Numerous Interactions (numerous + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

RNA from Borna disease virus in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients, and in their biological relatives

Sandra Odebrechet Vargas Nunes
Abstract Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described recently. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course, the treatment response, and probably also the etiology. Detection of p24 RNA from Borna disease virus (BDV) by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and in their biological relatives was evaluated. The subjects were 27 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, 27 healthy controls, 20 relatives without psychiatric disease, and 24 relatives with mood disorder, who attended the Psychiatric Ambulatory of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The subjects were interviewed by structured diagnostic criteria categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, axis I, (SCID-IV). The mean duration of illness in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients was 15.341±1.494 years and the median age at onset was 22.4±7.371 years. There were no significant differences in gender (P=0.297), age (P=0.99), albumin (P=0.26), and body mass index (kg/m2) (p=0.28), among patients, controls, and relatives. Patients and biological relatives had significantly higher positive p24 RNA BDV detection than controls (P=0.04); however, the clinical significance of BDV remains to be clarified. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 22:314,320, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

New assay to detect low-affinity interactions and characterization of leukocyte receptors for collagen including leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1)

Lei Jiang
Abstract Leukocyte activity is controlled by numerous interactions between membrane receptors and ligands on the cell surface. These interactions are of low affinity making detection difficult. We developed a sensitive assay that could readily detect extremely weak interactions such as that between CD200 and the activating receptor CD200RLa (Kd>500,,M) at the protein level. We used the new technology to screen for interactions of inhibitory receptors for collagens. We confirmed that both human and mouse leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1, and in addition the related inhibitory leukocyte Ig-like receptor subfamily B member 4 (CD85K, Gp49B), bound collagen specifically, whereas other cell surface proteins gave no binding. The monomeric affinities of the interactions were then determined to allow comparison with other leukocyte interactions and indicate conditions when these interactions might lead to inhibitory signals. [source]

Self-Assembled Heteroepitaxial Oxide Nanocomposite Thin Film Structures: Designing Interface-Induced Functionality in Electronic Materials

Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll
Abstract Achieving self-assembling/self-organizing systems is the holy grail of nanotechnology. Spontaneous organization is not unique to the physical sciences since nature has been producing such systems for millions of years. In biological systems global patterns emerge from numerous interactions among lower-level components of the system. The same is true for physical systems. In this review, the self-assembly mechanisms of oxide nanocomposite films, as well as the advantageous functionalities that arise from such ordered structures, are explored. [source]

Terrestrial invertebrates inhabiting lowland river floodplains of Central Amazonia and Central Europe: a review

1.,Amazonian terrestrial invertebrates produce high population densities during favourable periods and may suffer a drastic decrease during occasional floods and droughts. However, the monomodal, predictable flood pulse of the larger Amazonian rivers favours the development of morphological (respiratory organs, wing-dimorphism), phenological (synchronization of life cycles, univoltine mode of life), physiological (flooding ability, gonad dormancy, alternating number of developmental stages), and behavioural adaptations (migration, temporal diving) with numerous interactions. 2.,In lowlands of Central Europe, the flood pulse of large rivers is less predictable than in Central Amazonia and is superimposed by the seasonal light/temperature pulse (summer/winter regime). Some terrestrial invertebrates show physiological resistance against inundation or drought, phenologies fitting the normal annual rhythm of water level fluctuation (quiescence or diapause of eggs or adult invertebrates), high dispersal ability and migration. However, most species survive simply using a `risk strategy', combining high reproduction rates, dispersal and reimmigration following catastrophic events. 3.,The diversity of species in terrestrial invertebrates is lower in lowland riverine ecosystems of Central Amazonia and Central Europe compared with the respective uplands because of flood stress in these systems. However, floodplains in Central Amazonia possess a greater number of endemic species in comparison with Central European floodplains because of long periods of fairly stable climatic conditions in comparison with large palaeoclimatic changes in Central Europe. [source]

Eco-hydrological controls on summertime convective rainfall triggers

Abstract Triggers of summertime convective rainfall depend on numerous interactions and feedbacks, often compounded by spatial variability in soil moisture and its impacts on vegetation function, vegetation composition, terrain, and all the complex turbulent entrainment processes near the capping inversion. To progress even within the most restricted and idealized framework, many of the governing processes must be simplified and parameterized. In this work, a zeroth-order representation of the dynamical processes that control convective rainfall triggers , namely land surface fluxes of heat and moisture , is proposed and used to develop a semianalytical model to explore how differential sensitivities of various ecosystems to soil moisture states modify convective rainfall triggers. The model is then applied to 4 years (2001,2004) of half-hourly precipitation, soil moisture, environmental, and eddy-covariance surface heat flux data collected at a mixed hardwood forest (HW), a maturing planted loblolly pine forest (PP), and an abandoned old field (OF) experiencing the same climatic and edaphic conditions. We found that the sensitivity of PP to soil moisture deficit enhances the trigger of convective rainfall relative to HW and OF, with enhancements of about 25% and 30% for dry moisture states, and 5% and 15% for moist soil moisture states, respectively. We discuss the broader implications of these findings on potential modulations of convective rainfall triggers induced by projected large-scale changes in timberland composition within the Southeastern United States. [source]