Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of OLEDs

  • multilayer OLED
  • phosphorescent OLED

  • Selected Abstracts

    Thermal properties of conduction current and carrier behavior in an organic electroluminescent device

    Masahiro Minagawa
    Abstract Organic electroluminescent device (OLED) was fabricated using a vacuum evaporation method and thermal properties were investigated. The OLED has an indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N,-diphenyl- N,N,-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1,-biphenyl-4,4,-diamine (TPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq)/lithium fluoride (LiF)/aluminum (Al) structure. An electron-dominant device of Al/Alq/LiF/Al structure, or a hole-dominant device of ITO/TPD/Al structure was also fabricated in order to study the carrier behavior in the OLEDs. The current density versus voltage (J,V) properties with various thickness of organic layers were investigated in both electron- and hole-dominant devices, and the thermal dependence of J,V properties was observed in the devices. At room temperature, conductions in a wide current region were considered to be due to space-charge-limited current for all of the devices. Especially for the Al/Alq/LiF/Al device and the OLED, relationships were observed across a wide current region. At low temperature, tunnel currents were estimated for the ITO/TPD/Al device. For the Al/Alq/LiF/Al device and the OLED, relationships were observed across a wide current region at low temperature. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(3): 24,31, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10048 [source]

    An Alternative Approach to Constructing Solution Processable Multifunctional Materials: Their Structure, Properties, and Application in High-Performance Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Shanghui Ye
    Abstract A new series of full hydrocarbons, namely 4,4,-(9,9,-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H -fluorene-9,9-diyl))bis(N,N -diphenylaniline) (DTPAFB), N,N,-(4,4,-(9,9,-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H -fluorene-9,9-diyl))bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(N -phenylnaphthalen-1-amine) (DNPAFB), 1,3-bis(9-(4-(9H -carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-9H -fluoren-9-yl)benzene, and 1,3-bis(9-(4-(3,6-di- tert -butyl-9H -carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-9H -fluoren-9-yl)benzene, featuring a highly twisted tetrahedral conformation, are designed and synthesized. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) comprising DNPAFB and DTPAFB as hole transporting layers and tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)aluminum as an emitter are made either by vacuum deposition or by solution processing, and show much higher maximum efficiencies than the commonly used N,N,-di(naphthalen-1-yl)- N,N,-diphenylbiphenyl-4,4,-diamine device (3.6 cd A,1) of 7.0 cd A,1 and 6.9 cd A,1, respectively. In addition, the solution processed blue phosphorescent OLEDs employing the synthesized materials as hosts and iridium (III) bis[(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2] picolinate (FIrpic) phosphor as an emitter present exciting results. For example, the DTPAFB device exhibits a brightness of 47 902 cd m,2, a maximum luminescent efficiency of 24.3 cd A,1, and a power efficiency of 13.0 lm W,1. These results show that the devices are among the best solution processable blue phosphorescent OLEDs based on small molecules. Moreover, a new approach to constructing solution processable small molecules is proposed based on rigid and bulky fluorene and carbazole moieties combined in a highly twisted configuration, resulting in excellent solubility as well as chemical miscibility, without the need to introduce any solubilizing group such as an alkyl or alkoxy chain. [source]

    A Transparent, Flexible, Low-Temperature, and Solution-Processible Graphene Composite Electrode

    Haixin Chang
    Abstract The synthesis and preparation of a new type of graphene composite material suitable for spin-coating into conductive, transparent, and flexible thin film electrodes in ambient conditions is reported here for the first time. Solution-processible graphene with diameter up to 50 ,m is synthesized by surfactant-assisted exfoliation of graphite oxide and in situ chemical reduction in a large quantity. Spin-coating the mixing solution of surfactant-functionalized graphene and PEDOT:PSS yields the graphene composite electrode (GCE) without the need for high temperature annealing, chemical vapor deposition, or any additional transfer-printing process. The conductivity and transparency of GCE are at the same level as those of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Importantly, it exhibits high stability (both mechanical and electrical) in bending tests of at least 1000 cycles. The performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on a GCE anode is comparable, if not superior, to that of OLEDs made with an ITO anode. [source]

    Stable, Glassy, and Versatile Binaphthalene Derivatives Capable of Efficient Hole Transport, Hosting, and Deep-Blue Light Emission

    Bin Wei
    Abstract Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have great potential applications in display and solid-state lighting. Stability, cost, and blue emission are key issues governing the future of OLEDs. The synthesis and photoelectronics of a series of three kinds of binaphthyl (BN) derivatives are reported. BN1,3 are "melting-point-less" and highly stable materials, forming very good, amorphous, glass-like films. They decompose at temperatures as high as 485,545,°C. At a constant current density of 25,mA,cm,2, an ITO/BN3/Al single-layer device has a much-longer lifetime (>80,h) than that of an ITO/NPB/Al single-layer device (8,h). Also, the lifetime of a multilayer device based on BN1 is longer than a similar device based on NPB. BNs are efficient and versatile OLED materials: they can be used as a hole-transport layer (HTL), a host, and a deep-blue-light-emitting material. This versatility may cut the cost of large-scale material manufacture. More importantly, the deep-blue electroluminescence (emission peak at 444 nm with CIE coordinates (0.16, 0.11), 3.23 cd A,1 at 0.21,mA cm,2, and 25200,cd,m,2 at 9,V) remains very stable at very high current densities up to 1000,mA,cm,2. [source]

    The Role of Transition Metal Oxides in Charge-Generation Layers for Stacked Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Sami Hamwi
    Abstract The mechanism of charge generation in transition metal oxide (TMO)-based charge-generation layers (CGL) used in stacked organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported upon. An interconnecting unit between two vertically stacked OLEDs, consisting of an abrupt heterointerface between a Cs2CO3 -doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline layer and a WO3 film is investigated. Minimum thicknesses are determined for these layers to allow for simultaneous operation of both sub-OLEDs in the stacked device. Luminance,current density,voltage measurements, angular dependent spectral emission characteristics, and optical device simulations lead to minimum thicknesses of the n-type doped layer and the TMO layer of 5 and 2.5,nm, respectively. Using data on interface energetic determined by ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoemission spectroscopy, it is shown that the actual charge generation occurs between the WO3 layer and its neighboring hole-transport material, 4,4',4"-tris(N -carbazolyl)-triphenyl amine. The role of the adjacent n-type doped electron transport layer is only to facilitate electron injection from the TMO into the adjacent sub-OLED. [source]

    Highly Efficient p-i-n and Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using an Air-Stable and Low-Temperature-Evaporable Metal Azide as an n-Dopant

    Kyoung Soo Yook
    Abstract Cesium azide (CsN3) is employed as a novel n-dopant because of its air stability and low deposition temperature. CsN3 is easily co-deposited with the electron transporting materials in an organic molecular beam deposition chamber so that it works well as an n-dopant in the electron transport layer because its evaporation temperature is similar to that of common organic materials. The driving voltage of the p-i-n device with the CsN3 -doped n-type layer and a MoO3 -doped p-type layer is greatly reduced, and this device exhibits a very high power efficiency (57,lm W,1). Additionally, an n-doping mechanism study reveals that CsN3 was decomposed into Cs and N2 during the evaporation. The charge injection mechanism was investigated using transient electroluminescence and capacitance,voltage measurements. A very highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLED; 84,cd A,1) is also created using an n,p junction that is composed of the CsN3 -doped n-type organic layer/MoO3 p-type inorganic layer as the interconnecting unit. This work demonstrates that an air-stable and low-temperature-evaporable inorganic n-dopant can very effectively enhance the device performance in p-i-n and tandem OLEDs, as well as simplify the material handling for the vacuum deposition process. [source]

    Interface Engineering for Organic Electronics

    Hong Ma
    Abstract The field of organic electronics has been developed vastly in the past two decades due to its promise for low cost, lightweight, mechanical flexibility, versatility of chemical design and synthesis, and ease of processing. The performance and lifetime of these devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics (OPVs), and field-effect transistors (OFETs), are critically dependent on the properties of both active materials and their interfaces. Interfacial properties can be controlled ranging from simple wettability or adhesion between different materials to direct modifications of the electronic structure of the materials. In this Feature Article, the strategies of utilizing surfactant-modified cathodes, hole-transporting buffer layers, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified anodes are highlighted. In addition to enabling the production of high-efficiency OLEDs, control of interfaces in both conventional and inverted polymer solar cells is shown to enhance their efficiency and stability; and the tailoring of source,drain electrode,semiconductor interfaces, dielectric,semiconductor interfaces, and ultrathin dielectrics is shown to allow for high-performance OFETs. [source]

    Correlation Between Triplet,Triplet Annihilation and Electroluminescence Efficiency in Doped Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    Yichun Luo
    Abstract Triplet,triplet annihilation (TTA) is studied in a wide range of fluorescent host:guest emitter systems used in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Strong TTA is observed in host:guest systems in which the dopant has a limited charge-trapping capability. On the other hand, systems in which the dopant can efficiently trap charges show insignificant TTA, an effect that is due, in part, to the efficient quenching of triplet excitons by the trapped charges. Fluorescent host:guest systems with the strongest TTA are found to give the highest OLED electroluminescence efficiency, a phenomenon attributed to the role of TTA in converting triplet excitons into additional singlet excitons, thus appreciably contributing to the light output of OLEDs. The results shed light on and give direct evidence for the phenomena behind the recently reported very high efficiencies attainable in fluorescent host:guest OLEDs with quantum efficiencies exceeding the classical 25% theoretical limit. [source]

    High Efficiency Blue Organic LEDs Achieved By an Integrated Fluorescence,Interlayer,Phosphorescence Emission Architecture

    Tianhang Zheng
    Abstract This paper presents a new strategy to develop efficient organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) by doping fluorescent- and phosphorescent-type emitters individually into two different hosts separated by an interlayer to form a fluorescence,interlayer,phosphorescence (FIP) emission architecture. One blue OLED with FIP emission structure comprising p -bis(p - N,N -diphenylaminostyryl)benzene (DSA-Ph) and bis[(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinate- N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) exhibiting a peak luminance efficiency of 15.8,cd A,1 at 1.54,mA cm,2 and a power efficiency of 10.2,lm W,1 at 0.1,mA cm,2 is successfully demonstrated. The results are higher than those of typical phosphorescent OLEDs with a single emission layer by 34% and 28%, respectively. From experimental and theoretical investigations on device performance, and the functions of the used emitters and interlayer, such enhancement should ascribe to the appropriate utilization of the two types of emitters. The fluorescent emitter of DSA-Ph is used to facilitate the carrier transport, and thus accelerate the generation of excitons, while the phosphorescent emitter of FIrpic could convert the generated excitons into light efficiently. The method proposed here can be applied for developing other types of red, green, and white OLEDs. [source]

    Nanoparticle Electroluminescence: Controlling Emission Color Through Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in Hybrid Particles

    Christopher F. Huebner
    Abstract Electroluminescent (EL) polymers are attractive for developing all-organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) due to the potential advantages that polymeric systems may offer in the large-scale manufacturing of electronics. Nonetheless, many of these EL , -conjugated polymers are inherently insoluble in the solvents employed in the intended solution-based manufacturing processes. One such polymer is poly(2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (POPPV), where the inherent lack of solubility of POPPV in organic solvents has frustrated its widespread application in devices and no OLEDs have been presented that exploit its electroluminescence characteristics. In this effort, a unique strategy is presented for the preparation of hybrid nanoparticles composed of POPPV, a green emitter (,em,=,505,nm) and poly(9,9-di- n -octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO), a blue emitter (,em,=,417,nm). The aqueous-based nanoparticle dispersion composed of these hybrid particles is stable to aggregate and can be employed in the construction of OLEDs. The color characteristics of the electroluminescence for the devices can be tuned by exploiting the Förster resonance energy transfer between the polymers within a particle, while suppressing energy transfer between the particles. These aqueous-based nanoparticle dispersions are amenable to being printed into devices through high-throughput manufacturing techniques, for example, roll-to-roll printing. [source]

    Highly Emitting Neutral Dinuclear Rhenium Complexes as Phosphorescent Dopants for Electroluminescent Devices

    Matteo Mauro
    Abstract A series of neutral, dinuclear, luminescent rhenium(I) complexes suitable for phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) is reported. These compounds, of general formula [Re2(µ -Cl)2(CO)6(µ -1,2-diazine)], contain diazines bearing alkyl groups in one or in both the , positions. Their electrochemical and photophysical properties are presented, as well as a combined density functional and time-dependent density functional study of their geometry, relative stability and electronic structure. The complexes show intense green/yellow emissions in toluene solution and in the solid state and some of the complexes possess high emission quantum yields (,,=,0.18,0.22 for the derivatives with disubstituted diazines). In butyronitrile glass, at 77,K, due to the charge transfer character of the lowest (emitting) excited state, strong blue shift of the emission is observed, accompanied by a strong increase in the lifetime values. The highest-performing emitting complex, containing cyclopentapyridazine as ligand, is tested in a polymer-based light-emitting device, with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) as matrix, as well as in a device obtained by vacuum sublimation of the complex in the 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphine oxide)-9-(9-phenylcarbazol-3-yl)-9-phenylfluorene (PCF) matrix. This represents the first example of devices obtained with a rhenium complex which can be sublimed and is solution processable. Furthermore, the emission is the bluest ever reported for electrogenerated luminescence for rhenium complexes. [source]

    Versatile, Benzimidazole/Amine-Based Ambipolar Compounds for Electroluminescent Applications: Single-Layer, Blue, Fluorescent OLEDs, Hosts for Single-Layer, Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Chih-Hsin Chen
    Abstract A series of compounds containing arylamine and 1,2-diphenyl-1H -benz[d]imidazole moieties are developed as ambipolar, blue-emitting materials with tunable blue-emitting wavelengths, tunable ambipolar carrier-transport properties and tunable triplet energy gaps. These compounds possess several novel properties: (1) they emit in the blue region with high quantum yields; (2) they have high morphological stability and thermal stability; (3) they are capable of ambipolar carrier transport; (4) they possess tunable triplet energy gaps, suitable as hosts for yellow-orange to green phosphors. The electron and hole mobilities of these compounds lie in the range of 0.68,144,×,10,6 and 0.34,147,×,10,6,cm2 V,1 s,1, respectively. High-performance, single-layer, blue-emitting, fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are achieved with these ambipolar materials. High-performance, single-layer, phosphorescent OLEDs with yellow-orange to green emission are also been demonstrated using these ambipolar materials, which have different triplet energy gaps as the host for yellow-orange-emitting to green-emitting iridium complexes. When these ambipolar, blue-emitting materials are lightly doped with a yellow-orange-emitting iridium complex, white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) can be achieved, as well by the use of the incomplete energy transfer between the host and the dopant. [source]

    Phosphorescent OLEDs: Synthesis and Characterization of Red-Emitting Iridium(III) Complexes for Solution-Processable Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (Adv. Funct.

    On page 2205, S.H. Jin and co-workers report on the development of red-emitting iridium(III) complexes for solution-processable phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). This frontispiece image shows the fabrication of full-color PhOLEDs by an inkjet printing method. The combination of good efficiency and color purity identifies this material as a promising candidate for red phosphorescent doping of PhOLEDs. Structure-property relationships for improving the performance of such devices are also investigated. [source]

    Characteristics of Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Organic Films and Light-Emitting Diodes Compared with their Vacuum-Deposited Counterparts

    Tae-Woo Lee
    Abstract Although significant progress has been made in the development of vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), one of the most desired research goals is still to produce flexible displays by low-cost solution processing. The development of solution-processed OLEDs based on small molecules could potentially be a good approach but no intensive studies on this topic have been conducted so far. To fabricate high-performance devices based on solution-processed small molecules, the underlying nature of the produced films and devices must be elucidated. Here, the distinctive characteristics of solution-processed small-molecule films and devices compared to their vacuum-deposited counterparts are reported. Solution-processed blue OLEDs show a very high luminous efficiency (of about 8.9,cd A,1) despite their simplified structure. A better hole-blocking and electron-transporting layer is essential for achieving high-efficiency solution-processed devices because the solution-processed emitting layer gives the devices a better hole-transporting capability and more electron traps than the vacuum-deposited layer. It is found that the lower density of the solution-processed films (compared to the vacuum-deposited films) can be a major cause for the short lifetimes observed for the corresponding devices. [source]

    Synthesis, Photophysical, and Electroluminescent Device Properties of Zn(II)-Chelated Complexes Based on Functionalized Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Soo-Gyun Roh
    Abstract New Zn(II)-chelated complexes based on benzothiazole derivatives, including substituted functional groups such as methyl (MeZn), methoxy (MeOZn), or fluorenyl unit (FuZn), are investigated to produce white-light emission. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole derivatives in toluene and DMSO exhibit excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), leading to a large Stokes shift of the fluorescence emission. However, in methanol they exhibit no ESIPT due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole derivative and methanol. Their Zn(II)-chelated complexes exhibit the absorption band red-shifted at 500,nm in nonpolar solvent and the absorption band blue-shifted at about 420,nm in protic solvent. In multilayer electroluminescent devices, methyl-substituted Zn(II)-chelated complex (MeZn) exhibits excellent power efficiency and fluorene-substituted Zn(II)-chelated complex (FuZn) has a high luminance efficiency (1,cd,m,2 at 3.5,V, 10,400,cd,m,2 at 14,V). The EL spectra of Zn(II)-chelated complexes based on benzothiazole derivatives exhibit broad emission bands. In addition, their electron-transport property for red,green,blue (RGB) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is systematically studied, in comparison with that of Alq3. The results demonstrate the promising potential of MeZn as an electron-transporting layer (ETL) material in preference to Alq3, which is widely used as an ETL material. [source]

    Triplet Harvesting in Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Gregor Schwartz
    Abstract White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are highly efficient large-area light sources that may play an important role in solving the global energy crisis, while also opening novel design possibilities in general lighting applications. Usually, highly efficient white OLEDs are designed by combining three phosphorescent emitters for the colors blue, green, and red. However, this procedure is not ideal as it is difficult to find sufficiently stable blue phosphorescent emitters. Here, a novel approach to meet the demanding power efficiency and device stability requirements is discussed: a triplet harvesting concept for hybrid white OLED, which combines a blue fluorophor with red and green phosphors and is capable of reaching an internal quantum efficiency of 100% if a suitable blue emitter with high-lying triplet transition is used is introduced. Additionally, this concept paves the way towards an extremely simple white OLED design, using only a single emitter layer. [source]

    Structure,Property Relationship of Pyridine-Containing Triphenyl Benzene Electron-Transport Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Shi-Jian Su
    Abstract Three triphenyl benzene derivatives of 1,3,5-tri(m -pyrid-2-yl-phenyl)benzene (Tm2PyPB), 1,3,5-tri(m -pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (Tm3PyPB) and 1,3,5-tri(m -pyrid-4-yl-phenyl)benzene (Tm4PyPB), containing pyridine rings at the periphery, are developed as electron-transport and hole/exciton-blocking materials for iridium(III) bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)pyridinato- N,C2,)picolinate (FIrpic)-based blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices. Their highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels decrease as the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring moves from position 2 to 3 and 4; this is supported by both experimental results and density functional theory calculations, and gives improved electron-injection and hole-blocking properties. They exhibit a high electron mobility of 10,4,10,3,cm2,V,1,s,1 and a high triplet energy level of 2.75,eV. Confinement of FIrpic triplet excitons is strongly dependent on the nitrogen atom position of the pyridine ring. The second exponential decay component in the transient photoluminescence decays of Firpic-doped films also decreases when the position of the nitrogen atom in the pyridine ring changes. Reduced driving voltages are obtained when the nitrogen atom position changes because of improved electron injection as a result of the reduced LUMO level, but a better carrier balance is achieved for the Tm3PyPB-based device. An external quantum efficiency (EQE) over 93% of maximum EQE was achieved for the Tm4PyPB-based device at an illumination-relevant luminance of 1000,cd,m,2, indicating reduced efficiency roll-off due to better confinement of FIrpic triplet excitons by Tm4PyPB in contrast to Tm2PyPB and Tm3PyPB. [source]

    Multifunctional Crosslinkable Iridium Complexes as Hole Transporting/Electron Blocking and Emitting Materials for Solution-Processed Multilayer Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Biwu Ma
    Abstract Here, a new series of crosslinkable heteroleptic iridium (III) complexes for use in solution processed phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. These iridium compounds have the general formula of (PPZ-VB)2Ir(C,N), where PPZ-VB is phenylpyrazole (PPZ) vinyl benzyl (VB) ether; and the C,N ligands represent a family of four different cyclometallating ligands including 1-phenylpyrazolyl (PPZ) (1), 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl (DFPPY) (2), 2-(p-tolyl)pyridyl (TPY) (3), and 2-phenylquinolyl (PQ) (4). With the incorporation of two crosslinkable VB ether groups, these compounds can be fully crosslinked after heating at 180,°C for 30,min. The crosslinked films exhibit excellent solvent resistance and film smoothness which enables fabrication of high-performance multilayer OLEDs by sequential solution processing of multiple layers. Furthermore, the photophysical properties of these compounds can be easily controlled by simply changing the cyclometallating C,N ligand in order to tune the triplet energy within the range of 3.0,2.2,eV. This diversity makes these materials not only suitable for use in hole transporting and electron blocking but also as emissive layers of several colors. Therefore, these compounds are applied as effective materials for all-solution processed OLEDs with (PPZ-VB)2IrPPZ (1) acting as hole transporting and electron blocking layer and host material, as well as three other compounds, (PPZ-VB)2IrDFPPY (2), (PPZ-VB)2IrTPY(3), and (PPZ-VB)2IrPQ(4), used as crosslinkable phosphorescent emitters. [source]

    Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescent OLEDs based on Non-Conjugated Silicon-Cored Spirobifluorene Derivative Doped with Ir-Complexes

    Yi-Yeol Lyu
    Abstract A novel host material containing silicon-cored spirobifluorene derivative (SBP-TS-PSB), is designed, synthesized, and characterized for red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The SBP-TS-PSB has excellent thermal and morphological stabilities and exhibits high electroluminescence (EL) efficiency as a host for the red phosphorescent OLEDs. The electrophosphorescence properties of the devices using SBP-TS-PSB as the host and red phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes as the emitter are investigated and these devices exhibit higher EL performances compared with the reference devices with 4,4,- N,N,-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) as a host material; for example, a (piq)2Ir(acac)-doped SBP-TS-PSB device shows maximum external quantum efficiency of ,ext,=,14.6%, power efficiency of 10.3 lm W,1 and Commission International de L'Eclairage color coordinates (0.68, 0.32) at J,=,1.5,mA cm,2, while the device with the CBP host shows maximum ,ext,=,12.1%. These high performances can be mainly explained by efficient triplet energy transfer from the host to the guests and improved charge balance attributable to the bipolar characteristics of the spirobifluorene group. [source]

    Highly Efficient Hole Injection Using Polymeric Anode Materials for Small-Molecule Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Kaushik Roy Choudhury
    Abstract A novel, highly efficient hole injection material based on a conducting polymer polythienothiophene (PTT) doped with poly(perfluoroethylene-perfluoroethersulfonic acid) (PFFSA) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is demonstrated. Both current,voltage and dark-injection-current transient data of hole-only devices demonstrate high hole-injection efficiency employing PTT:PFFSA polymers with different organic charge-transporting materials used in fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. It is further demonstrated that PTT:PFFSA polymer formulations applied as the hole injection layer (HIL) in OLEDs reduce operating voltages and increase brightness significantly. Hole injection from PTT:PFFSA is found to be much more efficient than from typical small molecule HILs such as copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) or polymer HILs such as polyethylene dioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS). OLED devices employing PTT:PFFSA polymer also demonstrate significantly longer lifetime and more stable operating voltages compared to devices using CuPc. [source]

    Hole Injection in a Model Fluorene,Triarylamine Copolymer

    Hon Hang Fong
    Abstract Recent developments in synthesis and purification have yielded conjugated polymers with hole mobilities exceeding 0.01,cm2 V,1 s,1. Essential to harvesting the potential of these materials in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is the identification of suitable ohmic contacts. Using a model fluorene copolymer that shows high-mobility, non-dispersive hole transport, it is demonstrated that electrodes commonly used as anodes in OLEDs are very poor hole injectors. Injection from Au and indium tin oxide anodes is limited by energy barriers of 0.75 and 0.65,eV, respectively, and the injected current is found to be temperature independent,a prediction that was not reproduced by the leading injection model for disordered organic semiconductors. Injection from a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode, on the other hand, is found to become less efficient with electric field, a behavior which is currently not understood. In thinner poly[(9,9,-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)- co -(4,4,-(N -(4- sec -butyl))diphenylamine)] films, which are of relevance to OLEDs, ohmic losses on the PEDOT:PSS layer are found to limit the flow of current. These results illustrate the opportunity to further improve the performance of OLEDs as well as the challenge posed by high mobility conjugated polymers for the design of hole injection layers. [source]

    Solution-Processible Phosphorescent Blue Dendrimers Based on Biphenyl-Dendrons and Fac -tris(phenyltriazolyl)iridium(III) Cores,

    Shih-Chun Lo
    Abstract Solution-processible saturated blue phosphorescence is an important goal for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Fac -tris(5-aryltriazolyl)iridium(III) complexes can emit blue phosphorescence at room temperature. Mono- and doubly dendronized fac -tris(1-methyl-5-phenyl-3- n -propyl-1H -[1,2,4]triazolyl)iridium(III) 1 and fac -tris{1-methyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3- n -propyl-1H -[1,2,4]triazolyl}iridium(III) 4 with first generation biphenyl-based dendrons were prepared. The dendrimers emitted blue light at room temperature and could be solution processed to form thin films. The doubly dendronized 3 had a film photoluminescence quantum yield of 67% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.17, 0.33). OLEDs comprised of a neat film of dendrimer 3 and an electron transport layer achieved a brightness of 142,cd m,2 at 3.8,V with an external quantum efficiency of 7.9%, and CIE coordinates of (0.18, 0.35). Attachment of the fluorine atom to the emissive core had the effect of moving the luminescence to shorter wavelengths but also quenched the luminescence of the mono- and doubly dendronized dendrimers. [source]

    The Influence of UV Irradiation on Ketonic Defect Emission in Fluorene-Based Copolymers,

    Horst Scheiber
    Abstract The influence of UV irradiation in inert atmosphere on the emission spectrum of fluorenone containing poly[9,9-bis(2-ethyl)hexylfluorene] (PF2/6) has been investigated by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is shown that a substantial reduction of green emission arising from ketonic defect sites can be achieved by irradiation of thin films with UV light. This is found to be accompanied by partial cross-linking of the films. FTIR measurements show no reduction of the C=O stretching mode upon irradiation, and, moreover, the degree of cross-linking does not scale with the relative fluorenone content (0.1, 0.5, and 5%). Therefore, the reduced emission intensity in the green spectral region is rather associated with the occurrence of interruptions in the polymer backbone, which reduce the effective conjugation length and subsequently inhibit the energy transfer onto the ketonic defect sites. The found results enabled us to build organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) that can be structured by selective illumination of the emitting layer with an intense UV light source. This method allows for the fabrication of rather efficient (2000,cd,m,2 at 7,V) two-color OLEDs. [source]

    An Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Field-Effect Electron Transport,

    S. Schols
    Abstract We describe an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using field-effect to transport electrons. The device is a hybrid between a diode and a field-effect transistor. Compared to conventional OLEDs, the metallic cathode is displaced by one to several micrometers from the light-emitting zone. This micrometer-sized distance can be bridged by electrons with enhanced field-effect mobility. The device is fabricated using poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as the hole-transport material, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolindin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) as the active light-emitting layer, and N,N,-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C13H27), as the electron-transport material. The obtained external quantum efficiencies are as high as for conventional OLEDs comprising the same materials. The quantum efficiencies of the new devices are remarkably independent of the current, up to current densities of more than 10 A cm,2. In addition, the absence of a metallic cathode covering the light-emission zone permits top-emission and could reduce optical absorption losses in waveguide structures. These properties may be useful in the future for the fabrication of solid-state high-brightness organic light sources. [source]

    High Definition Digital Fabrication of Active Organic Devices by Molecular Jet Printing,

    J. Chen
    Abstract We introduce a high resolution molecular jet (MoJet) printing technique for vacuum deposition of evaporated thin films and apply it to fabrication of 30,,m pixelated (800,ppi) molecular organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) based on aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and fabrication of narrow channel (15,,m) organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with pentacene channel and silver contacts. Patterned printing of both organic and metal films is demonstrated, with the operating properties of MoJet-printed OLEDs and OFETs shown to be comparable to the performance of devices fabricated by conventional evaporative deposition through a metal stencil. We show that the MoJet printing technique is reconfigurable for digital fabrication of arbitrary patterns with multiple material sets and high print accuracy (of better than 5,,m), and scalable to fabrication on large area substrates. Analogous to the concept of "drop-on-demand" in Inkjet printing technology, MoJet printing is a "flux-on-demand" process and we show it capable of fabricating multi-layer stacked film structures, as needed for engineered organic devices. [source]

    Novel Heteroleptic CuI Complexes with Tunable Emission Color for Efficient Phosphorescent Light-Emitting Diodes,

    Q. Zhang
    Abstract A series of orange-red to red phosphorescent heteroleptic CuI complexes (the first ligand: 2,2,-biquinoline (bq), 4,4,-diphenyl-2,2,-biquinoline (dpbq) or 3,3,-methylen-4,4,-diphenyl-2,2,-biquinoline (mdpbq); the second ligand: triphenylphosphine or bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether (DPEphos)) have been synthesized and fully characterized. With highly rigid bulky biquinoline-type ligands, complexes [Cu(mdpbq)(PPh3)2](BF4) and [Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) emit efficiently in 20,wt,% PMMA films with photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.56 and 0.43 and emission maximum of 606,nm and 617,nm, respectively. By doping these complexes in poly(vinyl carbazole) (PVK) or N -(4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-3,6-bis(carbazol-9-yl) carbazole (TCCz), phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated with various device structures. The complex [Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) exhibits the best device performance. With the device structure of ITO/PEDOT/TCCz:[Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) (15,wt,%)/TPBI/LiF/Al (III), a current efficiency up to 6.4,cd,A,1 with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.61, 0.39) has been realized. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of efficient mononuclear CuI complexes with red emission. [source]

    Influences of Connecting Unit Architecture on the Performance of Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices,

    Y. Chan
    Abstract The present work investigates the influence of the n-type layer in the connecting unit on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The n-type layer is typically an organic electron-transporting layer doped with reactive metals. By systematically varying the metal dopants and the electron-transporting hosts, we have identified the important factors affecting the performance of the tandem OLEDs. Contrary to common belief, device characteristics were found to be insensitive to metal work functions, as supported by the ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy results that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of all metal-doped n-type layers studied here have similar energy levels. It suggests that the electron injection barriers from the connecting units are not sensitive to the metal dopant used. On the other hand, it was found that performance of the n-type layers depends on their electrical conductivities which can be improved by using an electron-transporting host with higher electron mobility. This effect is further modulated by the optical transparency of constituent organic layers. The efficiency of tandem OLEDs would decrease as the optical transmittance decreases. [source]

    Modifying the Output Characteristics of an Organic Light-Emitting Device by Refractive-Index Modulation,

    T. Höfler
    Abstract In order to modify the output characteristics of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), the optical properties of an active layer within the device are patterned without introducing any thickness modulation. For this purpose a new conjugated copolymer, which serves as a hole-transporting material and at the same time can be index patterned using UV techniques, is synthesized. Poly(VC- co -VBT) (VC: N -vinylcarbazole; VBT: 4-vinylbenzyl thiocyanate) is prepared by free-radical copolymerization of VC and VBT. The material contains photoreactive thiocyanate groups that enable altering of the material's refractive index under UV illumination. This copolymer is employed as a patternable hole-transporting layer in multilayer OLEDs. Refractive-index gratings in poly(VC- co -VBT) are inscribed using a holographic setup based upon a Lloyd mirror configuration. The fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG (YAG: yttrium aluminum garnet) laser (266,nm) serves as the UV source. In this way 1D photonic structures are integrated in an OLED containing AlQ3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) as the emitting species. It is assured that only a periodical change of the refractive index (,n,=,0.006 at ,,=,540,nm) is generated in the active material but no surface-relief gratings are generated. The patterned devices show more forward-directed out-coupling behavior than unstructured devices (increase in luminosity by a factor of five for a perpendicular viewing direction). This effect is most likely due to Bragg scattering. For these multilayer structures, optimum outcoupling was observed for grating periods ,,,,390,nm. [source]

    Highly Efficient Non-Doped Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Fluorene Derivatives with High Thermal Stability,

    L. Tao
    Abstract A new series of blue-light-emitting fluorene derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. The fluorene derivatives have high fluorescence yields, good thermal stability, and high glass-transition temperatures in the range 145,193,°C. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated using the fluorene derivatives as the host emitter show high efficiency (up to 5.3,cd,A,1 and 3.0,lm,W,1) and bright blue-light emission (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of x,=,0.16, y,=,0.22). The performance of the non-doped fluorene-based devices is among the best fluorescent blue-light-emitting OLEDs. The good performance of the present blue OLEDs is considered to derive from: 1),appropriate energy levels of the fluorene derivatives for good carrier injection; 2),good carrier-transporting properties; and 3),high fluorescence efficiency of the fluorene derivatives. These merits are discussed in terms of the molecular structures. [source]

    Bright and Efficient, Non-Doped, Phosphorescent Organic Red-Light-Emitting Diodes,

    Y.-H. Song
    Abstract Ir(III) metal complexes with formula [(nazo)2Ir(Fppz)] (1), [(nazo)2Ir(Bppz)] (2), and [(nazo)2Ir(Fptz)] (3) [(nazo)H,= 4-phenyl quinazoline, (Fppz)H,=,3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl) pyrazole, (Bppz)H,=,3- t -butyl-5-(2-pyridyl) pyrazole, and (Fptz)H,=,3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl) triazole] were synthesized, among which the exact configuration of 1 was confirmed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes exhibited bright red phosphorescence with relatively short lifetimes of 0.4,1.05,,s in both solution and the solid-state at room temperature. Non-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated using complexes 1 and 2 in the absence of a host matrix. Saturated red electroluminescence was observed at ,max,=,626,nm (host-emitter complex,1) and 652,nm (host-emitter complex,2), which corresponds to coordinates (0.66,0.34) and (0.69,0.31), respectively, on the 1931 Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The non-doped devices employing complex,1 showed electroluminance as high as 5780,cd,m,2, an external quantum efficiency of 5.5,% at 8,V, and a current density of 20,mA,cm,2. The short phosphorescence lifetime of 1 in the solid state, coupled with its modest ,,, stacking interactions, appear to be the determining factors for its unusual success as a non-doped host-emitter. [source]