Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Oligodendrocytes

  • human oligodendrocyte
  • mature oligodendrocyte
  • myelin oligodendrocyte
  • pig oligodendrocyte

  • Terms modified by Oligodendrocytes

  • oligodendrocyte development
  • oligodendrocyte differentiation
  • oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
  • oligodendrocyte lineage
  • oligodendrocyte loss
  • oligodendrocyte precursor
  • oligodendrocyte precursor cell
  • oligodendrocyte progenitor
  • oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

  • Selected Abstracts

    Trophic factors attenuate nitric oxide mediated neuronal and axonal injury in vitro: roles and interactions of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways

    Alastair Wilkins
    Abstract Inflammation in the central nervous system occurs in diseases such as multiple sclerosis and leads to axon dysfunction and destruction. Both in vitro and in vivo observations have suggested an important role for nitric oxide (NO) in mediating inflammatory axonopathy. The purposes of this study were to model inflammatory axonopathy in vitro and identify modulators of the process. Rat cortical neurones were cultured and exposed to an NO-donor plus potential protective factors. Cultures were then assessed for neuronal survival, axon survival and markers of intracellular signalling pathways. The NO-donor produced dose-dependent neuronal loss and a large degree of axon destruction. Oligodendrocyte conditioned medium (OCM) and insulin-like growth factor type-1 (IGF-1), but not glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), improved survival of neurones exposed to NO donors. In addition p38 MAP kinase was activated by NO exposure and inhibition of p38 signalling led to neuronal and axonal survival effects. OCM and IGF-1 (but not GDNF) reduced p38 activation in NO-exposed cortical neurones. OCM, IGF-1 and GDNF improved axon survival in cultures exposed to NO, a process dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase signalling. This study emphasizes that different mechanisms may underlie neuronal/axonal destructive processes, and suggests that trophic factors may modulate NO-mediated neurone/axon destruction via specific pathways. [source]

    Regulation of development of oligodendrocytes

    K. Ikenaka
    Oligodendrocyte (OL) is the myelin-forming glial cell in the central nervous system. In the spinal cord, molecular markers for OL precursor cells (OPCs), such as PDGF a-receptor (PDGFR a), are first expressed in a strictly restricted focus of the ventral ventricular lumen at E12.5 in mouse and later spread throughout the cord. To investigate how they originate from these specific regions, we used an explant culture system of E12 mouse cervical spinal cord. When we cultured the ventral and dorsal spinal cords separately, a robust increase in the number of O4+ cells was observed in the ventral fragment. This phenomenon suggests the presence of factors inhibiting OL development from dorsal spinal cord. BMP4 is secreted from dorsal spinal cord and is a strong candidate for this factor; however, it did not affect OL development in our system. Here we show that Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a, in contrast, may have a role in OL maturation. The developmental profile of wnt-1/3a gene expressions in the dorsal spinal cord showed a significant correlation with that of the dorsal activity, which was very strong at E11, and then reduced to an undetectable level by E14. When Wnt-3a was added to the dissociation culture prepared from E14 mouse ventral cervical cords, the numbers of OL decreased. b-Catenin and LEF family proteins are known to form a transcription factor complex at the down stream of Wnt signalling. OL,like differentiation of CG4 cells was inhibited by constitutively active LEF-b-Catenin, supporting the idea that Wnt signalling directly inhibits OL differentiation. [source]

    Regulation of L-type Ca++ currents and process morphology in white matter oligodendrocyte precursor cells by golli-myelin proteins

    GLIA, Issue 11 2010
    Daniel Fulton
    Abstract The golli myelin basic proteins are expressed in oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) where they play a role in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis. During depolarization, they influence process outgrowth and migration through their action on voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs). To identify ion channels that are modulated by golli, we examined the electrophysiological properties of VOCCs in OPCs in the white matter of golli knock-out and control mice. OPCs exhibited two distinct Ca2+ channels, which were distinguished by their voltage dependence and pharmacological profiles and which exhibited many of the hallmarks of LVA/T-type and HVA/L-type Ca2+ channels. The density of high-voltage-activated (HVA) currents was reduced in OPCs recorded in golli-KO tissue, while low-voltage-activated (LVA) currents remained unaltered in these cells. These data indicate that golli exerts an exclusive influence on L-type Ca2+ channels in OPCs. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) also displayed LVA and HVA currents, although the density of these currents was much reduced at this developmental stage. These currents were not altered in golli-KO OLs showing the influence of golli on L-type Ca2+ channels is restricted to a specific time-window during the course of oligodendroglial development. The actions of golli on OPC L-type Ca2+ channels were accompanied by changes in process morphology, including a reduction in process complexity and the appearance of enlarged varicosities that decorated these cellular processes. These data on L-type Ca2+ channels and process development provide in situ evidence for the influence of golli on VOCCs, and offer an explanation for the hypomyelination observed in the brains of golli-KO mice. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Identification of Tmem10/Opalin as an oligodendrocyte enriched gene using expression profiling combined with genetic cell ablation

    GLIA, Issue 11 2008
    Neev Golan
    Abstract Oligodendrocytes form an insulating multilamellar structure of compact myelin around axons, which allows efficient and rapid propagation of action potentials. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms operating at the onset of myelination and during maintenance of the myelin sheath in the adult. Here we use a genetic cell ablation approach combined with Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify a number of oligodendrocyte-enriched genes that may play a key role in myelination. One of the "oligogenes" we cloned using this approach is Tmem10/Opalin, which encodes for a novel transmembrane glycoprotein. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis revealed that Tmem10 is selectively expressed by oligodendrocytes and that its expression is induced during their differentiation. Developmental immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that Tmem10 starts to be expressed in the white matter tracks of the cerebellum and the corpus callosum at the onset of myelination after the appearance of other myelin genes such as MBP. In contrast to the spinal cord and brain, Tmem10 was not detected in myelinating Schwann cells, indicating that it is a CNS-specific myelin protein. In mature oligodendrocytes, Tmem10 was present at the cell soma and processes, as well as along myelinated internodes, where it was occasionally concentrated at the paranodes. In myelinating spinal cord cultures, Tmem10 was detected in MBP-positive cellular processes that were aligned with underlying axons before myelination commenced. These results suggest a possible role of Tmem10 in oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The life, death, and replacement of oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS

    Dana M. McTigue
    Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are mature glial cells that myelinate axons in the brain and spinal cord. As such, they are integral to functional and efficient neuronal signaling. The embryonic lineage and postnatal development of OLs have been well-studied and many features of the process have been described, including the origin, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of precursor cells. Less clear is the extent to which OLs and damaged/dysfunctional myelin are replaced following injury to the adult CNS. OLs and their precursors are very vulnerable to conditions common to CNS injury and disease sites, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and elevated glutamate levels leading to excitotoxicity. Thus, these cells become dysfunctional or die in multiple pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, ischemia, and hypoxia. However, studies of certain conditions to date have detected spontaneous OL replacement. This review will summarize current information on adult OL progenitors, mechanisms that contribute to OL death, the consequences of their loss and the pathological conditions in which spontaneous oligodendrogenesis from endogenous precursors has been observed in the adult CNS. [source]

    Thromboxane A2 Receptor-Mediated Cell Proliferation, Survival and Gene Expression in Oligodendrocytes

    Xin Lin
    Abstract Thromboxane A2 receptors (TP) were previously localized to discrete regions in the rat brain on myelinated fiber tracts and oligodendrocytes (OLGs). The present studies extended these findings and investigated the effects of TP signaling on cell proliferation, survival, and gene expression in OLG progenitor cells (OPCs) and OLGs. It was found that the TP agonist, U46619 stimulated the proliferation of OPCs and promoted the survival of mature OLGs. Examination of the early gene expression events involved in OPC proliferation, revealed that c-fos expression was substantially increased by U46619 stimulation. Treatment of OPCs or OLGs with U46619 caused activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK 1/2. In OPCs this activation was blocked by inhibition of src. However, in OLGs this phosphorylation was not only blocked by inhibition of src but also by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC). Furthermore, U46619 was found to increase CREB phosphorylation in both OPCs and OLGs. Similar to ERK 1/2 activation, there was a divergence in the mechanism of the TP-mediated CREB response for each cell type. Specifically, U46619 activation was attenuated by src and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition in OPCs, whereas in OLGs this effect was blocked by inhibition of src, PKA as well as by inhibition of PKC. Collectively, these results provide the first demonstration that TP-activated nuclear signaling events are involved in the proliferation of OPCs, the survival of mature OLGs, and the stimulation of gene expression. [source]

    Chemical inducers and transcriptional markers of oligodendrocyte differentiation

    Lara Joubert
    Abstract Oligodendrocytes generate and maintain myelin, which is essential for axonal function and protection of the mammalian central nervous system. To advance our molecular understanding of differentiation by these cells, we screened libraries of pharmacologically active compounds and identified inducers of differentiation of Oli-neu, a stable cell line of mouse oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs). We identified four broad classes of inducers, namely, forskolin/cAMP (protein kinase A activators), steroids (glucocorticoids and retinoic acid), ErbB2 inhibitors, and nucleoside analogs, and confirmed the activity of these compounds on rat primary oligodendrocyte precursors and mixed cortical cultures. We also analyzed transcriptional responses in the chemically induced mouse and rat OPC differentiation processes and compared these with earlier studies. We confirm the view that ErbB2 is a natural signaling component that is required for OPC proliferation, whereas ErbB2 inhibition or genetic knockdown results in OPC differentiation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lactate utilization by brain cells and its role in CNS development

    José M. Medina
    Abstract We studied the role played by lactate as an important substrate for the brain during the perinatal period. Under these circumstances, lactate is the main substrate for brain development and is used as a source of energy and carbon skeletons. In fact, lactate is used actively by brain cells in culture. Neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes use lactate as a preferential substrate for both energy purposes and as precursor of lipids. Astrocytes use lactate and other metabolic substrates for the synthesis of oleic acid, a new neurotrophic factor. Oligodendrocytes mainly use lactate as precursor of lipids, presumably those used to synthesize myelin. Neurons use lactate as a source of energy and as precursor of lipids. During the perinatal period, neurons may use blood lactate directly to meet the need for the energy and carbon skeletons required for proliferation and differentiation. During adult life, however, the lactate used by neurons may come from astrocytes, in which lactate is the final product of glycogen breakdown. It may be concluded that lactate plays an important role in brain development. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Glial reactions in Parkinson's disease

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 4 2008
    Patrick L. McGeer MD
    Abstract Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are particularly vulnerable to oxidative and inflammatory attack. Such processes may play a crucial role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). Since glia are the main generators of these processes, the possibility that PD may be caused by glial dysfunction needs to be considered. This review concentrates on glial reactions in PD. Reactive astrocytes and reactive microglia are abundant in the substantia nigra (SN) of PD cases indicating a robust inflammatory state. Glia normally serve neuroprotective roles but, given adverse stimulation, they may contribute to damaging chronic inflammation. Microglia, the phagocytes of brain, may be the main contributors since they can produce large numbers of superoxide anions and other neurotoxins. Their toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons has been demonstrated in tissue culture and various animal models of PD. The MPTP and ,-synuclein models are of particular interest. Years after exposure to MPTP, inflammation has been observed in the SN. This has established that an acute insult to the SN can result in a sustained local inflammation. The ,-synuclein model indicates that an endogenous protein can induce inflammation, and, when overexpressed, can lead to autosomal dominant PD. Less is known about the role of astrocytes than microglia, but they are known to secrete both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules and may play a role in modulating microglial activity. Oligodendrocytes do not seem to play a role in promoting inflammation although, like neurons, they may be damaged by inflammatory processes. Further research concerning glial reactions in PD may lead to disease-modifying therapeutic approaches. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Defense mechanism to oxidative DNA damage in glial cells

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Takashi Iida
    Astrocytosis is a sequential morphological change of astrocytic reaction to tissue damage, and is associated with regulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms to reduce oxidative damage. The repair enzymes to oxidative DNA damage, oxidized purine-nucleoside triphosphatase (hMTH1) and a mitochondrial type of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1,2a) in brain tumors and neurons of Alzheimer's disease, were previously reported. In the present study, glial expression of these repair enzymes under such pathological conditions as cerebrovascular diseases and metastatic brain tumors, were investigated. Furthermore, an in-vitro experiment using a glioma cell-line under oxidative stress was performed to verify the immunohistochemical results of post-mortem materials. As a result, hOGG1,2a immunoreactivities in reactive astrocytes were more intense than those to hMTH1. Oligodendrocytes of acute or subacute stage of brain infarction were strongly immunoreactive to both repair enzymes. In-vitro study revealed that, hOGG1,2a is constitutively expressed in both untreated glioma cells and the glioma cells under oxidative stress. However, although no immunoreactivity to hMTH1 was found in the control cells, accumulation of hMTH1 was rapidly induced by oxidative stress. These results indicate that the two repair enzymes to oxidative DNA damage are differentially regulated in glial cells, and that there is a difference in the expression of the repair enzymes between reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. [source]

    Mixed primary culture and clonal analysis provide evidence that NG2 proteoglycan-expressing cells after spinal cord injury are glial progenitors

    Soonmoon Yoo
    Abstract NG2+ cells in the adult rat spinal cord proliferate after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are postulated to differentiate into mature glia to replace some of those lost to injury. To further study these putative endogenous precursors, tissue at 3 days after SCI or from uninjured adults was dissociated, myelin partially removed and replicate cultures grown in serum-containing or serum-free medium with or without growth factors for up to 7 days in vitro (DIV). Cell yield after SCI was 5,6 times higher than from the normal adult. Most cells were OX42+ microglia/macrophages but there were also more than twice the normal number of NG2+ cells. Most of these coexpressed A2B5 or nestin, as would be expected for glial progenitors. Few cells initially expressed mature astrocyte (GFAP) or oligodendrocyte (CC1) markers, but more did at 7 DIV, suggesting differentiation of glial precursors in vitro. To test the hypothesis that NG2+ cells after SCI express progenitor-like properties, we prepared free-floating sphere and single cell cultures from purified suspension of NG2+ cells from injured spinal cord. We found that sphere cultures could be passaged in free-floating subcultures, and upon attachment the spheres clonally derived from an acutely purified single cell differentiated into oligodendrocytes and rarely astrocytes. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that SCI stimulates proliferation of NG2+ cells that are glial progenitor cells. Better understanding the intrinsic properties of the NG2+ cells stimulated by SCI may permit future therapeutic manipulations to improve recovery after SCI. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

    MAPK3 deficiency drives autoimmunity via DC arming

    Ivo Bendix
    Abstract DC are professional APC that instruct T cells during the inflammatory course of EAE. We have previously shown that MAPK3 (Erk1) is important for the induction of T-cell anergy. Our goal was to determine the influence of MAPK3 on the capacity of DC to arm T-cell responses in autoimmunity. We report that DC from Mapk3,/, mice have a significantly higher membrane expression of CD86 and MHC-II and , when loaded with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein , show a superior capacity to prime naïve T cells towards an inflammatory phenotype than Mapk3+/+ DC. Nonetheless and as previously described, Mapk3,/, mice were only slightly but not significantly more susceptible to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE than WT littermate mice. However, Mapk3+/+ mice engrafted with Mapk3,/, BM (KO,WT) developed a severe form of EAE, in direct contrast to WT,KO mice, which were even less sick than control WT,WT mice. An infiltration of DC and accumulation of Th17 cells was also observed in the CNS of KO,WT mice. Therefore, triggering of MAPK3 in the periphery might be a therapeutic option for the treatment of neuroinflammation since absence of this kinase in the immune system leads to severe EAE. [source]

    L-Selectin-deficient SJL and C57BL/6 mice are not resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Chiara Uboldi
    Abstract L-selectin has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Here we demonstrate that L-selectin,/, SJL mice are susceptible to proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced EAE because the compromised antigen-specific T cell proliferation in peripheral lymph nodes is fully compensated by the T cell response raised in their spleen. Transfer of PLP-specific T cells into syngeneic recipients induced EAE independent of the presence or absence of L-selectin on PLP-specific T cells or in the recipient. Leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system parenchyma was detectable independent of the mode of disease induction and the presence or absence of L-selectin. In addition, we found L-selectin,/, C57BL/6 mice to be susceptible to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE. Taken together, we demonstrate that in SJL and C57BL/6 mice L-selectin is not required for EAE pathogenesis. The apparent discrepancy of our present observation to previous findings, demonstrating a role of L-selectin in EAE pathogenesis in C57BL/6 mice or myelin-basic protein (MBP)-specific TCR-transgenic B10.PL mice, may be attributed to background genes rather than L-selectin and to a unique role of L-selectin in EAE pathogenesis in MBP-TCR-transgenic mice. [source]

    Expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and the transcription factor ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein (ZONAB),MsY3 in glial cells and colocalization at oligodendrocyte and astrocyte gap junctions in mouse brain

    Mihai C. Penes
    Abstract The PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) interacts with several members of the connexin (Cx) family of gap junction-forming proteins and has been localized to gap junctions, including those containing Cx47 in oligodendrocytes. We now provide evidence for ZO-1 expression in astrocytes in vivo and association with astrocytic connexins by confocal immunofluorescence demonstration of ZO-1 colocalization with astrocytic Cx30 and Cx43, and by ZO-1 coimmunoprecipitation with Cx30 and Cx43. Evidence for direct interaction of Cx30 with ZO-1 was obtained by pull-down assays that indicated binding of Cx30 to the second of the three PDZ domains in ZO-1. Further, we investigated mouse Y-box transcription factor MsY3, the canine ortholog of which has been termed ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein (ZONAB) and previously reported to interact with ZO-1. By immunofluorescence using specific antimouse ZONAB antibody, ZONAB was found to be associated with oligodendrocytes throughout mouse brain and spinal cord, and to be colocalized with oligodendrocytic Cx47 and Cx32 as well as with astrocytic Cx43. Our results extend the CNS cell types that express the multifunctional protein ZO-1, demonstrate an additional connexin (Cx30) that directly interacts with ZO-1, and show for the first time the association of a transcription factor (ZONAB) with ZO-1 localized to oligodendrocyte and astrocyte gap junctions. Given previous observations that ZONAB and ZO-1 in combination regulate gene expression, our results suggest roles of glial gap junction-mediated anchoring of signalling molecules in a wide variety of glial homeostatic processes. [source]

    Activation of PPAR-, and PTEN cascade participates in lovastatin-mediated accelerated differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    GLIA, Issue 14 2010
    Ajaib S. Paintlia
    Abstract Previously, we and others documented that statins including-lovastatin (LOV) promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and remyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an multiple sclerosis (MS) model. Conversely, some recent studies demonstrated that statins negatively influence oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in vitro and remyelination in a cuprizone-CNS demyelinating model. Therefore, herein, we first investigated the cause of impaired differentiation of OLs by statins in vitro settings. Our observations indicated that the depletion of cholesterol was detrimental to LOV treated OPCs under cholesterol/serum-deprived culture conditions similar to that were used in conflicting studies. However, the depletion of geranylgeranyl-pp under normal cholesterol homeostasis conditions enhanced the phenotypic commitment and differentiation of LOV-treated OPCs ascribed to inhibition of RhoA-Rho kinase. Interestingly, this effect of LOV was associated with increased activation and expression of both PPAR-, and PTEN in OPCs as confirmed by various pharmacological and molecular based approaches. Furthermore, PTEN was involved in an inhibition of OPCs proliferation via PI3K-Akt inhibition and induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, but without affecting their cell survival. These effects of LOV on OPCs in vitro were absent in the CNS of normal rats chronically treated with LOV concentrations used in EAE indicating that PPAR-, induction in normal brain may be tightly regulated-providing evidences that statins are therapeutically safe for humans. Collectively, these data provide initial evidence that statin-mediated activation of the PPAR-,-PTEN cascade participates in OL differentiation, thus suggesting new therapeutic-interventions for MS or related CNS-demyelinating diseases. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Phosphorylation and lipid raft association of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 in oligodendrocytes,

    GLIA, Issue 9 2009
    M. R. Bryant
    Abstract Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) initiate diverse cellular responses that contribute to the regulation of oligodendrocyte (OL) function. To understand the mechanisms by which FGFRs elicit these cellular responses, we investigated the phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins and the role of cholesterol-glycosphingolipid-enriched "lipid raft" microdomains in differentiated OLs. Surprisingly, we found that the most abundant tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in OLs was the 120-kd isoform of FGFR2 and that it was phosphorylated even in the absence of FGF2, suggesting a potential ligand-independent function for this receptor. Furthermore, FGFR2, but not FGFR1, was associated with lipid raft microdomains in OLs and myelin (but not in astrocytes). This provides the first evidence for the association of FGFR with TX-100-insoluble lipid raft fractions. FGFR2 phosphorylated the key downstream target, FRS2 in OLs. Raft disruption resulted in loss of phosphorylated FRS2 from lipid rafts, coupled with the loss of Akt but not of Mek or Erk phosphorylation. This suggests that FGFR2-FRS2 signaling in lipid rafts operates via the PI3-Kinase/Akt pathway rather than the Ras/Mek/Erk pathway, emphasizing the importance of microenvironments within the cell membrane. Also present in lipid rafts in OLs and myelin, but not in astrocytes, was a novel 52-kd isoform of FGFR2 that lacked the extracellular ligand-binding region. These results demonstrate that FGFR2 in OLs and myelin possess unique characteristics that are specific both to receptor type and to OLs and provide a novel mechanism to elicit distinct cellular responses that mediate both FGF-dependent and -independent functions. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Identification of Tmem10/Opalin as an oligodendrocyte enriched gene using expression profiling combined with genetic cell ablation

    GLIA, Issue 11 2008
    Neev Golan
    Abstract Oligodendrocytes form an insulating multilamellar structure of compact myelin around axons, which allows efficient and rapid propagation of action potentials. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms operating at the onset of myelination and during maintenance of the myelin sheath in the adult. Here we use a genetic cell ablation approach combined with Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify a number of oligodendrocyte-enriched genes that may play a key role in myelination. One of the "oligogenes" we cloned using this approach is Tmem10/Opalin, which encodes for a novel transmembrane glycoprotein. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis revealed that Tmem10 is selectively expressed by oligodendrocytes and that its expression is induced during their differentiation. Developmental immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that Tmem10 starts to be expressed in the white matter tracks of the cerebellum and the corpus callosum at the onset of myelination after the appearance of other myelin genes such as MBP. In contrast to the spinal cord and brain, Tmem10 was not detected in myelinating Schwann cells, indicating that it is a CNS-specific myelin protein. In mature oligodendrocytes, Tmem10 was present at the cell soma and processes, as well as along myelinated internodes, where it was occasionally concentrated at the paranodes. In myelinating spinal cord cultures, Tmem10 was detected in MBP-positive cellular processes that were aligned with underlying axons before myelination commenced. These results suggest a possible role of Tmem10 in oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Astrocytes,Friends or foes in multiple sclerosis?

    GLIA, Issue 13 2007
    Anna Williams
    Abstract In multiple sclerosis (MS), the presence of demyelinating plaques has concentrated researchers' minds on the role of the oligodendrocyte in its pathophysiology. Recently, with the rediscovery of early and widespread loss of axons in the disease, new emphasis has been put on the role of axons and axon-oligodendrocyte interactions in MS. Despite the fact that, in 1904, Müller claimed that MS was a disease of astrocytes, more recently, astrocytes have taken a back seat, except as the cells that form the final glial scar after all hope of demyelination is over. However, perhaps it is time for the return of the astrocyte to popularity in the pathogenesis of MS, with recent reports on the dual role of astrocytes in aiding degeneration and demyelination, by promoting inflammation, damage of oligodendrocytes and axons, and glial scarring, but also in creating a permissive environment for remyelination by their action on oligodendrocyte precursor migration, oligodendrocyte proliferation, and differentiation. We review these findings to try to provide a cogent view of astrocytes in the pathology of MS. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Early stages of oligodendrocyte development in the embryonic murine spinal cord proceed normally in the absence of Hoxa2

    GLIA, Issue 1 2004
    Danette J. Nicolay
    Abstract Recent discoveries have enhanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of oligodendrocyte (OG) development. In particular, the transcription factors (TFs) Olig2, Pax6, and Nkx2.2 have been shown to be important in the specification and/or maturation of the OG lineage. Although numerous other TFs are expressed by OGs, little is known regarding their role(s) in oligodendrogenesis. One such TF is the homeobox gene Hoxa2, which was recently shown to be expressed by O4+ pro-oligodendrocytes. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of Hoxa2 during the early stages of OG development, as well as to determine whether Hoxa2 is required for specification and/or early maturation of OGs. Immunocytochemical analysis of primary mixed glial cultures demonstrated that Hoxa2 was expressed throughout oligodendrogenesis, diminishing only with the acquisition of a myelinating phenotype. Serial transverse spinal cord sections from embryonic days 12.5, 14.25, 16, and 18 Hoxa2+/+, Hoxa2+/,, and Hoxa2,/, mice were subjected to single and double immunohistochemical analysis in order to examine Hoxa2, Olig2, Nkx2.2, and Pax6 expression profiles. Results obtained from Hoxa2+/+ and Hoxa2+/, mice suggested that Hoxa2 was expressed by migratory oligodendroglial cells. In addition, comparison of spinal cord sections obtained from Hoxa2+/+, Hoxa2+/,, and Hoxa2,/, mice suggested that specification and early maturation of OGs proceeded normally in the absence of Hoxa2, since there were no obvious alterations in the expression patterns of Olig2, Nkx2.2, and/or Pax6. Hence, although Hoxa2 is expressed throughout OG development, it does not appear to be critical for early stages of oligodendrogenesis in the murine spinal cord. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Role of pathogenic T cells and autoantibodies in relapse and progression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis in LEW.1AV1 rats

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1pt2 2009
    Yoh Matsumoto
    Summary Accumulating evidence suggests that T cells and autoantibodies reactive with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we have tried to elucidate the pathomechanisms of development and progression of the disease by analysing T cells and autoantibodies in MOG-induced rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which exhibits various clinical subtypes mimicking MS. Analysis using overlapping peptides revealed that encephalitogenic epitopes resided in peptide 7 (P7, residue 91,108) and P8 (residue 103,125) of MOG. Immunization with MOGP7 and MOGP8 induced relapsing,remitting or secondary progressive EAE. T cells taken from MOG-immunized and MOGP7-immunized rats responded to MOG and MOGP7 and sera from MOG-immunized rats reacted to MOG and MOGP1. Significant epitope spreading was not observed at either T-cell or antibody levels. Interestingly, sera from MOGP7-immunized rats with clinical signs did not react to MOG and MOG peptides throughout the observation period, suggesting that disease development and relapse in MOGP7-induced EAE occur without autoantibodies. However, MOGP7 immunization with adoptive transfer of anti-MOG antibodies aggravated the clinical course of EAE only slightly. Analysis of antibodies against conformational epitope (cme) suggests that anti-MOGcme may play a role in the pathogenicity of anti-MOG antibodies. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that relapse of a certain type of MOG-induced EAE occurs without autoantibodies but that autoantibodies may play a role in disease progression. Relapses and the progression of MS-mimicking EAE are differently immunoregulated so immunotherapy should be designed appropriately on the basis of precise information. [source]

    Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, activity by N -acetyl cysteine attenuates inhibition of oligodendrocyte development in lipopolysaccharide stimulated mixed glial cultures

    Manjeet K. Paintlia
    Abstract Glial cells secrete proinflammatory mediators in the brain in response to exogenous stimuli such as infection and injury. Previously, we documented that systemic maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposure at embryonic gestation day 18 causes oligodendrocyte (OL)-injury/hypomyelination in the developing brain which can be attenuated by N -acetyl cysteine (NAC; precursor of glutathione). The present study delineates the underlying mechanism of NAC-mediated attenuation of inhibition of OL development in LPS-stimulated mixed glial cultures. Factors released by LPS-stimulated mixed glial cultures inhibited OL development as shown by decrease in both proliferation 3bromo-deoxyuridine+/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan,NG2+, hereafter BrdU+/NG+ and differentiation (O4+ and myelin basic protein+) of OL-progenitors. Correspondingly, an impairment of peroxisomal proliferation was shown by a decrease in the level of peroxisomal proteins in the developing OLs following exposure to LPS-conditioned media (LCM). Both NAC and WY14643, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, agonist attenuated these LCM-induced effects in OL-progenitors. Similar to WY14643, NAC attenuated LCM-induced inhibition of PPAR-, activity in developing OLs. Studies conducted with cytokines and diamide (a thiol-depleting agent) confirmed that cytokines are active agents in LCM which may be responsible for inhibition of OL development via peroxisomal dysfunction and induction of oxidative stress. These findings were further corroborated by similar treatment of developing OLs generated from PPAR-,(,/,) and wild-type mice or B12 oligodendroglial cells co-transfected with PPAR-, small interfering RNAs/pTK-PPREx3-Luc plasmids. Collectively, these data provide evidence that the modulation of PPAR-, activity, thus peroxisomal function by NAC attenuates LPS-induced glial factors-mediated inhibition of OL development suggesting new therapeutic interventions to prevent the devastating effects of maternal infections. [source]

    Dorsally derived BMP4 inhibits the induction of spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors

    R. H. Miller
    During development oligodendrocyte precursors arise in a distinct domain of the ventral ventricular zone in the spinal cord that they share with motor neurons. The localized appearance of oligodendrocyte and motor neuron precursors is the result of local inductive signals including sonic hedgehog (Shh). Previous studies suggested that inhibitory signals from dorsal spinal cord act to sharpen the boundaries of the Shh induced region. Here we show that the dorsal spinal cord contains BMP4 during the developmental period when oligodendrocyte precursors first appear. In dissociated cultures of embryonic spinal cord cells, BMP4 competitively blocks the induction of oligodendrocyte precursors by Shh. Similarly, in embryonic slice preparations addition of BMP4 inhibited the appearance of oligodendrocyte precursors in the ventral spinal cord while addition of Shh enhanced their appearance. In vivo, transplantation of a BMP4 coated bead adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord inhibited ventral oligodendrogenesis while transplantation of a Shh coated bead enhanced ventral oligodendrogenesis. These data suggest that the initial localization of oligodendrocytes in the ventral spinal cord reflects the neutralization of dorsally-derived BMP4 inhibition by locally supplied Shh. [source]

    Pathogenesis of Brain and Spinal Cord Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Alireza Minagar MD
    ABSTRACT For more than a century, multiple sclerosis was viewed as a disease process characterized by oligodendrocyte and myelin loss, and research into the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis was mainly focused on the mechanisms of inflammation. However, with development of more sophisticated neuroimaging and molecular biology techniques, attention has shifted to new aspects of pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: axonal loss and neurodegeneration. Evidence is increasing that tissue destruction, primarily axonal loss and neurodegeneration, is a key element in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In addition, it is now known that brain and spinal cord atrophy begins early in the disease process of multiple sclerosis and advances relentlessly throughout the course of the disease. Cumulative data suggest that axonal loss is the major determinant of progressive neuro logic disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with multiple sclerosis for < 5 years indicate brain atrophy and loss of axonal integrity. Neurodegeneration and axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis are initially accompanied by a local response from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and some remyelination. However, these repair mechanisms eventually fail, and patients typically develop generalized brain atrophy, cognitive decline, and permanent disability. Although the exact mechanisms underlying central nervous system atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis are largely unknown, evidence exists that atrophy may represent an epiphenomenon related to the effects of dynamic inflammation within the central nervous system, including demyelination, axonal injury, neuronal loss, Wallerian degeneration, and possibly iron deposition. This article summarizes the potential mechanisms involved in central nervous system atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis. [source]

    Neural cell adhesion molecule stimulates survival of premyelinating oligodendrocytes via the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    Anne L. Palser
    Abstract Axonal signals are critical in promoting the survival and maturation of oligodendrocytes during myelination, with contact-dependent signals thought to play a key role. However, the exact nature of these signals remains unclear. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is expressed by both axons and oligodendrocytes and is ideally localized to transduce signals from the axon. This study sought to investigate the influence of NCAM on premyelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro. Both a soluble molecule comprising the extracellular domain of NCAM and a peptide derived from the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) binding motif within the first fibronectin domain stimulated a dose-dependent increase in survival of premyelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro. The survival effect was blocked by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor and an FGFR inhibitor, suggesting that activation of MAPK signalling pathways following interaction with the FGFR is involved in the survival effect of NCAM. Furthermore, NCAM presented in a cellular monolayer induced an increase in radial process outgrowth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. These data suggest that NCAM may play a role in axon,oligodendrocyte signalling during myelination, leading to an increase in oligodendrocyte survival and process outgrowth following axonal contact. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impaired SDF1/CXCR4 signaling in glial progenitors derived from SOD1G93A mice

    Yongquan Luo
    Abstract Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the SOD1G93A transgenic mouse has been widely used as one animal model for studies of this neurodegenerative disorder. Recently, several reports have shown that abnormalities in neuronal development in other models of neurodegeneration occur much earlier than previously thought. To study the role of mutant SOD1 in glial progenitor biology, we immortalized glial restricted precursors (GRIPs) derived from mouse E11.5 neural tubes of wild-type and SOD1G93A mutant mice. Immunocytochemistry using cell lineage markers shows that these cell lines can be maintained as glial progenitors, because they continue to express A2B5, with very low levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte), ,III-tubulin (neuron), and undetected GalC (oligodendrocyte) markers. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses indicate that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is reduced in SOD1G93A GRIPs. Subsequently, SOD1G93A GRIPs are unable to respond to SDF1, to activate ERK1/2 enzymes and the transcription factor CREB. This may be one pathway leading to a reduction in SOD1G93A cell migration. These data indicate that the abnormalities in SOD1G93A glial progenitor expression of CXCR4 and its mediated signaling and function occur during spinal cord development and highlight nonneuronal (glial) abnormalities in this ALS model. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential sensitivity in the survival of oligodendrocyte cell lines to overexpression of myelin proteolipid protein gene products

    Ernesto R. Bongarzone
    Abstract The proteolipid (PLP) gene encodes at least four proteins, including the classic PLP and DM20, which are important components of the myelin sheath, and the recently identified soma-restricted (sr) isoforms, srPLP and srDM20. The classic PLP and DM20 gene products have been implicated in oligodendrocyte survival by overexpression studies in vitro and in vivo. The classic and sr proteolipids are targeted to different cellular compartments in the oligodendrocyte, suggesting different cellular functions. Accordingly, we examined the effects of in vitro overexpression of the sr-PLP/DM20 isoforms on the survival of stably transfected, conditionally immortalized, oligodendroglial cell lines and compared this to overexpression of the classic and the jimpy-mutated proteolipids. The results indicate that overexpression of either normal or jimpy classic PLP/DM20 resulted in a dramatic reduction in the survival of the oligodendrocyte cell lines at the nonpermissive temperature, but not the COS-7 cell line, a cell line expressing the same oncogene constitutively. Survival of the oligodendrocyte cell lines was significantly less affected when either the sr-PLP/DM20 or the dopamine D-2 receptor, another cell membrane protein, was overexpressed in the cell lines. These results suggest that overexpression of the "classic" PLP or DM20 can compromise the survival of oligodendrocytes whether or not they are mutated. Furthermore, they suggest that the internal mechanisms for normal targeting of the PLP/DM20 isoforms of either the "classic" or the "sr" types influence the oligodendrocyte's ability to survive when these proteolipids are overexpressed. J. Neurosci. Res. 65:485,492, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Alcohol-Induced Lipid and Morphological Changes in Chick Retinal Development

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2004
    Yolanda Aguilera
    Abstract: Background: Alcohol exposure causes alterations in the lipid content of different organs and a reduction of long-chain fatty acids. During embryo development, the central nervous system is extremely vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, and the visual system is particularly sensitive. Methods: White Leghorn chick embryos were injected with 10- and 20-,l alcohol doses into the yolk sac at day 6 of incubation. The lipid composition of the retina was analyzed in embryos at day 7 of incubation (E7), E11, E15, and E18. The percentages of phospholipids, free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, diacylglycerides, and free fatty acids were estimated by using an Iatroscan thin layer chromatography flame ionization detector. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to determine fatty acid composition. The morphological study was performed at E7, E11, and E19 by means of semithin and immunohistochemical techniques. Results: In the retina, alcohol causes the total lipid content to change, with a remarkable increase in free cholesterol and a dramatic decrease in esterified cholesterol. Diacylglycerides and free fatty acids tend to increase. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine decrease, whereas phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol increase. The main fatty acids of the retina also undergo changes. At E7, myriotic acid increases, and oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decrease. From E18 onward, there is some recovery, except for fatty acids, which recover earlier. From a morphological point of view, alcohol effects on retinal development are various: increase of intercellular spaces in all cell layers, pyknosis with loss of cellularity in the inner nuclear cell layer and ganglion cell layer, retarded or disorderly cell migration, early cell differentiation, and loss of immunoreactivity for myelin oligodendrocyte,specific protein. Conclusions: Acute alcohol exposure during embryo development causes the lipid composition of the retina to change, with a trend to recovery in the last stages. These alterations are in line with the changes observed at a morphological level. [source]

    OLIG-1 and 2 gene expression and oligodendroglial tumours

    K. Hoang-Xuan
    OLIG 1/2 genes encode basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play a critical role in motor neurone and oligodendrocyte fate specification during development. Two recent studies in which OLIG transcripts were detected by in situ hybridization have reported a high expression of the OLIG genes in oligodendrogliomas. This suggests that the detection of these lineage markers could become an adjunct to the classic morphological diagnosis of these tumours. There are problems in the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. To date, all other known oligodendrocyte lineage markers have failed to label specifically neoplastic oligodendrocytes. Deletions on chromosome 1p and 19q are much more frequent in oligodendrogliomas than in astrocytomas but these molecular alterations are not constant. For the future, when routinely available, immunohistochemical techniques using anti-OLIG antibodies on paraffin embedded tissues will allow a systematic study of a large series of tumours so that we will know the specificity and sensitivity of this investigation in diagnosis. At another level, it is possible that expression of OLIG in neoplastic oligodendrocyte might participate in the oncogenesis of oligodendrogliomas. Initial work suggests that this is probably not the case. However further in vitro and in vivo studies analysing the functional consequence of OLIG overexpression in terms of proliferation and tumour progression are needed. [source]

    FK506 as an adjuvant of tolerogenic DNA vaccination for the prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Youmin Kang
    Abstract Background DNA vaccination is a strategy that has been developed primarily to elicit protective immunity against infection and cancer. Methods DNA vaccine was used, in conjunction with an immunosuppressant, to tolerize harmful autoimmunity. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with MOG35,55, a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-derived peptide, and FK506 (Tacrolimus) as a tolerogenic adjuvant stimulated regulatory dendritic cells, induced antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg), and protected the animals from subsequent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). After EAE induction, there were fewer lymphocytes, including fewer T helper 17 cells, and more Treg infiltrating the spinal cord in the immunized mice compared to in control mice. Furthermore, at the peak of the EAE manifestation, CD4 T cells in the immunized mice showed decreased expression of interferon-, and interleukin (IL)-17, but not IL-4, in treated mice. Conclusions DNA vaccination, when applied with an immunosuppressant as adjuvant, can induce antigen-specific tolerance and prevent autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dicer ablation in oligodendrocytes provokes neuronal impairment in mice,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Daesung Shin PhD
    Objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and have many roles in the brain, but a role in oligodendrocyte (OL) function has not been demonstrated. Methods A Dicer floxed conditional allele was crossed with the proteolipid protein promoter-driven inducible Cre allele to generate inducible, OL-specific Dicer -floxed mice. Results OL-specific Dicer mutants show demyelination, oxidative damage, inflammatory astrocytosis and microgliosis in the brain, and eventually neuronal degeneration and shorter lifespan. miR-219 and its target ELOVL7 (elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 7) were identified as the main molecular components that are involved in the development of the phenotype in these mice. Overexpressing ELOVL7 results in lipid accumulation, which is suppressed by miR-219 co-overexpression. In Dicer mutant brain, excess lipids accumulate in myelin-rich brain regions, and the peroxisomal ,-oxidation activity is dramatically reduced. Interpretation Postnatal Dicer ablation in mature OLs results in inflammatory neuronal degeneration through increased demyelination, lipid accumulation, and peroxisomal and oxidative damage, and therefore indicates that miRNAs play an essential role in the maintenance of lipids and redox homeostasis in mature OLs that are necessary for supporting axonal integrity as well as the formation of compact myelin. Ann Neurol 2009;66:843,857 [source]