Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Otoliths

  • fish otolith
  • sagittal otolith

  • Terms modified by Otoliths

  • otolith analysis
  • otolith chemistry
  • otolith growth
  • otolith microstructure
  • otolith microstructure analysis
  • otolith opacity
  • otolith section
  • otolith sr
  • otolith strontium

  • Selected Abstracts

    Otolith-based analysis of survival and size-selective mortality of stocked 0+ year pike related to time of stocking

    P. Grnkjr
    The effect of time of stocking on the extent and source of mortality in 0+ year pike Esox lucius was investigated in a lake (20 ha) and a drainable pond (05 ha) using pike with alizarin marked otoliths. The results indicated that pike stocked late relative to the recruitment of native 0+ year pike fell victim to cannibalism from these larger individuals. This resulted in very low survival through the first growing season (<2%). Pike stocked early in the season exhibited significantly higher survival (>12%). Analyses of the size distribution of the alizarin marks from these fish revealed that the largest 0+ year pike exhibited by a factor of 33, higher survival than the average 0+ year pike in the lake. In order for large 0+ year pike to exhibit such high relative fitness a minimum of 697% of the original population must suffer size dependent mortality. In the pond the survival of the largest pike was by a factor of 42 higher than the average pike, and the corresponding size dependent mortality was 764%. The substantial size-dependent mortality was most probably due to intra-cohort cannibalism or habitat segregation between large and small 0+ year pike that exposes the small pike to predatory fishes in the open lake. Cannibalism exerts a major influence on the survival of 0+ year pike post-stocking although the magnitude and origin differ in relation to stocking time. [source]

    The influence of life history dynamics and environment on the determination of year class strength in North Sea herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    R. D. M. NASH
    Abstract The inter-annual variability in year class strength (1976,2000) of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) was investigated using Paulik diagrams based on survey data and Virtual Population Analysis. The herring life cycle was split into five stages: spawning stock biomass (SSB), egg production, larvae, fish with 0 winter rings on the otolith (0-wr), 1-wr and 2-wr. Surveys were used as indices and Paulik analysis revealed relationships between stages. In 80% of the years, year class strength reflected SSB. Poorer than expected year classes were determined during the larva to 0-wr phase, whilst stronger than expected year classes were apparently determined during the 0-wr to 1-wr stage. There was no clear relationship between survival of young stages of herring and the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus but the year class strength of 0-wr and 1-wr had a negative relationship to bottom water temperature. Lower sea water temperatures in the North Sea are associated with higher Calanus abundance. The analysis shows that the strength of aberrant year classes of North Sea herring is determined between the pelagic larval and the juvenile stages. [source]

    Seasonality only works in certain parts of the year: the reconstruction of fishing seasons through otolith analysis

    W. van Neer
    Abstract Seasonality estimations using incremental data usually suffer from small sample sizes and from the lack of comparison with sufficiently large modern samples. The present contribution reports on incremental studies carried out on large assemblages of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from a late medieval fishing village (Raversijde, Belgium) on the North Sea coast. In an attempt to refine previous seasonality estimates made for this site, and to expand conclusions concerning general methodology, extensive monthly samples of modern otoliths of these species, caught within the North Sea, have also been investigated. The modern material shows that the timing of the seasonal changes in the edge type (hyaline or opaque) of the otoliths is extremely variable and that it is dependent on the fishing ground, the year considered, and the age of the fish. It also appears that the increase of the marginal increment thickness is highly variable, to such an extent that the thickness of the last increment of a single otolith is mostly useless for seasonality estimation. Where large archaeological otolith assemblages can be studied, preferably from single depositional events, seasonality determination becomes possible on the condition, however, that the archaeological assemblage corresponds to fish that were captured during their period of fast growth. The growth ring study on the otoliths from Raversijde shows that plaice fishing took place in spring and that it was preceded by a haddock fishing season, probably in late winter/early spring. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Application of otolith microchemistry to estimate the migratory history of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica on the Sanriku Coast of Japan

    A. Kotake
    Summary The age and migratory history of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, collected in Miyako Bay along the Sanriku coast of Japan, was examined using the otolith microstructure and analysis of strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations conducted with wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry by an electron microprobe. The line analysis of Sr : Ca ratios along the life history transect of each otolith showed a peak (ca. 15,17 10,3) which corresponded with the period of their leptocephalus and early glass eel stages in the ocean. The mean Sr : Ca ratios from the elver mark to the otolith edge indicated that there were eels with several general categories of migratory history, including sea eels that never entered freshwater (average Sr : Ca ratios, ,6.0 10,3), and others that entered freshwater for brief periods but returned to the estuary or bay. This evidence of the occurrence of sea eels in this northern area indicates that Japanese eels of the Sanriku coast do not necessarily migrate into freshwater rivers during recruitment as do glass eels at the beginning of their growth phase; even those that do enter freshwater may later return to the marine environment. Thus, anguillid eel migrations into freshwater are clearly not an obligatory migratory pathway, but rather a facultative catadromy with seawater or estuarine residents as an ecophenotype. [source]

    Estimating the timing of growth rings in Atlantic cod otoliths using stable oxygen isotopes

    H. Hie
    A technique involving micro-scale sampling of otolith carbonate and analyses of stable oxygen isotope composition was used to relate the zone appearance of the otolith to the seasonal temperature cycle. Otolith opacity could then be related to the timing of zone formation. Otoliths from two groups of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua held under known temperature conditions over a period of 4 and 6 years were examined. The otolith translucency followed the same pattern as the estimated temperature (from otolith ,18O values) in the yearly increments three and four, meaning that the translucent zones were deposited at the seasonal highest temperature in late summer and early autumn. The relative light intensities of otolith yearly increments five and six of older fish (deposited in the same years), however, were not significantly correlated to the estimated temperatures since increased otolith translucency also occurred at low temperatures. This might have been caused by stress in connection with gonad development or starvation during the spawning period. The results showed that this method of coupling otolith opacity and stable oxygen isotope composition can be used to estimate the timing of zone formations in otoliths. [source]

    Morphometry and composition of aragonite and vaterite otoliths of deformed laboratory reared juvenile herring from two populations

    J. Toms
    Vaterite otoliths were sampled from two reared populations (Celtic and Clyde Seas) of juvenile herring Clupea harengus. The crystallography, elemental composition and morphometry were analysed and compared with those of normal aragonite otoliths. The incidence of vaterite otoliths in the juveniles sampled (n = 601) ranged from 78% in the Clyde population to 139% in the Celtic Sea population, and was 55% in the small sample (n = 36) of wild adults examined. In all but one case fish had only one vaterite otolith; the corresponding otolith of the pair was completely aragonite. Although the majority of the juveniles sampled showed craniofacial deformities, there was no link between the skull or jaw malformation and the incidence of vaterite otoliths. All vaterite otoliths had an aragonite inner area, and vaterite deposition began sometime after the age of 90 days. The vaterite otoliths were larger and lighter than their corresponding aragonite partners, and were less dense as a consequence of the vaterite crystal structure. The vaterite areas of the otoliths were depleted in Sr, Na and K. Concentrations of Mn were higher in the vaterite areas. The transition between the aragonite inner areas and the vaterite areas was sharply delineated. Within a small spatial scale (20 ,m3) in the vaterite areas, however, there was co-precipitation of both vaterite and aragonite. The composition of the aragonite cores in the vaterite otoliths was the same as in the cores of the normal aragonite otoliths indicating that the composition of the aragonite cores did not seed the shift to vaterite. Vaterite is less dense than aragonite, yet the concentrations of Ca analysed with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) were the same between the two polymorphs, indicating that Ca concentrations measured with WDS are not a good indicator of hypermineralized zones with high mineral density. The asymmetry in density and size of the otoliths may cause disruptions of hearing and pressure sensitivity for individual fish with one vaterite otolith, however, the presence of vaterite otoliths did not seem to affect the growth of these laboratory reared juvenile herring. [source]

    Glycoconjugates in the otolithic membrane of herring larvae: a possible framework for encoding the life history recorder in fishes

    P. Tytler
    Glycoconjugates in the inner ear of herring Clupea harengus larvae, investigated by laser confocal and electron microscopy, were located mainly in the gelatinous layer of the otolithic membranes, forming a collar around the proximal surfaces of the otoliths. The site of secretion was located on the surface of the sensory macula, from which a colonnade of glycoconjugate streamers projected through the subcupular region to connect with the gelatinous layer of each otolith. An electron dense component of the outer gelatinous layers, shown by TEM to be closely associated with the sensory kinocilia, suggested that they provided a basis for the streamers and offered a potential role in directing the path of secretion. It is hypothesized that this highly structured glycoconjugate framework could provide a mechanism for localizing and containing ionic and protein gradients previously detected in this vicinity and which are considered to have a key role in driving the differential growth and mineralization of the otoliths. [source]

    Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Plotosus lineatus, with comments on Plotosidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) autapomorphies

    C. Oliveria
    From comparisons of the cephalic and pectoral girdle structures of Plotosus lineatus with those of other plotosid as well as non-plotosid siluriforms, plotosid catfishes can be defined by at least six autapomorphies. These are: (1) the absence of the ventral division of the muscle arrector dorsalis; (2) the double articulation between the neurocranium and the anterior part of the suspensorium; (3) the greatly enlarged utricular otolith, which profoundly inflates the ventral surfaces of both the prootic and the pterotic; (4) the attachment of the muscle extensor tentaculi on the neurocranium lies further anteriorly than its insertion on the autopalatine; (5) the coronoid process of the mandible is linked to the maxillary by means of two thick, long ligaments; (6) the enlarged base of the maxillary barbel. [source]

    Comparison of secondary ion mass spectrometry and micromilling/continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques used to acquire intra-otolith ,18O values of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    N. N. Hanson
    The chemical signals in the sequential layers of fish otoliths have the potential to provide fisheries biologists with temporal and spatial details of migration which are difficult to obtain without expensive tracking methods. Signal resolution depends, however, on the extraction technique used. We compared the use of mechanical micromilling and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) methods with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to obtain ,18O profiles from otoliths of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and used these to corroborate the time of freshwater emigration of the juvenile with macroscopic patterns within the otolith. Both techniques showed the transition occurring at the same visible feature on the otolith, allowing future analyses to easily identify the juvenile (freshwater) versus adult (marine) life-stages. However, SIMS showed a rapid and abrupt transition whereas micromilling provided a less distinct signal. The number of samples that could be obtained per unit area sampled using SIMS was 2 to 3 times greater than that when using micromilling/CF-IRMS although the ,18O values and analytical precisions (,0.2,) of the two methods were comparable. In addition, SIMS ,18O results were used to compare otolith aragonite values with predicted values calculated using various isotope fractionation equations. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparisons of age, growth, and maturity between male and female, and diploid and triploid individuals in Carassius auratus from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    Mikumi Takada
    Abstract 1.Carassius auratus, a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages, is distributed widely in and around the Eurasian continent and is especially common in East Asia. East Asian C. auratus diverged genetically to form local endemic populations in different regions, and those distributed in the Ryukyu Archipelago form a local endemic population that can be regarded as an evolutionarily significant unit because of its high phylogenetic independence and evolutionary distinctiveness. Although the evolutionary uniqueness of this population should be conserved, its distribution area and population size are decreasing rapidly, and some island populations are currently considered endangered or already extinct. 2.To develop effective conservation measures to stop the current decline of Ryukyuan C. auratus, ecological data need to be collected. In this study, life history data for a C. auratus population distributed in the Hiji River system were collected by estimating age, growth, and spawning season. 3.The spawning season of C. auratus in the Hiji River extended from March to September, peaking during March,May. Females became sexually mature in their second year, but males reached maturity and were able to spawn as early as in the late spawning season of their year of hatching. Once having reached sexual maturity, males probably continuously stay ripe throughout their life. 4.Sagittal otoliths of C. auratus proved to be useful ageing structures because one annual increment is formed on the sagittal otolith before the spawning season in each year. The oldest fish observed were a 10-year-old female and an 11-year-old male. Females showed faster somatic growth and higher final standard length than males, and a sexual size dimorphism was observed. 5.The standard length at each age class did not differ between diploid and triploid C. auratus, suggesting that triploid growth rates were almost equal to those of diploids. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Oda16/Wdr69 is essential for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Chunlei Gao
    Abstract In the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Oda16 functions during ciliary assembly as an adaptor for intraflagellar transport of outer arm dynein. Oda16 orthologs only occur in genomes of organisms that use motile cilia; however, such cilia play multiple roles during vertebrate development and the contribution of Oda16 to their assembly remains unexplored. We demonstrate that the zebrafish Oda16 ortholog (Wdr69) is expressed in organs with motile cilia and retains a role in dynein assembly. Antisense morpholino knockdown of Wdr69 disrupts ciliary motility and results in multiple phenotypes associated with vertebrate ciliopathies. Affected cilia included those in Kupffer's vesicle, where Wdr69 plays a role in generation of asymmetric fluid flow and establishment of organ laterality, and otic vesicles, where Wdr69 is needed to develop normal numbers of otoliths. Analysis of cilium ultrastructure revealed loss of outer dynein arms in morphant embryos. These results support a remarkable level of functional conservation for Oda16/Wdr69. Developmental Dynamics 239:2190,2197, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    What can otolith examination tell us about the level of perturbations of Salmonid fish from the Kerguelen Islands?

    F. Morat
    Abstract,,, Otoliths preserve a continuous record of the life cycle from the natal through the adult stage. For that reason, the morphological and chemical characteristics of otoliths of two nonnative Salmonids, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from populations on the Kerguelen Islands were compared. Several approaches were used to study the relationships between otolith morphometry, crystal morph and chemical elemental composition. These salmonids sampled in Kerguelen are well differentiated in terms of species through their otolith shape. The results indicate that ecotypes and river populations can be reasonably well differentiated on the basis of otolith shape. The crystallisation study has revealed the presence of a particular form: the vaterite, present at a high rate: 45% of S. fontinalis and 18% from Salmo trutta fario. Moreover, vaterite and aragonite otoliths presented differences in chemical composition. [source]

    Growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. from Lakes Zwai, Langeno and Chamo (Ethiopian rift valley) based on otolith microincrement analysis

    D. Admassu
    Abstract , Age and growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from Lakes Zwai, Langeno and Chamo (Ethiopia) were studied from microincrements in otoliths. Growth in length was best described by the Gompertz model. Average growth rate of the fish was most rapid in Lake Chamo (0.39 mm,,day,1, 1.14%,,day,1), intermediate in Lake Zwai (0.20 mm,,day,1, 0.72%,,day,1) and slowest in Lake Langeno (0.16 mm,,day,1, 0.62%,,day,1). Similarly, back-calculation from otolith increment widths gave growth rates of 0.28 to 0.43 mm,,day,1, 0.15 to 0.32 mm,,day,1 and 0.11 to 0.28 mm,,day,1 for Chamo, Zwai and Langeno fish, respectively. In addition, Fulton's condition factor was largest for Chamo tilapia and smallest for Langeno tilapia; the difference between fish from Langeno and Zwai was small. Rapid growth of juvenile O. niloticus in Lake Chamo was attributed to warm temperature and better food quality., [source]

    Evolution of morphogenesis in 360-million-year-old conodont chordates calibrated in days

    Jerzy Dzik
    SUMMARY Highly rhythmic increments of crown tissue are identifiable in conodont oral apparatus elements from the Late Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland; individual laminae being of thickness comparable with daily increments of vertebrate tooth enamel and fish otoliths. Abundant occurrence of such specimens enables bed-by-bed (stratophenetic) studies of the process of evolution at the population level and quantitative presentation of the evolution of ontogeny in the sampled geological section covering several million years. The morphologic transformation is expressed as expansion of a juvenile asymmetry to later stages of the ontogeny and in decrease of the mature element width, which was due to a change of the mineral tissue secretion rate. It was not just a simple extension of a juvenile character into the later stage of the ontogeny (heterochrony) but rather a true developmental novelty. The evolution was gradual and very slow. The proposed quantitative approach to growth increments in the mineral skeleton of ancient chordates introduces real-time units to evolutionary developmental studies connected with direct paleontological evidence on the course of evolution. [source]

    Population dynamics and stock status of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, caught in Australian recreational and commercial coastal fisheries

    G. C. FRY
    Abstract, Age and growth of Rachycentron canadum (L.) was studied in northern and eastern Australia to provide data for a preliminary assessment of the stock and to explore possible fisheries management strategies using minimum legal lengths. Fish collected from commercial and recreational fisheries ranged in size and weight from 125 to 1633 mm fork length (FL) and 0.031 to 55 kg respectively. Annual growth increments in sectioned otoliths formed by November,December. Estimated ages ranged from 0 to 7 yr for both genders. Longevity was estimated to be at least 13 yr. Von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L = 1160 mm FL, K = 0.63 yr,1 and t0 = ,0.21 yr,1. Rachycentron canadum reach 600 mm FL in their first year and over 1000 mm FL in 3 years. Natural and total mortalities were estimated at 0.35 yr,1 and 0.85 yr,1, respectively. Populations of R. canadum may be vulnerable to growth overfishing under the current minimum legal length of 750 mm total length (TL) in Queensland waters. An increase in minimum legal length to 850 mm TL is recommended. [source]

    Age-related movement patterns and population structuring in southern garfish, Hyporhamphus melanochir, inferred from otolith chemistry

    M. A. STEER
    Abstract, The southern garfish, Hyporhamphus melanochir (Val.), is an important inshore fishery species in South Australia. Over the past few years there have been concerns with this fishery, which is now considered to be over-exploited. Currently, the fishery is assumed to consist of two separate stocks, but there is no understanding of movement patterns both within and between these two stocks to justify this assumption. Otolith chemistry was used to infer age-related patterns of movement, delineate potential sub-populations and determine the extent of mixing within South Australian coastal waters. Results indicated that the population structuring of garfish is more complex than previously assumed and it seems that stocks can be discriminated at a much finer spatial scale. Garfish collected from sites separated by <60 km displayed significantly different chemical signatures (relative concentrations of 7Li, 24Mg, 55Mn, 88Sr and 138Ba) in their otoliths, especially during their second year of growth, indicating that they had inhabited different water bodies. From a broader perspective, South Australian garfish can be partitioned into six regional components with various levels of inter-mixing. From these results, it was suggested that assessment and management of the fishery may have to be restructured to align with the smaller spatial units. [source]

    Analysis of the trophy sport fishery for the speckled peacock bass in the Rio Negro River, Brazil

    M. H. HOLLEY
    Abstract, The middle portion of the Rio Negro River in Brazil near the equator supports a popular recreational sport fishery for speckled peacock bass, Cichla temensis (Humboldt). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fishing mortality on this population. Fish were collected from sport-fishing (n = 72) and commercial (n = 103) catches and otoliths were aged to estimate longevity, growth and natural mortality. Recreational anglers in this region seek to catch, then release, larger speckled peacock bass; and fish larger than 62 cm standard length (SL) (about 4.5 kg) served as a bench mark to assess the potential impact of subsistence and commercial harvest on the abundance of larger fish in the sport fishery. Time of opaque band formation on otoliths generally coincided with the dry season (November to April); these bands appeared to form once per year, but formation was highly variable. Speckled peacock bass grew to 62 cm SL on average in 6.4 years, but some fish obtained this size in 4,5 years. Maximum age was 9 years, but most fish were less than 7 years. Instantaneous annual natural mortality (M) estimated from maximum size, longevity and growth ranged from 0.19 to 0.44. Simulation modelling predicted that exploitation rates of fish >25 cm SL similar to the estimated natural mortality rates would reduce the abundance of fish >62 cm by 67,89% compared with no harvest. Even modest exploitation rates of 5% and 10% would result in approximately 30,50% reduction, respectively, of these larger fish. Abundance of large speckled peacock bass that sustains the sport fishery is susceptible to low rates of exploitation in this remote region of Brazil. [source]

    Evaluation of large-scale stocking of early stages of brown trout, Salmo trutta, to angler catches in the French,Swiss part of the River Doubs

    A. Champigneulle
    Abstract Around 500 000 brown trout, Salmo trutta L., alevins are stocked annually in the 24-km section of the River Doubs under study. All the alevins stocked in the period 1994,1996 were identifiable by fluoromarking their otoliths with tetracycline chlorhydrate. Anglers' catches, between June 1997 and September 1998, comprised trout aged 1+ to 7+ , but most (90% +) were 2+ to 3+ or 4+ , with the majority at 2+ and 3+. There was no significant difference in the size for a given age between marked and unmarked angled trout. The contribution of stocked fish in anglers' catches was around 22% for the 1995 cohort. The contribution of stocking (cohorts 1994 to 1995,1996) to the 1998 catches was around 23% (95% confidence limits: 19,27%). The estimated recapture rate was three to four trout per 1000 alevins stocked for the 1995 cohort. The major contribution (78%) of natural recruitment to anglers' catches suggests that the fishery management based on natural recruitment is still realistic in this part of River Doubs. [source]

    Growth and movement patterns of early juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay based on otolith microstructure and chemistry

    Abstract Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain the mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay that result in a good recruitment of European anchovy. Anchovy larvae from the spawning area in the Gironde River plume are advected towards off-shelf waters, where juveniles are commonly observed. Otolith microstructural and chemical analysis were combined to assess the importance of this off-shelf transport and to determine the relative contribution of these areas for anchovy survival. Chemical analysis of otoliths showed that anchovy juveniles in the Bay of Biscay can be divided into two groups: a group that drifts towards off-shelf waters early in their life and returns later, and a group that remains in the low salinity waters of the coastal area. The first group presents significantly faster growth rates (0.88 mm day,1) than those remaining in the coastal waters (0.32 mm day,1). This may be due to off-shelf waters being warmer in spring/summer, and to the fact that the lower food concentration is compensated for by higher prey visibility. Furthermore, the group of juveniles that drifted off the spawning area and had faster growth rates represents 99% of the juvenile population. These findings support the hypothesis that anchovy in the Bay of Biscay may use off-shelf waters as a spatio-temporal loophole, suggesting that transport off the shelf may be favourable for recruitment. [source]

    Establishing climate,growth relationships for yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) in the northeast Pacific using a dendrochronological approach

    Abstract We applied dendrochronology (tree-ring) methods to develop multidecadal growth chronologies from the increment widths of yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) otoliths. Chronologies were developed for the central California coast, a site just north of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and at Bowie Seamount west of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. At each site, synchronous growth patterns were matched among otoliths via the process of cross-dating, ensuring that the correct calendar year was assigned to all increments. Each time series of growth-increment measurements was divided by the values predicted by a best-fit negative exponential function, thereby removing age-related trends. These detrended time series were averaged into a master chronology for each site, and chronologies were correlated with monthly averages of sea surface temperatures, upwelling, the Northern Oscillation Index, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The two northern growth chronologies positively correlated with indices of warm ocean conditions, especially from the prior summer through the spring of the current year. During the same period, the California chronology positively correlated with indices of cool ocean conditions, indicating an opposing productivity regime for yelloweye rockfish between the California Current and the Gulf of Alaska. Overall, this study demonstrates how tree-ring techniques can be applied to quickly develop annually resolved chronologies and establish climate,growth relationships across various temporal and spatial scales. [source]

    Identification of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) stocks from putative nurseries using otolith chemistry

    Jay R. Rooker
    Abstract Chemical signatures in the otoliths of teleost fishes represent natural tags that may reflect differences in the chemical and physical characteristics of an individuals' environment. Otolith chemistry of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) was quantified to assess the feasibility of using these natural tags to discriminate juveniles (age 0 and age 1) from putative nurseries. A suite of six elements (Li, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr and Ba) was measured in whole otoliths using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Otolith chemistry of age-1 T. thynnus collected from the two primary nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea and western Atlantic Ocean differed significantly, with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85%. Spatial and temporal variation in otolith chemistry was evaluated for age-0 T. thynnus collected from three nurseries within the Mediterranean Sea: Alboran Sea (Spain), Ligurian Sea (northern Italy), and Tyrrhenian Sea (southern Italy). Distinct differences in otolith chemistry were detected among Mediterranean nurseries and classification accuracies ranged from 62 to 80%. Interannual trends in otolith chemistry were observed between year classes of age-0 T. thynnus in the Alboran Sea; however, no differences were detected between year classes in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Age-0 and age-1 T. thynnus collected from the same region (Ligurian Sea) were also compared and distinct differences in otolith chemistry were observed, indicating ontogenetic shifts in habitat or elemental discrimination. Findings suggest that otolith chemistry of juvenile T. thynnus from different nurseries are distinct and chemical signatures show some degree of temporal persistence, indicating the technique has considerable potential for use in future assessments of population connectivity and stock structure of T. thynnus. [source]

    Using patch studies to link mesoscale patterns of feeding and growth in larval fish to environmental variability

    John F. Dower
    We present results from a series of three patch studies designed to examine links between environmental variability and mesoscale patterns of feeding and growth of larval radiated shanny (Ulvaria subbifurcata). We examine the effects of variability in temperature, turbulence and prey concentration on both the mean (i.e. population level) and the variance (i.e. individual level) of larval feeding and growth rates among the three bays. Although both gut fullness and growth rates differ significantly between bays, our results show only weak environmental influences. When larvae are pooled across bays (i.e. treated as independent observations), environmental factors generally explain <4% of the variability in gut fullness. When treated as daily mean residuals, however, temperature accounts for 41% of the variability in mean gut fullness, while both temperature and prey concentration also explain significant portions of the variance in gut fullness (38 and 43%, respectively). Between-bay differences in larval growth rates are consistent with patterns of temperature variation but not with patterns of prey availability. Studies relying on tracking a single patch of larvae typically suffer from having too few observations to detect significant relationships between feeding or growth and environmental variables. By following three patches we collected a larger number of observations. However, as we encountered only a limited range of environmental conditions it remains difficult to adequately assess the role of environmental factors. In part, this problem stems from the inability of fisheries oceanographers to track the recent environmental history of individual larvae on the same fine scales currently employed to collect biological data (e.g. guts and otoliths) on individuals. [source]

    Relative contributions from exposed inshore and estuarine nursery grounds to the recruitment of stone flounder, Platichthys bicoloratus, estimated using otolith Sr:Ca ratios

    Yoh Yamashita
    In Sendai Bay, stone flounder larvae settle and spend their juvenile period in either shallow exposed inshore nursery grounds or estuarine nursery grounds. The purpose of this study is to examine the relative contributions of these two kinds of nursery grounds to the flounder population using otolith strontium:calcium ratios. Stone flounder juveniles were collected from both nursery grounds, and one- and two-year-old flounder were caught deeper in Sendai Bay. Sr and Ca content in the otoliths were measured by electron probe micro analysis. The Sr:Ca ratios in the otolith section corresponding to the early postsettlement period ranged from 3.06 to 3.85 for the exposed inshore areas with stable low temperature and high salinity conditions, and from 3.81 to 5.32 in brackish estuaries with high temperature and low salinity conditions but with large diel and tidal cyclical fluctuations. Values from an estuarine site with stable salinity ranged from 3.58 to 4.15 overlapping with both the above ranges. Rearing experiments supported our inference that the high otolith Sr:Ca ratios of juveniles inhabiting estuarine nursery grounds are attributable to higher temperature and physiological stress caused by the large diel temperature and salinity fluctuations within the estuaries. Estimation of the Sr:Ca ratio of recruited fish using the otolith section formed while in the nursery area showed that at least 20 out of 42 individuals examined originated from estuarine nursery grounds. The present study indicates that estuaries play an important role as nursery grounds for stone flounder, producing about half of the stock in spite of the small and restricted area compared with the wide expanse of the exposed inshore area. [source]

    Late Miocene fish otoliths from the Colombacci Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy): implications for the Messinian ,Lago-mare' event

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2006
    Giorgio Carnevale
    Abstract A fish otolith assemblage from the Messinian ,Lago-mare' deposits of the Colombacci Formation cropping out in the Montecalvo in Foglia Syncline, Marche, central Italy, is described. The assemblage displays a low diversity and consists of seven taxa belonging to three families: the Gobiidae, Myctophidae and Sciaenidae. Sciaenid otoliths are the most abundant elements representing 88% of the entire assemblage. The palaeoecological analysis reveals a coastal shallow marine environment strongly influenced by continental outflow. The low diversity and high abundance of the euryecious sciaenids are indicative of a very simplified food web, which probably represented an ecological response to the fluctuating environmental parameters and available food resources. The fish remains documented here provide an unambiguous evidence that normal marine conditions were present in the Mediterranean, at least in the upper part of the ,Lago-mare' event, and unquestionably demonstrate that the marine refilling preceded the Mio-Pliocene boundary. These findings clearly demonstrate that fishes, because of their mobility and migratory behaviour, represent a useful tool for the large-scale interpretation of the environmental conditions of the Messinian Mediterranean water body. The necessity of a new scenario of palaeoenvironmental evolution for the post-evaporitic Messinian of the Mediterranean is also discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fish and ostracod remains from the Santos Basin (Cretaceous to Recent), Brazil

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    C. Giles Miller
    Abstract For the first time, ichthyoliths are described from the Santos sedimentary basin, offshore southern Brazil. Isolated teeth, dermal scales and the first documented otoliths from Cretaceous (Albian) to Recent cuttings from five wells are described. The following groups are represented: Chondrichthyans: Triakidae, Carcharhinidae; Ginglymostomatidae: ?Ginglymostoma sp., Lamnidae indet., Scyliorhinidae; Osteichthyans: Teleostei; Myctophiidae: Diaphus aff. splendidus sp. complex, Diaphus spp., Diaphus cf. garmani, Ceratoscopelus aff. warmingii; Sternoptychidae: Valenciennellus tripunctulatus, teeth of indeterminate Teleostei. The majority of these ichthyofossils represent extant forms, known to occur in the Atlantic Ocean, and are of potential value for stratigraphical correlations between oil-yielding basins in the region. Ostracods are not well preserved but can be identified to generic level indicating marine environments. The ostracod faunas offer potential for intrabasinal correlation in the Eocene and Oligocene. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Seasonality only works in certain parts of the year: the reconstruction of fishing seasons through otolith analysis

    W. van Neer
    Abstract Seasonality estimations using incremental data usually suffer from small sample sizes and from the lack of comparison with sufficiently large modern samples. The present contribution reports on incremental studies carried out on large assemblages of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from a late medieval fishing village (Raversijde, Belgium) on the North Sea coast. In an attempt to refine previous seasonality estimates made for this site, and to expand conclusions concerning general methodology, extensive monthly samples of modern otoliths of these species, caught within the North Sea, have also been investigated. The modern material shows that the timing of the seasonal changes in the edge type (hyaline or opaque) of the otoliths is extremely variable and that it is dependent on the fishing ground, the year considered, and the age of the fish. It also appears that the increase of the marginal increment thickness is highly variable, to such an extent that the thickness of the last increment of a single otolith is mostly useless for seasonality estimation. Where large archaeological otolith assemblages can be studied, preferably from single depositional events, seasonality determination becomes possible on the condition, however, that the archaeological assemblage corresponds to fish that were captured during their period of fast growth. The growth ring study on the otoliths from Raversijde shows that plaice fishing took place in spring and that it was preceded by a haddock fishing season, probably in late winter/early spring. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Human perception of verticality: Psychophysical experiments on the centrifuge and their neuronal implications

    Fred W. Mast
    The role of the otoliths in the perception of verticality is analyzed in two different gravitational environments, 1 g and 1.5 g, and in different roll body positions between upright and upside down. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is determined when a subject judges the orientation of an indicator as apparently vertical. An increase of g level hardly affects the SVV in the subject's frontal plane (y-z plane). However, for the first time, a three-dimensionally adjustable indicator was used for the SVV and this revealed a new phenomenon: An increase of g level induces a backward slant of the SVV into subject's median plane (x-z plane). The data are discussed with regard to Mittelstaedt's SVV theory; particular emphasis is given to the otolith-head coordinate transformation and the normalization of afferent otolith components. The results of this study provide evidence that the former is implemented at an earlier level and thus precedes the latter. [source]

    Morphological and biochemical analyses of otoliths of the ice-fish Chionodraco hamatus confirm a common origin with red-blooded species

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 1 2009
    Chiara Maria Motta
    Abstract The morphology and composition of the three otoliths of the Antarctic ice-fish Chionodraco hamatus were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The composition of the sagitta, lapillus and asteriscus protein matrices was also analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blots and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the presence of and to localize the calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, calbindin and S-100. Morphological results indicated that the otoliths in this ice-fish were similar to those of Trematomus bernacchii, a red-blooded Antarctic species [B. Avallone et al. (2003) J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol. 35, 69,76], but rather different from those of other teleosts. These two Antarctic species possessed a completely vateritic asteriscus, whereas their sagitta and lapillus were made mostly of aragonite. Parallel analysis of protein patterns in C. hamatus and T. bernacchii revealed that the sagitta significantly differed from the lapillus and asteriscus in both species. The sagitta did not contain the S-100 protein and showed calmodulin and calbindin located in discontinuous or incremental zones, respectively. These results demonstrate that the otoliths of C. hamatus and T. bernacchii share more resemblances than differences and support the idea of a common origin of these species. [source]

    Age-based life history parameters and status assessments of by-catch species (Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus microdon, Pomacanthus maculosus and Scolopsis taeniatus) in the southern Arabian Gulf

    E. Grandcourt
    Summary Life history and demographic parameters for Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus microdon, Pomacanthus maculosus and Scolopsis taeniatus in the southern Arabian Gulf were estimated using a combination of size frequency, biological and size-at-age data. Defined structural increments consisting of alternating translucent and opaque bands in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths were validated as annuli. The maximum age estimates ranged from 5 years for Scolopsis taeniatus to 36 years for Pomacanthus maculosus. The size-at-age relationships were highly asymptotic in form with the majority of growth being achieved early in life. There were significant differences in the growth characteristics between sexes for Pomacanthus maculosus, with males approaching a larger asymptotic size at a faster rate than females. With the exception of Scolopsis taeniatus, the mean age at which fish became vulnerable to capture was lower than the mean age at first sexual maturity. The stocks of L. microdon, P. maculosus and S. taeniatus were exploited within sustainable limits, conversely, L. borbonicus was found to be overexploited and recruitment overfishing may have occurred as the relative spawner biomass per recruit was below 30% of the unexploited state. [source]

    Age and growth, mortality, reproduction and relative yield per recruit of the bogue, Boops boops Linn, 1758 (Sparidae), from the Algarve (south of Portugal) longline fishery

    P. Monteiro
    Summary Samples of Boops boops ranging from 7.4 to 30.5 cm were obtained mainly by longline, supplemented by beach seining in the Ria Formosa lagoon, and by market sampling in the Algarve (southern Portugal). The macroscopic analyses of the gonads and the gonad somatic index showed that the south coast of Portugal B. boops spawn mainly from late winter to spring, between February and May. The length at first maturity was similar for males and females and the value for both sexes combined was estimated to be 15.22 cm, corresponding to an age range of 1,3. Age was determined by reading growth bands on otoliths. Age determination was validated by marginal increment analysis. The estimated parameters were L, = 28.06, K = 0.22 and t0 = ,1.42. Mortality rates were calculated for fish captured with longlines, and the estimated parameters were M = 0.33, Z = 1.04 and F = 0.71. Relative yield per recruit analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that the resource is moderately exploited. From the perspective of sustainability, these results provide support for the use of longlines as a gear that is among the least harmful for species such as the bogue. [source]