Numerous Functions (numerous + function)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Reelin is essential for neuronal migration but not for radial glial elongation in neonatal ferret cortex,

Alisa Schaefer
Abstract Numerous functions related to neuronal migration are linked to the glycoprotein reelin. Reelin also elongates radial glia, which are disrupted in mutant reeler mice. Our lab developed a model of cortical dysplasia in ferrets that shares features with the reeler mouse, including impaired migration of neurons into the cerebral cortex and disrupted radial glia. Explants of normal ferret cortex in coculture with dysplastic ferret cortex restore the deficits in this model. To determine if reelin is integral to the repair, we used explants of P0 mouse cortex either of the wild type (WT) or heterozygous (het) for the reelin gene, as well as P0 reeler cortex (not containing reelin), in coculture with organotypic cultures of dysplastic ferret cortex. This arrangement revealed that all types of mouse cortical explants (WT, het, reeler) elongated radial glia in ferret cortical dysplasia, indicating that reelin is not required for proper radial glial morphology. Migration of cells into ferret neocortex, however, did not improve with explants of reeler cortex, but was almost normal after pairing with WT or het explants. We also placed an exogenous source of reelin in ferret cultures at the pial surface to reveal that migrating cells move toward the reelin source in dysplastic cortex; radial glia in these cultures were also improved toward normal. Our results demonstrate that the normotopic position of reelin is important for proper neuronal positioning, and that reelin is capable of elongating radial glial cells but is not the only radialization factor. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

The role of caveolin-1 in cardiovascular regulation

A. Rahman
Abstract Caveolae are omega-shaped membrane invaginations present in essentially all cell types in the cardiovascular system, and numerous functions have been ascribed to these structures. Caveolae formation depends on caveolins, cholesterol and polymerase I and transcript release factor-Cavin (PTRF-Cavin). The current review summarizes and critically discusses the cardiovascular phenotypes reported in caveolin-1-deficient mice. Major changes in the structure and function of heart, lung and blood vessels have been documented, suggesting that caveolae play a critical role at the interface between blood and surrounding tissue. According to an emerging paradigm, many of these changes are secondary to uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Thus, nitric oxide synthase not only synthesizes more nitric oxide in the absence of caveolin-1, but also more superoxide with potential pathogenic consequences. It is further argued that the vasodilating drive from increased nitric oxide production in caveolin-1-deficient mice is balanced by changes in the vascular media that favour increased dynamic resistance regulation. Harnessing the therapeutic opportunities buried in caveolae, while challenging, could expand the arsenal of treatment options in cancer, lung disease and atherosclerosis. [source]

Iron regulatory protein-independent regulation of ferritin synthesis by nitrogen monoxide

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2006
Marc Mikhael
The discovery of iron-responsive elements (IREs), along with the identification of iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2), has provided a molecular basis for our current understanding of the remarkable post-transcriptional regulation of intracellular iron homeostasis. In iron-depleted conditions, IRPs bind to IREs present in the 5,-UTR of ferritin mRNA and the 3,-UTR of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA. Such binding blocks the translation of ferritin, the iron storage protein, and stabilizes TfR mRNA, whereas the opposite scenario develops when iron in the intracellular transit pool is plentiful. Nitrogen monoxide (commonly designated nitric oxide; NO), a gaseous molecule involved in numerous functions, is known to affect cellular iron metabolism via the IRP/IRE system. We previously demonstrated that the oxidized form of NO, NO+, causes IRP2 degradation that is associated with an increase in ferritin synthesis [Kim, S & Ponka, P (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA99, 12214,12219]. Here we report that sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO+ donor, causes a dramatic and rapid increase in ferritin synthesis that initially occurs without changes in the RNA-binding activities of IRPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that the translational efficiency of ferritin mRNA is significantly higher in cells treated with SNP compared with those incubated with ferric ammonium citrate, an iron donor. Importantly, we also provide definitive evidence that the iron moiety of SNP is not responsible for such changes. These results indicate that SNP-mediated increase in ferritin synthesis is, in part, due to an IRP-independent and NO+ -dependent post-transcriptional, regulatory mechanism. [source]

Immunopathogenesis of psoriasis: focus on natural killer T cells

S Peternel
Abstract Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease triggered by dysregulated immune response and characterized by hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes. Formation of psoriatic lesions is thought to be elicited by the complex cellular and cytokine network arising from the pathogenic interactions between keratinocytes and components of innate and acquired immune system. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogenous T-cell lineage that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. Due to the numerous functions of NKT cells that link innate and adaptive immunity, their role in psoriasis is complex and still elusive. We summarize the currently available literature data on this issue and discuss the possible role of NKT cells in the immunopathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. [source]