Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Ocean

  • arctic ocean
  • atlantic ocean
  • central indian ocean
  • central pacific ocean
  • coastal ocean
  • deep ocean
  • eastern pacific ocean
  • global ocean
  • indian ocean
  • indo-pacific ocean
  • north atlantic ocean
  • north pacific ocean
  • northern indian ocean
  • oligotrophic ocean
  • open ocean
  • pacific ocean
  • south atlantic ocean
  • south indian ocean
  • south pacific ocean
  • southern indian ocean
  • southern ocean
  • tethyan ocean
  • tropical atlantic ocean
  • tropical indian ocean
  • tropical ocean
  • tropical pacific ocean
  • western atlantic ocean
  • western indian ocean
  • western pacific ocean
  • world ocean

  • Terms modified by Ocean

  • ocean acidification
  • ocean basin
  • ocean circulation
  • ocean condition
  • ocean current
  • ocean dipole
  • ocean drilling program
  • ocean model
  • ocean regions
  • ocean temperature
  • ocean water

  • Selected Abstracts


    Julie N. Oswald
    Abstract Acoustic methods may improve the ability to identify cetacean species during shipboard surveys. Whistles were recorded from nine odontocete species in the eastern tropical Pacific to determine how reliably these vocalizations can be classified to species based on simple spectrographic measurements. Twelve variables were measured from each whistle (n = 908). Parametric multivariate discriminant function analysis (DFA) correctly classified 41.1% of whistles to species. Non-parametric classification and regression tree (CART) analysis resulted in 51.4% correct classification. Striped dolphin whistles were most difficult to classify. Whistles of bottlenose dolphins, false killer whales, and pilot whales were most distinctive. Correct classification scores may be improved by adding prior probabilities that reflect species distribution to classification models, by measuring alternative whistle variables, using alternative classification techniques, and by localizing vocalizing dolphins when collecting data for classification models. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Abstract:, Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32°47.041, N, 76°17.179, W; 1798 m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13 933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Arthur R. Grossman
    Many regions of the open, oligotrophic oceans are depleted of nutrients, especially nitrogen and iron. The biogenesis and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus may be specialized and tailored to the various marine habitats. In this minireview, we discuss some new findings with respect to photosynthetic processes in the oceans. We focus on findings that suggest that some cyanobacteria may route electrons derived from the splitting of H2O to the reduction of O2 and H+ in a water-to-water cycle, and that other cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen during the day are likely missing PSII and enzymes involved in the fixation of inorganic carbon. Both of these proposed "variant" forms of photosynthetic electron flow provide new insights into ways in which marine phytoplankton satisfy their energetic and nutritive requirements. [source]

    A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands

    efecto de depredación; erradicación; Felis catus; gato asilvestrado; islas Abstract:,Feral cats are directly responsible for a large percentage of global extinctions, particularly on islands. We reviewed feral cat eradication programs with the intent of providing information for future island conservation actions. Most insular cat introductions date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, whereas successful eradication programs have been carried out in the last 30 years, most in the last decade. Globally, feral cats have been removed from at least 48 islands: 16 in Baja California (Mexico), 10 in New Zealand, 5 in Australia, 4 in the Pacific Ocean, 4 in Seychelles, 3 in the sub-Antarctic, 3 in Macaronesia (Atlantic Ocean), 2 in Mauritius, and 1 in the Caribbean. The majority of these islands (75%; n= 36) are small (,5 km2). The largest successful eradication campaign took place on Marion Island (290 km2), but cats have been successfully removed from only 10 islands (21%) of ,10 km2. On Cousine Island (Seychelles) cat density reached 243 cats/km2, but on most islands densities did not exceed 79.2 cats/km2 (n= 22; 81%). The most common methods in successful eradication programs were trapping and hunting (often with dogs; 91% from a total of 43 islands). Frequently, these methods were used together. Other methods included poisoning (1080; monofluoracetate in fish baits; n= 13; 31%), secondary poisoning from poisoned rats (n= 4; 10%), and introduction of viral disease (feline panleucopaenia; n= 2; 5%). Impacts from cat predation and, more recently, the benefits of cat eradications have been increasingly documented. These impacts and benefits, combined with the continued success of eradication campaigns on larger islands, show the value and role of feral cat eradications in biodiversity conservation. However, new and more efficient techniques used in combination with current techniques will likely be needed for success on larger islands. Resumen:,Los gatos asilvestrados han sido responsables directos de un gran número de extinciones, particularmente en islas. En este estudio, se revisan los programas de erradicación de este felino con el fin de ofrecer información de utilidad en futuras acciones de conservación en islas. La mayor parte de las introducciones datan de los siglos diecinueve y veinte, mientras que las erradicaciones han sido realizadas básicamente durante los últimos 30 años, y sobre todo en la última década. Los gatos asilvestrados han sido erradicados de al menos 48 islas: 16 de ellas en Baja California (México), 10 en Nueva Zelanda, 5 en Australia, 4 en el Océano Pacífico, 4 en Seychelles, 3 en la Región Subantártica, 3 en Macaronesia (Océano Atlántico), 2 en Mauricio, y una en el Caribe. La mayoría de éstas (75%; n= 36) son de reducidas dimensiones (,5 km2), mientras que la más extensa es Marion Island (290 km2). En tan sólo 10 islas (21%) , 10 km2 se ha podido erradicar este depredador. En Cousine Island (Seychelles) la densidad de gatos alcanzó 243 individuos/km2; sin embargo, en la mayoría de las islas, las densidades no excedieron los 79,2 individuos/km2 (n= 22; 81%). Los métodos más comúnmente empleados fueron el trampeo y la caza, a menudo con perros (91% de un total de 43 islas). Con frecuencia dichas prácticas fueron empleadas conjuntamente. Otros métodos incluyeron venenos (1080, monofluoracetato de sodio en cebos de pescado: n= 13; 31%), envenenamiento secundario con ratas envenenadas (n= 4; 10%) y el virus de la leucemia felina (n= 2; 5%). La información sobre el efecto negativo de los gatos en islas y, más recientemente, el beneficio de su erradicación, se ha ido dando a conocer paulatinamente, poniendo de manifiesto su importancia en la conservación de la biodiversidad insular. No obstante, la combinación de técnicas nuevas y más eficientes junto con las habituales, será necesaria para el éxito de la erradicación de los gatos en islas de grandes dimensiones. [source]

    Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch

    Bryan P. Wallace
    Abstract Fisheries bycatch is a primary driver of population declines in several species of marine megafauna (e.g., elasmobranchs, mammals, seabirds, turtles). Characterizing the global bycatch seascape using data on bycatch rates across fisheries is essential for highlighting conservation priorities. We compiled a comprehensive database of reported data on marine turtle bycatch in gillnet, longline, and trawl fisheries worldwide from 1990 to 2008. The total reported global marine turtle bycatch was ,85,000 turtles, but due to the small percentage of fishing effort observed and reported (typically <1% of total fleets), and to a global lack of bycatch information from small-scale fisheries, this likely underestimates the true total by at least two orders of magnitude. Our synthesis also highlights an apparently universal pattern across fishing gears and regions where high bycatch rates were associated with low observed effort, which emphasizes the need for strategic bycatch data collection and reporting. This study provides the first global perspective of fisheries bycatch for marine turtles and highlights region,gear combinations that warrant urgent conservation action (e.g., gillnets, longlines, and trawls in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Pacific Ocean) and region,gear combinations in need of enhanced observation and reporting efforts (e.g., eastern Indian Ocean gillnets, West African trawls). [source]

    Spatial dynamics of supercolonies of the invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean

    K. L. AbbottArticle first published online: 19 DEC 200
    ABSTRACT Key to the management of invasive species is an understanding of the scope of an invasion, the rate of proliferation and the rate at which invaded habitats become degraded. This study examines the spatial dynamics of high-density supercolonies of the invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, and the associated impacts at their boundaries. Since the early 1990s, A. gracilipes supercolonies have occupied over 30% of the 10,000 ha of rainforest on Christmas Island. Thirty-four discrete high-density supercolonies formed between 1989 and 2003, ranging in size across nearly three orders of magnitude from 0.9 to 787 ha. Supercolonies boundaries are diffuse, and ants were observed in low densities in some cases up to 200 m from the main high-density supercolony. The 13 boundaries examined were all dynamic over a 10,20 observation month period: nine boundaries expanded, and the maximum rate of spread was 0.5 m day,1. Across boundary transition zones, between high-density supercolonies and intact rainforest, yellow crazy ants reduced other ant species richness, occupied red crab burrows and killed resident red crabs, which was the trigger for ,invasional meltdown' on Christmas Island. The highly variable and unpredictable nature of A. gracilipes boundaries poses a challenge for incorporation into a predictive framework, as well as for their management. [source]

    Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina (south-west Atlantic)

    Juan López Gappa
    Abstract., A total of 246 marine bryozoan species was recorded within an area of the south-west Atlantic between 35° and 56°S, and between the coast of Argentina and 50°W. The distribution pattern of benthic stations surveyed during the most important cruises in the area shows that the sampling effort has been biased towards southern shelf areas off Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego, as well as around the Malvinas (Falkland) islands. The littoral zone, Patagonian gulfs and the continental shelf off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state received less attention, and should be surveyed more intensively in the future. Only 2% of the species can be regarded as non-indigenous, all of them inhabiting biofouling communities in harbour environments. With the exception of some thoroughly surveyed localities, the number of species recorded for different areas of the coast, shelf and slope is estimated to be just a small fraction of the actual number of species present. A distinct diversity gradient was found, with species-rich stations located only in the southern shelf. Highest diversity occurred in shelf areas dominated by coarse sediments, and along a high-productivity shelf-break front. A remarkable decrease in species richness was found in inner and middle shelf areas off Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires state. This pattern may be related to the Pacific origin of the Magellanic fauna, since the diversity of bryozoans is higher in the Pacific than in the Atlantic Ocean. The trend of species richness is, however, overemphasized by the fact that the least diverse faunistic assemblage occurs in areas where surveys have been relatively less frequent. An up-to-date checklist of species recorded for the study area is included. [source]

    Backshore coarsening processes triggered by wave-induced sand transport: the critical role of storm events,

    Keiko Udo
    Abstract Spatial backshore processes were investigated through field observations of topography and median sand grain size at a sandy beach facing the Pacific Ocean in Japan. A comparison of the backshore profile and cross-shore distribution of the median sand grain size in 1999 and 2004 revealed an unusual sedimentary process in which sand was coarsened in a depositional area in the 5-year period, although sediment is generally coarsened in erosional areas. In support of these observations, monthly spatial field analyses carried out in 2004 demonstrated a remarkable backshore coarsening process triggered by sedimentation in the seaward part of the backshore during a storm event. In order to elucidate mechanisms involved in the backshore coarsening process, thresholds of movable sand grain size under wave and wind actions (a uniform parameter for both these cases) in the onshore and offshore directions were estimated using wave, tide, and wind data. The cross-shore distributions of the estimated thresholds provided reasonable values and demonstrated a coarsening mechanism involving the intermediate zone around the shoreline under alternating wave and wind actions as a result of which coarse sand was transported toward the seaward part of the backshore by large waves during storms and then toward the landward part by strong onshore winds. The 5-year backshore coarsening is most certainly explained by repetition of short-term coarsening mechanisms caused by wave-induced sand transport occurring from the nearshore to the intermediate zone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]

    Early juvenile development of deep-sea asteroids of the NE Atlantic Ocean, with notes on juvenile bathymetric distributions

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2001
    Paulo Y. G. Sumida
    Abstract The postmetamorphic ontogenesis of 11 deep-sea asteroid species is described. Juvenile bathymetric distributions are compared to adults. The deep-sea juvenile asteroids of the NE Atlantic could be distinguished to species level from a very early stage of development. In all species, except Porcellanaster ceruleus and Plinthaster dentatus, the arms grow faster than the body. In Porcellanaster ceruleus and Plinthaster dentatus, early growth is nearly isometric. In the appearance of the epiproctal cone, the change in form of the furrow and apical spines, the early development of the cribriform organ adjacent to the madreporite and the appearance of sediment in the stomach indicate that Porcellanaster ceruleus is likely to undergo a shift in habitat and diet during the juvenile phase. Porcellanaster ceruleus is probably a predator on meiofauna and small macrofauna during the early stages of life, changing to a burrowing lifestyle ingesting sediment particles. Juvenile sea stars showed wider bathymetric distributions than their adult counterparts, suggesting that events occurring during the early stages of life are important for the maintenance of the local population structure and diversity in the deep NE Atlantic. [source]

    Determining prey distribution patterns from stomach-contents of satellite-tracked high-predators of the Southern Ocean

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2006
    J. C. Xavier
    The distribution of many cephalopod, crustacean and fish species in the Southern Ocean, and adjacent waters, is poorly known, particularly during times of the year when research surveys are rare. Analysing the stomach samples of satellite-tracked higher predators has been advocated as a potential method by which such gaps in knowledge can be filled. We examined the viability of this approach through monitoring wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans at their colony on Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S, 38°W) over the winters (May,July) of 1999 and 2000. At this time, these birds foraged in up to three different water-masses, the Antarctic zone (AZ), the sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ) and the sub-Tropical zone (STZ), which we defined by contemporaneous satellite images of sea surface temperature. A probabilistic model was applied to the tracking and diet data collected from 38 birds to construct a large-scale map of where various prey were captured. Robustness/sensitivity analyses were used to test model assumptions on the time spent foraging and relative catch efficiencies and to evaluate potential biases associated with the model. We were able to predict the distributions of a wide number of cephalopod, crustacean of fish species. We also discovered some of the limitations to using this type of data and proposed ways to rectify these problems. [source]

    Penguins as oceanographers unravel hidden mechanisms of marine productivity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2002
    Jean-Benoît Charrassin
    ABSTRACT A recent concept for investigating marine ecosystems is to employ diving predators as cost-effective, autonomous samplers of environmental parameters (such as sea-temperature). Using king penguins during their foraging trips at sea, we obtained an unprecedented high resolution temperature map at depth off the Kerguelen Islands, Southern Ocean, a poorly sampled but productive area. We found clear evidence of a previously unknown subsurface tongue of cold water, flowing along the eastern shelf break. These new results provide a better understanding of regional water circulation and help explain the high primary productivity above the Kerguelen Plateau. [source]

    Distribution, zoogeography and biology of the Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps Whitley, 1944), an atherinid endemic to the Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia

    M. G. Allen
    Abstract , The Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps) is endemic to the extremely arid Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia, where it is found in the Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne and DeGrey rivers, but is absent from numerous rivers within its range. The most likely explanation for the disjunct contemporary distribution is that C. cuneiceps has simply never inhabited the rivers from which it is conspicuously absent (e.g. Ashburton and Fortescue). Biogeographical, geological and palaeoclimatic evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. In the Murchison River, breeding was extremely protracted with recruitment occurring throughout the year. The largest female and male specimens captured were 96 mm total length (TL; 7.73 g) and 86 mm TL (5.57 g), respectively. Sex ratio was 1.09 females:1 male. Batch fecundity ranged from 46 to 454 (mean 167.5 ± 25.7 SE). Estimates for the length at which 50 and 95% of females first spawned were 36.4 and 44.3 mm TL, respectively. Craterocephalus cuneiceps is essentially a detritivore, but also feeds on aquatic invertebrates. Rainfall in the Murchison River catchment is unpredictable and pH, salinity and temperature are variable. A specialised diet, small size and young age at maturity and protracted spawning period, coupled with serial spawning and high fecundity, allows the numerical dominance of this species in competitive, harsh, arid and unpredictable desert environments. Resumen 1. Craterocephalus cuneiceps es una especie endémica de las cuencas del Océano Indico (i.e., Pilbara) de Australia Occidental. Se encuentra en los ríos Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne y DeGrey pero está ausente en numerosos ríos dentro de su área de distribución. La explicación más probable para esta distribución separada en la actualidad es que C. cuneiceps no ha habitado nunca los ríos en los que está ausente tales como los ríos Ashburton y Fortescue. Presentamos evidencia bio-geográfica, geológica y paleo-climática para soportar esta hipótesis. 2. En el río Murchison, la reproducción es extremadamente prolongada con reclutamiento a lo largo de todo el año. Los mayores machos y hembras capturados alcanzaron 96 mm LT (7.73 g) y 86 mm LT (5.57 g), respectivamente. La proporción de sexos fue 1.09 hembras: 1 macho. La fecundidad varió entre 46 y 454 (media 167.5 ± 25.7 SE) y la longitudes a la que el 50 y el 95% de las hembras se reproducen por primera vez alcanzaron 36.4 y 44.3 mm LT, respectivamente. 3. C. cuneiceps es esencialmente detritívoro pero también se alimenta de invertebrados acuáticos. La lluvia sobre la cuenca del río Murchison es impredecible y el pH, la salinidad y la temperatura son variables. Una dieta especializada, pequeño tamaño, una edad joven en la madurez, y un período reproductivo prolongado, ademos de una freza seriada y alta fecundidad, permiten la dominancia numérica de la especie en ambientes competitivos, duros, áridos e impredecibles. [source]

    Occurrence and density of Halobates micans (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the eastern South Indian Ocean

    Terumi IKAWA
    Abstract Two species of ocean skaters, Halobates germanus and Halobates micans, live in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean. From December 1992 to December 1993, Halobates was intensively sampled in the easternmost region of the South Indian Ocean (13,18.5°S, 114,121E°), from which there have been a small number of records of Halobates. No H. germanus was caught, but a total of 1190 H. micans were collected, with densities estimated at 13 900,28 100 individuals/km2. This suggests that H. micans lives in the study area at high densities comparable to those in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. We also discuss the possible effects of ocean currents and winds on the geographic distributions of the two Halobates species in the eastern South Indian Ocean. [source]

    Abundance and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial cells assimilating phosphate in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Krista Longnecker
    Summary Microorganisms play key roles in the cycles of carbon and nutrients in the ocean, and identifying the extent to which specific taxa contribute to these cycles will establish their ecological function. We examined the use of 33P-phosphate to identify heterotrophic bacteria actively involved in the cycling of phosphate, an essential inorganic nutrient. Seawater from the sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean was incubated with 33P-phosphate and analysed by microautoradiography to determine the proportion and diversity of the bacterial community-assimilating phosphate. Complementary incubations using 3H-leucine and 3H-thymidine were also conducted. We found that a higher proportion of total heterotrophic bacterial cells in surface water samples assimilated phosphate compared with leucine or thymidine. Bacteria from all of the phylogenetic groups we identified by CARD-FISH were able to assimilate phosphate, although the abundances of cells within each group did not scale directly with the number found to assimilate phosphate. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Cytophaga -like cells assimilated phosphate compared with leucine or thymidine. Our results suggest that a greater proportion of bacterial cells in surface waters are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus, and possibly other elements, than is currently estimated through the use of 3H-leucine or 3H-thymidine. [source]

    The structure of bacterial communities in the western Arctic Ocean as revealed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes

    David L. Kirchman
    Summary Bacterial communities in the surface layer of the oceans consist of a few abundant phylotypes and many rare ones, most with unknown ecological functions and unclear roles in biogeochemical processes. To test hypotheses about relationships between abundant and rare phylotypes, we examined bacterial communities in the western Arctic Ocean using pyrosequence data of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Samples were collected from various locations in the Chukchi Sea, the Beaufort Sea and Franklin Bay in summer and winter. We found that bacterial communities differed between summer and winter at a few locations, but overall there was no significant difference between the two seasons in spite of large differences in biogeochemical properties. The sequence data suggested that abundant phylotypes remained abundant while rare phylotypes remained rare between the two seasons and among the Arctic regions examined here, arguing against the ,seed bank' hypothesis. Phylotype richness was calculated for various bacterial groups defined by sequence similarity or by phylogeny (phyla and proteobacterial classes). Abundant bacterial groups had higher within-group diversity than rare groups, suggesting that the ecological success of a bacterial lineage depends on diversity rather than on the dominance of a few phylotypes. In these Arctic waters, in spite of dramatic variation in several biogeochemical properties, bacterial community structure was remarkably stable over time and among regions, and any variation was due to the abundant phylotypes rather than rare ones. [source]

    Gene diversity of CYP153A and AlkB alkane hydroxylases in oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the Atlantic Ocean

    Liping Wang
    Summary Alkane hydroxylases, including the integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (AlkB) and cytochrome P450 CYP153 family, are key enzymes in bacterial alkane oxidation. Although both genes have been detected in a number of bacteria and environments, knowledge about the diversity of these genes in marine alkane-degrading bacteria is still limited, especially in pelagic areas. In this report, 177 bacterial isolates, comprising 43 genera, were obtained from 18 oil-degrading consortia enriched from surface seawater samples collected from the Atlantic Ocean. Many isolates were confirmed to be the first oil-degraders in their affiliated genera including Brachybacterium, Idiomarina, Leifsonia, Martelella, Kordiimonas, Parvibaculum and Tistrella. Using degenerate PCR primers, alkB and CYP153A P450 genes were surveyed in these bacteria. In total, 82 P450 and 52 alkB gene fragments were obtained from 80 of the isolates. These isolates mainly belonged to Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Erythrobacter, Martelella, Parvibaculum and Salinisphaera, some of which were reported, for the first time, to encode alkane hydroxylases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes were quite diverse and formed several clusters, most of which were generated from various Alcanivorax bacteria. Noticeably, some sequences, such as those from the Salinisphaera genus, were grouped into a distantly related novel cluster. Inspection of the linkage between gene and host revealed that alkB and P450 tend to coexist in Alcanivorax and Salinisphaera, while in all isolates of Parvibaculum, only P450 genes were found, but of multiple homologues. Multiple homologues of alkB mostly cooccurred in Alcanivorax isolates. Conversely, distantly related isolates contained similar or even identical sequences. In summary, various oil-degrading bacteria, which harboured diverse P450 and alkB genes, were found in the surface water of Atlantic Ocean. Our results help to show the diversity of P450 and alkB genes in prokaryotes, and to portray the geographic distribution of oil-degrading bacteria in marine environments. [source]

    Abundances of crenarchaeal amoA genes and transcripts in the Pacific Ocean

    Matthew J. Church
    Summary Planktonic Crenarchaea are thought to play a key role in chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation, a critical step of the marine nitrogen (N) cycle. In this study, we examined the spatial distributions of ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaea across a large (,5200 km) region of the central Pacific Ocean. Examination of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA, ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, and amoA transcript abundances provided insight into their spatial distributions and activities. Crenarchaeal gene abundances increased three to four orders of magnitude with depth between the upper ocean waters and dimly lit waters of the mesopelagic zone. The resulting median value of the crenarchaeal amoA: 16S rRNA gene ratio was 1.3, suggesting the majority of Crenarchaea in the epi- and mesopelagic regions of the Pacific Ocean have the metabolic machinery for ammonia oxidation. Crenarchaeal amoA transcript abundances typically increased one to two orders of magnitude in the transitional zone separating the epipelagic waters from the mesopelagic (100,200 m), before decreasing into the interior of the mesopelagic zone. The resulting gene copy normalized transcript abundances revealed elevated amoA expression in the upper ocean waters (0,100 m) where crenarchaeal abundances were low, with transcripts decreasing into the mesopelagic zone as crenarchaeal gene abundances increased. These results suggest ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaea are active contributors to the N cycle throughout the epi- and mesopelagic waters of the Pacific Ocean. [source]

    Dynamics of the SAR11 bacterioplankton lineage in relation to environmental conditions in the oligotrophic North Pacific subtropical gyre

    Alexander Eiler
    Summary A quantitative PCR assay for the SAR11 clade of marine Alphaproteobacteria was applied to nucleic acids extracted from monthly depth profiles sampled over a 3-year period (2004,2007) at the open-ocean Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment; 22°45,N, 158°00,W) in the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean. This analysis revealed a high contribution (averaging 36% of 16S rRNA gene copies) of SAR11 to the total detected 16S rRNA gene copies over depths ranging from the surface layer to 4000 m, and revealed consistent spatial and temporal variation in the relative abundance of SAR11 16S rRNA gene copies. On average, a higher proportion of SAR11 rRNA gene copies were detected in the photic zone (< 175 m depth; mean = 38%) compared with aphotic (> 175 m depth; mean = 30%), and in the winter months compared with the summer (mean = 44% versus 33%, integrated over 175 m depth). Partial least square to latent structure projections identified environmental variables that correlate with variation in the absolute abundance of SAR11, and provided tools for developing a predictive model to explain time and depth-dependent variations in SAR11. Moreover, this information was used to hindcast temporal dynamics of the SAR11 clade between 1997 and 2006 using the existing HOT data set, which suggested that interannual variations in upper ocean SAR11 abundances were related to ocean-climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation. [source]

    Distribution of Roseobacter RCA and SAR11 lineages and distinct bacterial communities from the subtropics to the Southern Ocean

    Helge-Ansgar Giebel
    Summary We assessed the composition of the bacterioplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in austral fall and winter and in New Zealand coastal waters in summer. The various water masses between the subtropics/Agulhas,Benguela boundary region and the Antarctic coastal current exhibited distinct bacterioplankton communities with the highest richness in the polar frontal region, as shown by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The SAR11 clade and the Roseobacter clade-affiliated (RCA) cluster were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. SAR11 was detected in all samples analysed from subtropical waters to the coastal current and to depths of > 1000 m. In fall and winter, this clade constituted < 3% to 48% and 4,28% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes respectively, with highest fractions in subtropical to polar frontal regions. The RCA cluster was only present in New Zealand coastal surface waters not exceeding 17°C, in the Agulhas,Benguela boundary region (visited only during the winter cruise), in subantarctic waters and in the Southern Ocean. In fall, this cluster constituted up to 36% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes with highest fractions in the Antarctic coastal current and outnumbered the SAR11 clade at most stations in the polar frontal region and further south. In winter, the RCA cluster constituted lower proportions than the SAR11 clade and did not exceed 8% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In fall, the RCA cluster exhibited significant positive correlations with latitude and ammonium concentrations and negative correlations with concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and for near-surface samples also with chlorophyll a, biomass production of heterotrophic prokaryotes and glucose turnover rates. The findings show that the various water masses between the subtropics and the Antarctic coastal current harbour distinct bacterioplankton communities. They further indicate that the RCA cluster, despite the narrow sequence similarity of > 98% of its 16S rRNA gene, is an abundant component of the heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the Southern Ocean, in particular in its coldest regions. [source]

    Use of stable isotope-labelled cells to identify active grazers of picocyanobacteria in ocean surface waters

    Jorge Frias-Lopez
    Summary Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the two most abundant marine cyanobacteria. They represent a significant fraction of the total primary production of the world oceans and comprise a major fraction of the prey biomass available to phagotrophic protists. Despite relatively rapid growth rates, picocyanobacterial cell densities in open-ocean surface waters remain fairly constant, implying steady mortality due to viral infection and consumption by predators. There have been several studies on grazing by specific protists on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in culture, and of cell loss rates due to overall grazing in the field. However, the specific sources of mortality of these primary producers in the wild remain unknown. Here, we use a modification of the RNA stable isotope probing technique (RNA-SIP), which involves adding labelled cells to natural seawater, to identify active predators that are specifically consuming Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean. Four major groups were identified as having their 18S rRNA highly labelled: Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyta), Dictyochophyceae (Stramenopiles), Bolidomonas (Stramenopiles) and Dinoflagellata (Alveolata). For the first three of these, the closest relative of the sequences identified was a photosynthetic organism, indicating the presence of mixotrophs among picocyanobacterial predators. We conclude that the use of RNA-SIP is a useful method to identity specific predators for picocyanobacteria in situ, and that the method could possibly be used to identify other bacterial predators important in the microbial food-web. [source]

    A pyrene-degrading consortium from deep-sea sediment of the West Pacific and its key member Cycloclasticus sp.


    Summary A pyrene-degrading bacterial consortium was obtained from deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean. The consortium degraded many kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, 2-methylnaphthalene and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, but it did not grow with chrysene and benzo[,]pyrene. With methods of plate cultivation and polymerase chain reaction,denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 72 bacteria belonging to 22 genera were detected from this consortium. Among the detected bacteria, the following genera frequently occurred: Flavobacterium, Cycloclasticus, Novosphingobium, Halomonas, Achromobacter, Roseovarius and Alcanivorax. The first two genera showed the strongest bands in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and appeared in all PAH treatments. By now, only one isolate designated P1 was confirmed to be a pyrene degrader. It was identified to be Cycloclasticus spirillensus (100%). Although P1 can degrade pyrene independently, other bacteria, such as Novosphingobium sp. (Band 14), Halomonas sp. (Band 16) and an unidentified bacterium (Band 35), were involved in pyrene degradation in some way; they persist in the consortium in the test of dilution to extinction if only the consortium was motivated with pyrene. However, the secondary most important member Flavobacterium sp. evaded from the community at high dilutions. As a key member of the consortium, P1 distinguished itself by both cell morphology and carbon source range among the isolates of this genus. Based on intermediate analyses of pyrene degradation, P1 was supposed to take an upper pathway different from that previously reported. Together with the results of obtained genes from P1 homology with those responsible for naphthalene degradation, its degradation to pyrene is supposed to adopt another set of genes unique to presently detected. Summarily, an efficient pyrene-degrading consortium was obtained from the Pacific Ocean sediment, in which Cycloclasticus bacterium played a key role. This is the first report to exploit the diversity of pyrene-degrading bacteria in oceanic environments. [source]

    Life in Darwin's dust: intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century

    Anna A. Gorbushina
    Summary Charles Darwin, like others before him, collected aeolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean and sent it to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in Berlin. Ehrenberg's collection is now housed in the Museum of Natural History and contains specimens that were gathered at the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Geochemical analyses of this resource indicated that dust collected over the Atlantic in 1838 originated from the Western Sahara, while molecular-microbiological methods demonstrated the presence of many viable microbes. Older samples sent to Ehrenberg from Barbados almost two centuries ago also contained numbers of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Many diverse ascomycetes, and eubacteria were found. Scanning electron microscopy and cultivation suggested that Bacillus megaterium, a common soil bacterium, was attached to historic sand grains, and it was inoculated onto dry sand along with a non-spore-forming control, the Gram-negative soil bacterium Rhizobium sp. NGR234. On sand B. megaterium quickly developed spores, which survived for extended periods and even though the numbers of NGR234 steadily declined, they were still considerable after months of incubation. Thus, microbes that adhere to Saharan dust can live for centuries and easily survive transport across the Atlantic. [source]

    Crash of a population of the marine heterotrophic flagellate Cafeteria roenbergensis by viral infection

    Ramon Massana
    Summary Viruses are known as important mortality agents of marine microorganisms. Most studies focus on bacterial and algal viruses, and few reports exist on viruses infecting marine heterotrophic protists. Here we show results from several incubations initiated with a microbial assemblage from the central Indian Ocean and amended with different amounts of organic matter. Heterotrophic flagellates developed up to 30 000 cells ml,1 in the most enriched incubation. A 18S rDNA clone library and fluorescent in situ hybridization counts with newly designed probes indicated that the peak was formed by Cafeteria roenbergensis and Caecitellus paraparvulus (90% and 10% of the cells respectively). Both taxa were below detection in the original sample, indicating a strong positive selective bias during the enrichment. During the peak, C. roenbergensis cells were observed with virus-like particles in the cytoplasm, and 4 days later this taxa could not be detected. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the viral nature of these particles, which were large (280 nm), had double-stranded DNA, and were produced with a burst size of ,70. This virus was specific of C. roenbergensis as neither C. paraparvulus that was never seen infected, nor other flagellate taxa that developed in later stages of the incubation, appeared attacked. This is one of the few reports on a heterotrophic flagellate virus and the implications of this finding in the Indian Ocean are discussed. [source]

    Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean

    John E. Elliott
    Abstract Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (,15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for ,15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for ,15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by ,15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet. [source]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in baltic and atlantic gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups

    Eugen G. Sørmo
    Abstract Organochlorine pollutants (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in blubber biopsies from free-ranging Baltic and Atlantic gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups. Well-fed pups from the Baltic Sea had concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and HCHs that were 2 to 10 times higher than in corresponding pups from populations in the Atlantic Ocean. The OC pattern in the Baltic seals differed significantly from that of their Atlantic relatives, reflecting the predominance of regional point source inputs into the Baltic Sea and long-range atmospheric inputs into the Atlantic Ocean. The differences in the pattern of the compounds also indicated an enhanced metabolism of the more metabolizable compounds in the more contaminated Baltic seals. Surprisingly, the proportions of the high chlorinated and low-volatile PCB congeners (>6 Cl atoms) were comparable or lower in the Baltic pups as compared to the Atlantic pups. This difference might be due to Baltic seals occupying a lower trophic level than Atlantic seals and/or to the eutrophication situation in the Baltic Sea, which causes sedimentation of these PCB congeners. Significantly higherOCconcentrations were found in starved and/or abandoned Baltic pups as compared to well-fed pups. The most contaminated Baltic seal pups in the present study had PCB concentrations that are comparable or higher than those reported to impair the immune systems and vitamin A dynamics in phocids. [source]

    How well can animals navigate?

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 4 2006
    Estimating the circle of confusion from tracking data
    Abstract State-space models have recently been shown to effectively model animal movement. In this paper we illustrate how such models can be used to improve our knowledge of animal navigation ability, something which is poorly understood. This work is of great interest when modeling the behavior of animals that are migrating, often over tremendously large distances. We use the term circle of confusion, first proposed by Kendall (1974), to describe the general inability of an animal to know its location precisely. Our modeling strategy enables us to statistically describe the circle of confusion associated with any animal movements where departure and destination points are known. For illustration, we use ARGOS satellite telemetry of leatherback turtles migrating over a distance of approximately 4000,km in the Atlantic Ocean. Robust features of the model enable one to deal with outlying observations, highly characteristic of these types of data. Although specifically designed for data obtained using satellite telemetry, our approach is generalizable to other common kinds of movement data such as archival tag data. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    El Niño, climate change, and Southern African climate

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 4 2001
    Simon J. Mason
    Abstract The El Niño phenomenon involves a large-scale warming of the equatorial eastern and central Pacific Ocean. Recent developments in the El Niño,Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon have raised concerns about climate change. In this review paper, these recent developments are critically assessed and forecasts of possible future changes are reviewed. Since the late-1970s, El Niño episodes have been unusually recurrent, while the frequency of strong La Niña events has been low. Prolonged/recurrent warm event conditions of the first half of the 1990s were the result of the persistence of an anomalously warm pool near the date line, which, in turn, may be part of an abrupt warming trend in tropical sea-surface temperatures that occurred in the late-1970s. The abrupt warming of tropical sea-surface temperatures has been attributed to the enhanced-greenhouse effect, but may be indicative of inter-decadal variability: earlier changes in the frequency of ENSO events and earlier persistent El Niño and La Niña sequences have occurred. Most forecasts of ENSO variability in a doubled-CO2 climate suggest that the recent changes in the tropical Pacific are anomalous. Of potential concern, however, is a possible reduction in the predictability of ENSO events given a warmer background climate. El Niño events usually are associated with below-normal rainfall over much of southern Africa. Mechanisms for this influence on southern African climate are discussed, and the implications of possible changes in ENSO variability on the climate of the region are assessed. Recent observed changes in southern African climate and their possible relationships with trends in ENSO variability are investigated. The El Niño influence on rainfall over southern Africa occurs largely because of a weakening of tropical convection over the subcontinent. A warming of the Indian Ocean during El Niño events appears to be important in providing a teleconnection from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The abrupt warming of the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans in the late-1970s is probably partly responsible for increasing air temperatures over southern Africa, and may have contributed to a prolongation of predominantly dry conditions. A return to a wet phase appears to have occurred, despite the persistence of anomalously high sea-surface temperatures associated with the late-1970s warming, and a record-breaking El Niño in 1997/98. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Transatlantic constitutionalism: Comparing the United States and the European Union

    The European Union has more to learn from the American experience of constitutionalism than from any of its own Member States. Like the United States, the European Union will have a frame of government constitution that will try to order a system of multiple and concurrent communities of interests, as happened in America, and designed by an indirectly elected assembly. The European Union and the United States will continue to manifest many differences in other crucial aspects of their institutional and cultural development. However, although constrained by their respective historical and institutional paths, their constitutional evolution is making the Atlantic Ocean less wide than it used to be. [source]

    Diversity and distribution of pigmented heterotrophic bacteria in marine environments

    Hailian Du
    Abstract A systematic investigation of marine pigmented heterotrophic bacteria (PHB) based on the cultivation method and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was conducted in Chinese coastal and shelf waters and the Pacific Ocean. Both the abundance of PHB and the ratio of PHB to CFU decreased along trophic gradients from coastal to oceanic waters, with the highest values of 9.9 × 103 cell mL,1 and 39.6%, respectively, in the Yangtze River Estuary. In contrast to the total heterotrophic bacteria (TB) and CFU, which were present in the whole water column, PHB were primarily confined to the euphotic zone, with the highest abundance of PHB and ratio of PHB to CFU occurring in surface water. In total, 247 pigmented isolates were obtained during this study, and the phylogenetic analysis showed a wide genetic diversity covering 25 genera of six phylogenetic classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. PHB belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria were obtained mainly from the South China Sea and East China Sea; PHB from the Pacific Ocean water were predominantly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, and most isolates from the Yangtze River Estuary fell into the classes Actinobacteria and Bacilli. The isolates exhibited various colours (e.g. golden, yellow, red, pink and orange), with genus or species specificity. Furthermore, the pigment of PHB cells absorbed light mainly in the wavelength range between 450 and 550 nm. In conclusion, our work has revealed that PHB with broad genetic diversity are widely distributed in the marine environment, and may account for up to 39.6% of culturable bacteria, equivalent to 1.4% of the total microbial community. This value might even be underestimated because it is probable that not all pigmented bacteria were isolated. Their abundance and genetic distribution are heavily influenced by environmental properties, such as light and nutrition, suggesting that they have important roles in the marine ecosystem, especially in the absorption of visible light. [source]

    Ecological repercussions of historical fish extraction from the Southern Ocean

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2009
    David G Ainley
    Abstract A major mid-1980s shift in ecological structure of significant portions of the Southern Ocean was partially due to the serial depletion of fish by intensive industrial fishing, rather than solely to climate factors as previously hypothesized. Over a brief period (1969,1973), several finfish stocks were on average reduced to <50%, and finally (mid-1980s) to <20%, of original size. Despite management actions, few stocks have recovered and some are still declining. Most affected species exhibit K-selected life-history patterns, and before exploitation presumably fluctuated in accordance with infrequent strong year classes, as is true of such fish elsewhere. A climate regime, the Southern Annular Mode, once oscillated between two states, but has remained in its ,positive mode' since the time of the fish extraction. This may have increased finfish vulnerability to exploitation. As breeding stocks decreased, we hypothesize that availability of annually produced juvenile fish fed upon by upper-level predators remained low. Correlations between predator populations and fish biomass in predator foraging areas indicate that southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina, Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella, gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua, macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolphus and ,imperial' shag Phalacrocorax spp. , all feeding extensively on these fish, and monitored at Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, South Georgia, South Orkney and South Shetland Islands, where fishing was concentrated , declined simultaneously during the two periods of heavy fishing. These patterns indicate the past importance of demersal fish as prey in Antarctic marine systems, but determining these interactions' ecological mechanisms may now be impossible. [source]