a force,time trajectory to a target. The old adults were less accurate than the young men and exhibited greater endpoint error with the left hand than the right hand on day 1, but not on days 2 and 3. Although electromyographic amplitude was similar between hands, old adults exhibited greater timing variability. These findings indicate that given sufficient practice there was no difference in endpoint accuracy between the left and right hands of old adults, which is not consistent with the prediction of an asymmetrical decline in motor performance by the right-hemisphere aging model. Conversely, an inability by an old adult to achieve similar accuracy with both hands during such tasks likely indicates an underlying motor impairment. Muscle Nerve, 2007 [source]


Scotopic spatiotemporal sensitivity differences between young and old adults

OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, Issue 4 2010
Cynthia L. Clark
Abstract Background:, Our lab has previously demonstrated losses in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies under scotopic conditions with older adults. It is not clear, however, whether the temporal frequency of a stimulus alters the relation between age and the spatial contrast sensitivity function (sCSF) under scotopic conditions. Methods:, A maximum-likelihood, two-alternative, temporal forced-choice QUEST procedure was used to measure threshold to spatially and temporally modulated stimuli in both young (mean = 26 years) and old (mean = 75 years) adults. Results:, In general, the shapes of the spatial and temporal CSFs were low-pass for both young and old observers; contrast sensitivity decreased at approximately the same rate with increasing spatial frequency and temporal frequency for both age groups, although the overall sensitivity of the old group was lower than that of the young group. The high-frequency resolution limit was lower for the old group compared to the young group. Conclusions:, The differences in contrast sensitivity between the young and old groups suggest a uniform loss in sensitivity of the channels mediating spatial and temporal vision. Because of this loss, the spatial and temporal window of visibility for the older adults is compromised relative to the younger adults. [source]


On the relationship of dental microwear to dental macrowear

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Christopher W. Schmidt
Abstract Dental microwear analysts have demonstrated that hard diets leave numerous microscopic pits on occlusal surfaces. The relationship between occlusal pitting and gross macrowear, however, is not well known. The current study seeks to elucidate the relationship between dental microwear and macrowear by determining if microscopically pitted teeth are associated with greater expressions of macrowear. This study examined microwear and macrowear on mandibular second molars from 60 prehistoric adult Native Americans representing three dietary regimes (foraging, mixed economy, and agriculture). Initially, two dental microwear feature variables were studied: percentage of pits and mean scratch width. Standard macrowear scores ranged from 4 to 40. ANOVAs suggested that neither of the microwear variables was affected by age or sex, but age affected macrowear scores. Because of this, the sample had a balanced number of young and old adults (i.e., those below and above skeletal age 35). A Pearson's correlation showed no covariation between scratch width and the percentage of pits. Regression analysis indicated that macrowear was not a function of the percentage of pits. However, a significant positive relationship was found between dental macrowear and scratch width. A post priori test found a significant negative relationship between macrowear and the total number of scratches. It is concluded, then, that wide scratches remove more enamel and dentin than do numerous pits, although both cause dental wear. It is suggested here that the term "abrasive" be used to describe those microwear profiles that lead to heavy macrowear and have relatively wide scratches. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Inference generation in young, young,old and old,old adults: evidence for semantic architecture stability

APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Debra McGinnis
Participants (31 young, 27 young,old, and 28 old,old) read 12 narratives, pausing periodically to think aloud. The resulting protocols were analysed for 17 types of inferences and for non-content (off-target) information. Factor analysis yielded three inference factors: character, causal and physical. Age difference across these factors were not significant, suggesting that inferential processing architecture may be stable. Each narrative also included an unfamiliar word. Immediately following each narrative, four definition choices and a definition rating scale were presented. The definition scores of old,old adults were lower than young and young,old. In addition, definition scores were negatively related to non-content comment counts. Taken together, these findings suggest that off-target working-memory intrusions may interfere with interpretation specificity in older adults even though semantic architecture remains stable. This study extends the aging and inference literature by addressing age-related changes across categories of inferential processing and by including a sample of old,old adults. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Enhancing the recall of young, young,old and old,old adults with cognitive interviews,

APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Allison M. Wright
Two studies examined whether a Cognitive Interview improves older witnesses' recall. Study 1 compared the quality and quantity of older adults' recall when given a typical UK police interview, the Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI), or a modified version of the Cognitive Interview (MCI). The MCI was identical to the ECI except that the change perspective technique was omitted. Old,old (75,95-years) adults' recall was less complete and less accurate than that of young,old (60,74-years) adults, which was less complete and accurate than that of young (17,31-years) adults. The ECI and MCI increased the number of correct Person, Action, Object and Surrounding details reported across every age group, without increasing the number of incorrect or confabulated details recalled. In Study 2, it was found that these effects remained when interviews were re-scored using a system that reflected police officers' decisions about the investigative relevance of details. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]