Numerous Factors (numerous + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Adaptive through-thickness integration for accurate springback prediction

I. A. Burchitz
Abstract Accurate numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. Numerous factors influence the accuracy of prediction of this complex phenomenon by using the finite element method. One of them is the numerical integration through the thickness of shell elements. It is known that the traditional numerical schemes are very inefficient in elastic,plastic analysis and even for simple problems they require up to 50 integration points for an accurate springback prediction. An adaptive through-thickness integration strategy can be a good alternative. The main characteristic feature of the strategy is that it defines abscissas and weights depending on the integrand's properties and, thus, can adapt itself to improve the accuracy of integration. A concept of an adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements is presented in this paper. Its potential is demonstrated using two examples. Calculations of a simple test,bending a beam under tension,show that for a similar set of material and process parameters the adaptive rule with seven integration points performs significantly better than the traditional trapezoidal rule with 50 points. Simulations of an unconstrained cylindrical bending problem demonstrate that the adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements can guarantee an accurate springback prediction at minimal costs. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hospital discharge planning for frail older people and their family.

Are we delivering best practice?
Aims and objectives., This paper examined the available evidence concerning hospital discharge practices for frail older people and their family caregivers and what practices were most beneficial for this group. Background., Hospital discharge practices are placing an increasing burden of care on the family caregiver. Discharge planning and execution is significant for older patients where inadequate practices can be linked to adverse outcomes and an increased risk of readmission. Design., Literature review. Methods., A review of English language literature published after 1995 on hospital discharge of frail older people and family carer's experiences. Results., Numerous factors impact on the hospital discharge planning of the frail older person and their family carer's that when categorised focus on the role that discharge planning plays in bridging the gap between the care provided in hospital and the care needed in the community, its potential to reduce the length of hospital stay, the impact of the discharge process on family carer's and the need for a coordinated health professional approach that includes dissemination of information, clear communication and active support. Conclusion., The current evidence indicates that hospital discharge planning for frail older people can be improved if interventions address family inclusion and education, communication between health care workers and family, interdisciplinary communication and ongoing support after discharge. Interventions should commence well before discharge. Relevance to clinical practice., An awareness of how the execution of the hospital discharge plan is perceived by the principal family carer of a frail older person, will allow nurses and others involved with the discharge process to better reconcile the family caregivers' needs and expectations with the discharge process offered by their facility. The research shows there is a direct correlation between the quality of discharge planning and readmission to hospital. [source]

Local oropharyngeal side effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma

ALLERGY, Issue 5 2006
R. Buhl
The widespread use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for the treatment of persistent asthma, although highly effective, may be associated with both systemic and local side effects. Systemic side effects of ICS have been extensively studied. In contrast, relatively few studies have been performed to specifically evaluate local side effects of ICS. These local side effects , including oropharyngeal candidiasis, dysphonia, pharyngitis, and cough , are generally viewed as minor complications of therapy. However, they can be clinically significant, affect patient quality of life, hinder compliance with therapy, and mask symptoms of more serious disease. Local side effects result from deposition of an active ICS in the oropharynx during administration of the drug. Numerous factors can influence the proportion of an inhaled dose that is deposited in the oropharyngeal cavity, including the ICS formulation, type of delivery system, and patient compliance with administration instructions. Therefore, the incidence of local side effects can vary widely. The goal in developing a new ICS is to include key pharmacologic characteristics that reduce oropharyngeal exposure to active drug while maintaining efficacy comparable with currently available ICS. [source]

Nucleic Acid Biosensor for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using Aquabis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) Perchlorate as Electrochemical Indicator

Shu-Yan NIU
Abstract The electrochemical behavior of aquabis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) perchlorate [Cu(H2O)(phen)2]·2ClO4, where phen=1,10-phenanthroline, on binding to DNA at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and in solution, was described. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) results showed that [Cu(H2O)(phen)2]2+ had excellent electrochemical activity on the GCE with a couple of quasi-reversible redox peaks. The interaction mode between [Cu(H2O)(phen)2]2+ and double-strand DNA (dsDNA) was identified to be intercalative binding. An electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed with covalent immobilization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) probe for single-strand DNA (ssDNA) on the modified GCE. Numerous factors affecting the probe immobilization, target hybridization, and indicator binding reactions were optimized to maximize the sensitivity and speed of the assay. With this approach, a sequence of the HIV could be quantified over the range from 7.8×10,9 to 3.1×10,7 mol·L,1 with a linear correlation of ,=0.9987 and a detection limit of 1.3×10,9 mol·L,1. [source]

Iron balance and iron nutrition in infancy

G Faldella
At birth, the total body iron content is approximately 75 mg/kg, twice that of an adult man in relation to weight. During the first 6 mo of life, total iron body content increases slightly and exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to maintain an optimal iron balance. Thereafter, iron body content substantially increases and the infant becomes critically dependent on dietary iron, provided by complementary foods. Numerous factors may contribute to nutritional iron deficiency in infancy, the most important being low body iron content at birth, blood loss, high postnatal growth rate, and a low amount and/or bioavailability of dietary iron. We have documented that the prevalence of iron deficiency declined in Italy as iron nutrition improved and that early feeding on fresh cow's milk is the single most important determinant of iron deficiency in infancy. Healthy full-term infants should maintain optimal iron balance by consuming a good diet, which can be summarized as follows: breastfeeding should be continued exclusively for at least 5 mo and then together with complementary foods containing highly bioavailable iron; infants who are not breastfed or are partially breastfed should receive an iron-fortified formula, containing between 4.0 and 8.0mg/L iron, from birth to 12 mo of age; fresh cow's milk should be avoided before 12 mo of age. [source]

Racial Metaphors: Interpreting Sex and AIDS in Africa

Eileen Stillwaggon
Western preconceptions regarding African sexuality distorted early research on the social context of AIDS in Africa and limited the scope of preventive policies. Key works cited repeatedly in the social science and policy literature constructed a hypersexualized pan,African culture as the main reason for the high prevalence of HIV in sub,Saharan Africa. Africans were portrayed as the social ,Other' in works marked by sweeping generalizations and innuendo, rather than useful comparative data on sexual behaviour. Although biomedical studies demonstrate the role of numerous factors that influence HIV transmission among poor people, a narrowly behavioural explanation dominated the AIDS,in,Africa discourse for over a decade and still circumscribes preventive strategies in Africa and elsewhere. [source]

Internal Displacement in Burma

DISASTERS, Issue 3 2000
Steven Lanjouw
The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. [source]

Poppy seed tea and opiate abuse in New Zealand

Abstract The opium poppy Papaver somniferum contains an array of opiates. There is a variety of methods of preparation that can be used by people with opiate dependence, with patterns of use determined by numerous factors including cost, safety, potency and legal status. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of poppy seed tea (PST) use by opiate-dependent patients in the form of a written questionnaire. The study took place at the Community Alcohol and Drug Clinic, Wellington, New Zealand, and comprised 24 opiate-dependent patients attending the clinic. A total of 11 of 24 (46%) patients reported having used PST. In five patients currently using PST it represented the major source of opiates, and two had managed to withdraw from use of other opiates with regular PST use. Patients reported a median onset of action of 15 minures and an effect lasting a median of 24 hours. The major limitation of PST use was the foul taste. PST is used commonly by opiate-dependent patients attending an alcohol and drug clinic in New Zealand. The use of PST as the major source of opiates could be considered favourably within ,harm reduction' philosophies, because of its low cost, legal availability and oral route of administration. Conversely, there is the potential for PST to act as a ,gateway drug' by inducing opioid dependence and introducing people to the culture of drug abuse. [source]

Molecular insights into insulin action and secretion

C. J. Rhodes
Abstract Tightly co-ordinated control of both insulin action and secretion is required in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. Gene knockout experiments have helped to define key signalling molecules that affect insulin action, including insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins and various downstream effector proteins. ,-cell function is also a tightly regulated process, with numerous factors (including certain signalling molecules) having an impact on insulin production, insulin secretion and ,-cell mass. While signalling molecules play important roles in insulin action and secretion under normal circumstances, abnormal insulin signalling in muscle, adipose tissue, liver and pancreas leads to insulin resistance and ,-cell dysfunction. In particular, the signalling protein IRS-2 may have a central role in linking these abnormalities, although other factors are likely to be involved. [source]

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: epidemiology and implications for patients

Marc Michel
Abstract The age-adjusted prevalence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is estimated to be 9.5 per 100 000 persons in the USA while its annual incidence is estimated to be 2.68 per 100 000 in Northern Europe (at a cut-off platelet count of <100 × 109/L). The mean age of adults at diagnosis in Europe is 50 yrs and the incidence of ITP increases with age. Both the treatments used to treat patients with ITP and the disease itself can impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL). As the incidence of ITP in Europe rises, especially in the elderly, the number of patients with a decreased HRQoL is increasing. Literature searches and focus groups have aided the development of a conceptual model to assess HRQoL. In this model, low platelet counts and the associated symptoms of ITP in addition to the side effects of treatment are proposed as the main determinants of a negatively impacted HRQoL. Primary conceptual domains of HRQoL, affected in patients with ITP, include emotional health, functional health, work, social and leisure activities and reproductive health. As treatment benefits are likely to improve these domains, the conceptual model could be used for better management of patients, taking into account HRQoL. The short-form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) and the ITP Patient Assessment Questionnaire (ITP-PAQ) are validated measures of HRQoL which can provide a comprehensive assessment of numerous factors to help evaluate decisions about patient management. Future clinical trials investigating treatment options for ITP should assess HRQoL using these validated questionnaires. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2007
Nadir Alvarez
The hypothesis of isolation by distance (IBD) predicts that genetic differentiation between populations increases with geographic distance. However, gene flow is governed by numerous factors and the correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance is never simply linear. In this study, we analyze the interaction between the effects of geographic distance and of wild or domesticated status of the host plant on genetic differentiation in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obvelatus. Geographic distance explained most of the among-population genetic differentiation. However, IBD varied depending on the kind of population pairs for which the correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distance was examined. Whereas pairs of beetle populations associated with wild beans showed significant IBD (P < 10,4), no IBD was found when pairs of beetle populations on domesticated beans were examined (P= 0.2992). This latter result can be explained by long-distance migrations of beetles on domesticated plants resulting from human exchanges of bean seeds. Beetle populations associated with wild beans were also significantly more likely than those on domesticated plants to contain rare alleles. However, at the population level, beetles on cultivated beans were similar in allelic richness to those on wild beans. This similarity in allelic richness combined with differences in other aspects of the genetic diversity (i.e., IBD, allelic diversity) is compatible with strongly contrasting effects of migration and drift. This novel indirect effect of human actions on gene flow of a serious pest of a domesticated plant has important implications for the spread of new adaptations such as resistance to pesticides. [source]

Green tea extract reduces induction of p53 and apoptosis in UVB-irradiated human skin independent of transcriptional controls

Christian D. Mnich
Abstract:, Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation plays a pivotal role in human skin carcinongenesis. Preclinically, systemically and topically applied green tea extract (GTE) has shown reduction of UV-induced (i) erythema, (ii) DNA damage, (iii) formation of radical oxygen species and (iv) downregulation of numerous factors related to apoptosis, inflammation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. In humans, topical GTE has so far only been tested in limited studies, with usually very high GTE concentrations and over short periods of time. Both chemical stability of GTE and staining properties of highly concentrated green tea polyphenols limit the usability of highly concentrated green tea extracts in cosmetic products. The present study tested the utility of stabilized low-dose GTE as photochemopreventive agents under everyday conditions. We irradiated with up to 100 mJ/cm2 of UVB light skin patches which were pretreated with either OM24® -containing lotion or a placebo lotion. Biopsies were taken from both irradiated and un-irradiated skin for both immunohistochemistry and DNA microarray analysis. We found that while OM24® treatment did not significantly affect UV-induced erythema and thymidine dimer formation, OM24® treatment significantly reduced UV-induced p53 expression in keratinocytes. We also found that OM24® treatment significantly reduced the number of apoptotic keratinocytes (sunburn cells and TUNEL-positive cells). Carefully controlled DNA microarray analyses showed that OM24® treatment does not induce off-target changes in gene expression, reducing the likelihood of unwanted side-effects. Topical GTE (OM24®) reduces UVB-mediated epithelial damage already at low, cosmetically usable concentrations, without tachyphylaxis over 5 weeks, suggesting GTE as suitable everyday photochemopreventive agents. [source]

,Wir stehen fest zusammen/Zu Kaiser und zu Reich!': Nationalism Among Germans in Britain, 1871,1918

Stefan Manz
German unification in 1871 triggered a wave of enthusiasm for the fatherland amongst German migrants worldwide. Britain was no exception. National confidence and coherence received a boost through the new symbols of ,Kaiser' and ,Reich'. From the 1880s onwards, more and more militaristic and chauvinistic undertones could be heard. Local branches of German patriotic and militaristic pressure groups were founded in Britain. Support for Germany's ,new course' of colonialist expansion and its ambitious naval programme was, however, not confined to right,wing groups but permeated ethnic life in general. Religion and nationalism stood in a symbiotic relationship; some German academics lecturing at British universities displayed chauvinistic attitudes; social clubs were increasingly dominated by an atmosphere of ,Reich',nationalism. After the outbreak of war, public expressions of pro,German attitudes did not disappear and were one of numerous factors contributing to Germanophobia within the host society. [source]

Leukoaraiosis Predicts Hidden Global Functioning Impairment in Nondisabled Older People: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study

Leonardo Pantoni MD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether leukoaraiosis severity is independently associated with differences in global functioning in nondisabled elderly patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis from an ongoing longitudinal multicenter and multinational study. SETTING: The Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, a collaboration aimed at assessing leukoaraiosis as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in older people. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-nine nondisabled subjects (288 men, 351 women, mean age±standard deviation 74.1±5.0) with magnetic resonance imaging,detected leukoaraiosis of different severity and presenting with one of the following: mild cognitive or motor disturbances, minor cerebrovascular events, or mood alterations or in whom leukoaraiosis was incidentally identified. MEASUREMENTS: Centralized assessment of leukoaraiosis severity according to the three severity degrees of the Fazekas scale; Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) Scale for measurement of global functioning. RESULTS: At baseline, 44% of participants had a mild, 31% a moderate, and 25% a severe degree of leukoaraiosis. A significant trend toward declining performance on the DAD Scale was apparent with increasing leukoaraiosis score severity (total score=98.8, 98.6, 97.5, respectively, in the three leukoaraiosis categories, analysis of variance P=.002). Similar trends were obtained for basic (P=.01) and instrumental (P<.001) function items. The statistical significance of these differences was confirmed in a multiple linear regression analysis correcting for numerous factors known to influence disability in older people. Executive function test performance declined along with increasing leukoaraiosis severity and was significantly related to DAD total score. CONCLUSION: Even in nondisabled elderly patients, levels of functional ability are related to white matter lesion severity. Executive dysfunction may mediate this relationship. [source]

The effect of crossing legs on blood pressure in hypertensive patients

Rukiye Pinar
Aims., The aim of this study was to examine whether there is any difference between BP readings with patients crossing a leg at the knee level and uncrossing during BP measurement. Background., It is clear that numerous factors influence an individual's blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, guidelines for accurately measuring BP inconsistently specify that the patient should keep feet flat on the floor. Design., Repeated measures. Method., Using a mercury-filled column sphygmomanometer, BP was measured at uncrossed leg position, crossed leg position and again at uncrossed leg position in 283 unmedicated or medicated patients. Three experienced nurses specially trained for the study performed BP measurements. Results., The results indicated that BP increased significantly with the crossed leg position. Systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased approximately 10 and 8 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion., Crossing the leg at knee results in a significant increase in BP. Relevance to clinical practice., Leg position during measurement of BP should be standardised and mentioned in publications. [source]

Clinician attitudes towards prescribing and implications for interventions in a multi-specialty group practice

Robert J. Fortuna MD
Abstract Background, Prescribing decisions are subject to a myriad of external forces, including patient requests for advertised medications. Although numerous factors influence prescribing, resources to support unbiased evidence-based prescribing are not widely available. Methods, To guide future interventions, we surveyed clinicians about influences on prescribing, awareness of pharmaceutical costs and attitudes towards computerized decision support. A 21-item survey was sent to 604 prescribing clinicians in a large multi-specialty group practice that employs a robust electronic medical record. Results, Surveys were returned from 405 clinicians (67%). Most respondents (87%) felt that direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising prompts patients to request inappropriate medications, and more than one in five clinicians (22%) reported difficulty declining patients' requests for advertised medications. Providers with more clinical sessions per week reported greater difficulty. Although 93% of clinicians felt they have access to the information needed to guide prescribing, only about half (54%) reported they are aware of how much patients pay for prescription medications. Clinicians' awareness of medication costs varied considerably by specialty, with behavioural health clinicians being the most aware. The majority of providers (79%) stated that computerized prescribing alerts are a clinically useful source of information. Conclusions, Although the majority of clinicians reported that DTC advertising leads many patients to request medications that are inappropriate for their condition, a sizable proportion of clinicians reported difficulty declining these requests, and many are unaware of medication costs. Interventions to support prescribing decisions should provide the busiest clinicians with up-to-date, specialty-specific evidence and cost information. [source]

Increase of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content in Milk by Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Y.J. Kim
ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to identify the factors and procedures responsible for increasing the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in fermented milk. Fourteen lactic acid bacteria were screened for CLA-producing ability using sunflower oil (containing 70% linoleic acid) as a substrate. Among the screened strains, Lactococcus lactis I-01 showed the highest CLA-producing ability. The optimal concentration of sunflower oil for CLA production was 0.1 g/L in whole milk, which accounted for 0.25% of total milk fat. Our results demonstrated that CLA formation in fermented milk could be affected by numerous factors such as bacterial strain, cell number, optimal substrate concentration, and the period of incubation at neutral pH. [source]

Relating the ontogeny of functional morphology and prey selection with larval mortality in Amphiprion frenatus

Justin Anto
Abstract Survival during the pelagic larval phase of marine fish is highly variable and is subject to numerous factors. A sharp decline in the number of surviving larvae usually occurs during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding known as the first feeding stage in fish larvae. The present study was designed to evaluate the link between functional morphology and prey selection in an attempt to understand how the relationship influences mortality of a marine fish larva, Amphiprion frenatus, through ontogeny. Larvae were reared from hatch to 14 days post hatch (DPH) with one of four diets [rotifers and newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii (RA); rotifers and wild plankton (RP); rotifers, wild plankton, and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (RPA); wild plankton and newly hatched Artemia nauplii (PA)]. Survival did not differ among diets. Larvae from all diets experienced mass mortality from 1 to 5 DPH followed by decreased mortality from 6 to 14 DPH; individuals fed RA were the exception, exhibiting continuous mortality from 6 to 14 DPH. Larvae consumed progressively larger prey with growth and age, likely due to age related increase in gape. During the mass mortality event, larvae selected small prey items and exhibited few ossified elements. Cessation of mass mortality coincided with consumption of large prey and ossification of key elements of the feeding apparatus. Mass mortality did not appear to be solely influenced by inability to establish first feeding. We hypothesize the interaction of reduced feeding capacities (i.e., complexity of the feeding apparatus) and larval physiology such as digestion or absorption efficiency contributed to the mortality event during the first feeding period. J. Morphol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Adipose Tissue Hormones and the Regulation of Food Intake

B. A. Henry
Over the past decade, adipose tissue has been shown to produce numerous factors that act as hormones. Many of these act on the brain to regulate energy balance via dual effects on food intake and energy expenditure. These include well-characterised hormones such as leptin, oestrogen and glucocorticoids and novel factors such as adiponectin and resistin. This review provides a perspective on the role of these factors as lipostats. [source]


D.C.P. Peacock
The style, geometry and distribution of fractures within reservoir rocks can be controlled by numerous factors, including: rock characteristics and diagenesis (lithology, sedimentary structures, bed thickness, mechanical stratigraphy, the mechanics of bedding planes); structural geology (tectonic setting, palaeostresses, subsidence and uplift history, proximity to faults, position in a fold, timing of structural events, mineralisation, the angle between bedding and fractures); and present-day factors, such as orientations of in situ stresses, fluid pressure, perturbation of in situ stresses and depth. The relative timing of events plays a crucial role in determining the geometry and distribution of fractures. For example, open fractures are commonly clustered around faults if the open fractures and faults formed at the same time, but clustering does not tend to occur if the open fractures pre-date or post-date the faults. Understanding these factors requires traditional geological skills, including the analysis of one-dimensional (line-sampling) data from core, borehole images and exposed analogues. This paper reviews the factors that control fractures within reservoir rocks and discusses methods to assess those controls. Examples are presented from Mesozoic limestones in southern England. It is shown that traditional geological skills are of vital importance in determining the rock characteristics, structural and present-day factors that control fractures. [source]

Surface exposure dating of the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine system, western Swiss Alps, using the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be

Meredith A. Kelly
Abstract Egesen moraines throughout the Alps mark a glacial advance that has been correlated with the Younger Dryas cold period. Using the surface exposure dating method, in particular the measurement of the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in rock surfaces, we attained four ages for boulders on a prominent Egesen moraine of Great Aletsch Glacier, in the western Swiss Alps. The 10Be dates range from 10,460±1100 to 9040±1020,yr ago. Three 10Be dates between 9630±810 and 9040±1020,yr ago are based upon samples from the surfaces of granite boulders. Two 10Be dates, 10,460±1100 and 9910±970,yr ago, are based upon a sample from a quartz vein at the surface of a schist boulder. In consideration of the numerous factors that can influence apparently young 10Be dates and the scatter within the data, we interpret the weighted mean of four boulder ages, 9640±430,yr (including the weighted mean of two 10Be dates of the quartz vein), as a minimum age of deposition of the moraine. All 10Be dates from the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine are consistent with radiocarbon dates of nearby bog-bottom organic sediments, which provide minimum ages of deglaciation from the moraine. The 10Be dates from boulders on the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine also are similar to 10Be dates from Egesen moraines of Vadret Lagrev Glacier on Julier Pass, in the eastern Swiss Alps. Both the morphology of the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine and the comparison with 10Be dates from the inner Vadret Lagrev Egesen moraine support the hypothesis that the climatic cooling that occurred during the Younger Dryas cold episode influenced the glacial advance that deposited the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine. Because of the large size and slow response time of Great Aletsch Glacier, we suggest that the Great Aletsch Glacier Egesen moraine was formed during the last glacial advance of the multiphased Egesen cold period, the Kromer stage, during the Preboreal chron. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ABSTRACT In this paper, two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied to acquire the relationship between the mechanical properties and moisture content of cumin seed, using the data of quasi-static loading test. In establishing these relationship, the moisture content, seed size, loading rate and seed orientation were taken as the inputs of both models. The force and energy required for fracturing of cumin seed, under quasi-static loading were taken as the outputs of two models. The activation function in the output layer of models obeyed a linear output, whereas the activation function in the hidden layers were in the form of a sigmoid function. Adjusting ANN parameters such as learning rate and number of neurons and hidden layers affected the accuracy of force and energy prediction. Comparison of the predicted and experimented data showed that the ANN models used to predict the relationships of mechanical properties of cumin seed have a good learning precision and good generalization, because the root mean square errors of the predicated data by ANNs were rather low (4.6 and 7.7% for the force and energy, respectively). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Cumin seed is generally used as a food additive in the form of powder for imparting flavor to different food preparations and for a variety of medicinal properties. Physical properties of cumin seeds are essential for the design of equipment for handling, harvesting, aeration, drying, storing, grinding and processing. For powder preparation especially the fracture behavior of the seeds are essential. These properties are affected by numerous factors such as size, form and moisture content of the grain and deformation speed. A neural network model was developed that can be used to predict the relationships of mechanical properties. Artificial neural network models are powerful empirical models approach, which can be compared with mathematical models. [source]

The Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project: rationale, methods, population characteristics and ethical considerations

Deborah Lehmann
Summary Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common paediatric illnesses for which medical advice is sought in developed countries. Australian Aboriginal children suffer high rates of OM from early infancy. The resultant hearing loss can affect education and quality of life. As numerous factors contribute to the burden of OM, interventions aimed at reducing the impact of single risk factors are likely to fail. To identify key risk factors and understand how they interact in complex causal pathways, we followed 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children from birth to age 2 years in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. We collected demographic, obstetric, socio-economic and environmental data, breast milk once, and nasopharyngeal samples and saliva on seven occasions. Ear health was assessed by clinical examination, tympanometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and audiometry. We considered the conduct of our study in relation to national ethical guidelines for research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. After 1 year of community consultation, the study was endorsed by local committees and ethical approval granted. Fieldwork was tailored to minimise disruption to people's lives and we provided regular feedback to the community. We saw 81% of non-Aboriginal and 65% of Aboriginal children at age 12 months. OM was diagnosed on 55% and 26% of routine clinical examinations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children respectively. Aboriginal mothers were younger and less educated, fewer were employed and they lived in more crowded conditions than non-Aboriginal mothers. Sixty-four per cent of Aboriginal and 40% of non-Aboriginal babies were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Early consultation, provision of a service while undertaking research, inclusion of Aboriginal people as active members of a research team and appropriate acknowledgement will assist in ensuring successful completion of the research. [source]

A reassessment of sexual dimorphism in human senescence: Theory, evidence, and causation

Brent M. Graves
Age-specific mortality rates of men are higher than those of women, and men have shorter average life spans than women. This has been interpreted as evidence of sexual dimorphism in rates of senescence. However, because mortality can be caused by numerous factors in addition to senescence, higher mortality rates do not necessarily indicate more rapid senescence. In this paper, we (1) emphasize the necessity of decoupling mortality and senescence when considering sexual dimorphism in senescence, (2) present a theoretical framework for the hypothesis that selection affects senescence in human males and females differently due to different life history characteristics, (3) consider phenotypic evidence from the literature that human males show a later onset of senescence than human females, despite exhibiting higher mortality rates, and (4) discuss the potential roles of mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in senescence. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:161,168, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Determining Thermal Test Requirements for Automotive Components

Dustin S. Aldridge
Abstract Component thermal response is dependent upon numerous factors including the atmospheric temperature, heat sinks and sources, vehicle use time, etc. The number of significant thermal cycles and time at temperature for many components will be related to the number of times the engine is started. This paper provides a methodology to determine the number of significant thermal cycles and time at temperature a product will experience in 10 years which will depend upon engine starts. These calculations provide the basis for an accelerated test requirement to qualify the product based upon customer usage measurements. Because of the trace ability and linkage, the methodology is more marketable to internal and external customers, and less likely to be questioned or arbitrarily overruled. It also enables relative severity assessments for historical customer requirements compared with field needs. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Biodiversity conservation in Mediterranean and Black Sea lagoons: a trait-oriented approach to benthic invertebrate guilds

A. Basset
Abstract 1. The extent to which conservation of biodiversity enforces the protection of ecosystem functioning, goods and services is a key issue in conservation ecology. 2. In order to address this conservation issue, this work focused on community organization, linking community structure, as described both in taxonomic and functional terms, to community functioning and ecosystem processes. 3. Body size is an individual functional trait that is deterministically related to components of ecosystem functioning such as population dynamics and energy flow, and which determines components of community structure. Since body size is an individual trait that reflects numerous factors, it is also exposed to trait selection and the niche filtering underlying the community. 4. An analysis of the relevance of body size to community organization in transitional water ecosystems in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea regions is presented, based on field research conducted on a sample of 15 transitional water ecosystems. 5. 250 taxa were identified, clumped in five orders of magnitude of body size. All body size patterns showed triangular distributions with an optimal size range of 0.13 mg to 1.0 mg individual body mass. 6. Deterministic components of size structure were emphasized and a hierarchical organization with dominance of large sizes was demonstrated by the slopes of the body size-abundance distributions, consistently larger than the EER threshold (b=,0.75), and by the direct relationship of energy use to body size for most of the body size range. 7. Consistent variations of body size-related descriptors were observed on three main gradients of environmental stress: eutrophication, confinement and metal pollution. 8. The results support the relevance of constraints imposed by individual body size on community organization in transitional water ecosystems and the adequacy of size patterns as an indicator for ecological conservation of these fragile ecosystems. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]