Numerous Examples (numerous + example)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rhombicuboctahedral Three-Dimensional Photonic Quasicrystals

Alexandra Ledermann
The aesthetics of quasicrystals has fascinated mankind already for centuries. Numerous examples are known in one and two dimensions, yet in three dimensions only icosahedral quasicrystals have been realized and observed to date in any system, i.e., in man-made, natural, photonic, and phononic quasicrystals. We rationally construct the novel class of three-dimensional rhombicuboctahedral quasicrystals and realize it as polymer microstructure. [source]

Further characterization of MHC haplotypes demonstrates conservation telomeric of HLA-A: update of the 4AOH and 10IHW cell panels

S. K. Cattley
Cell panels have been used extensively in studies of polymorphism and disease associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but the results from these panels require continuous updates with the increasing availability of novel data. We present here an updated table of the typings of the 10IHW and 4AOH panels. Local data included are HFE, HERV-K(C4) and six microsatellites telomeric of HLA-A. Typings for class I, MICA (PERB11.1), MICB (PERB11.2), XA, XB, LMP2 and 10 microsatellites reported by others have also been consolidated in this table. The tabulation shows that the length of conservation in the human MHC is even more extensive than previously thought. Human MHC ancestral haplotypes are inherited as a conserved region of genomic sequence spanning some 6,8 megabases from the HLA class II region and beyond the HLA class I region up to and including the HFE gene. Numerous examples of historical recombinations were also observed. [source]

Mineralogy, petrology, and thermal evolution of the Benton LL6 chondrite

Internally, the meteorite comprises light-colored, subangular to subrounded clasts embedded in a dark grey-colored matrix. Clasts comprise the same mineral phases as the matrix, as well as chondrules and larger (50,100 ,m) single mineral grains (mainly olivine and orthopyroxene). Composite (polyphase) clasts can be several millimeters in length. Numerous examples of post-brecciation and post-annealing shearing and displacement at the micron to millimeter scale occur in the form of shock veins. Benton is a shock stage S3 chondrite, which experienced shock pressures on the order of 15,20 GPa, with an estimated post-shock temperature increase of 100,150°C. Benton's history comprises a sequence of events as follows: 1) chondrule formation and initial assembly; 2) brecciation; 3) thermal metamorphism; and 4) shock veining. Events (2) and (4) can be equated with distinct impact events, the former representing bombardment of target material that remained in situ or collisionally fragmented during metamorphism, and then gravitationally reassembled, the latter probably with release from the source body to yield a meteorite. Thermal metamorphism post-dates brecciation. The mean equilibration temperature recorded in the Benton LL6 chondrite is 890°C, obtained using the two pyroxene geothermometer. [source]

Children as Citizens and Partners in Strengthening Communities

Anne B. Smith
Children are citizens who are entitled to recognition, respect, and participation. Positioning children as citizens gives them the opportunity to play a role in solving fundamental problems and, in partnership with adults, strengthen their communities. Research on children's understanding of rights, responsibilities, and citizenship can build a platform for action. Numerous examples of projects are available in which children have been encouraged and supported to exercise their agency and put into practice the ideals of citizenship for the benefit of their communities. If children are to exercise their rights and responsibilities as citizens, change must occur in both adult and child cultures. [source]

,Condemned by some, read by all': the attempt to suppress the publications of the Louvain humanist Erycius Puteanus in 1608,

Demmy Verbeke
Numerous examples of censorship in early modern Europe prove that church and state frequently collaborated in their efforts to prevent the publication and distribution of heretical or seditious works. Yet, the prosecution of Erycius Puteanus (1574,1646) on account of his De conviviorum luxu epistola (1608) shows that a publication could also be opposed on other than religious or political grounds. The case, as well as the strategic presentation of Puteanus'Comus, published later that same year, demonstrates how an early modern author could even find support with political, legal and ecclesiastical dignitaries to overcome opposition against a questionable publication. Moreover, this study sheds new light on the continuing success of the Comus, which became one of the standard seventeenth-century texts satirizing excessive eating and drinking. [source]

Empirical Bayes estimators and non-parametric mixture models for space and time,space disease mapping and surveillance

Dankmar Böhning
Abstract The analysis of the geographic variation of disease and its representation on a map is an important topic in epidemiological research and in public health in general. Identification of spatial heterogeneity of relative risk using morbidity and mortality data is required. Frequently, interest is also in the analysis of space data with respect to time, where typically data are used which are aggregated in certain time windows like 5 or 10 years. The occurrence measure of interest is usually the standardized mortality (morbidity) ratio (SMR). It is well known that disease maps in space or in space and time should not solely be based upon the crude SMR but rather some smoothed version of it. This fact has led to a tremendous amount of theoretical developments in spatial methodology, in particular in the area of hierarchical modeling in connection with fully Bayesian estimation techniques like Markov chain Monte Carlo. It seems, however, that at the same time, where these theoretical developments took place, on the practical side only very few of these developments have found their way into daily practice of epidemiological work and surveillance routines. In this article we focus on developments that avoid the pitfalls of the crude SMR and simultaneously retain a simplicity and, at least approximately, the validity of more complex models. After an illustration of the typical pitfalls of the crude SMR the article is centered around three issues: (a) the separation of spatial random variation from spatial structural variation; (b) a simple mixture model for capturing spatial heterogeneity; (c) an extension of this model for capturing temporal information. The techniques are illustrated by numerous examples. Public domain software like Dismap is mentioned that enables easy mixture modeling in the context of disease mapping. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Protein engineering and discovery of lipases,

Robert Kourist
Abstract Lipases are widely used in the modification of fats and oils with applications in the production of structured triacylglycerols, selective isolation or incorporation of specific fatty acids, and in oleochemistry for the synthesis of emollient esters and sugar fatty acid esters. Despite the numerous examples for the effective use of lipases, the biocatalysts often need to be optimized to show the desired specificities, stability, operational properties, etc. Beside rather classical methods such as variation of the solvent system or carrier for immobilization, the use of protein engineering methods to modify the protein on a molecular level is an important tool for the creation of tailor-designed enzymes. Protein design is also complemented with the efficient isolation of novel lipases from the metagenome. This article covers concepts and examples for the discovery of novel lipases and their variants by protein engineering and metagenome techniques. [source]

A non-coaxial constitutive model for sand deformation under rotation of principal stress axes

Ali Lashkari
Abstract A constitutive model for the simulation of non-coaxiality, an aspect of anisotropic behavior of sand subjected to the rotation of the principal stress axes, is presented in this paper. Experimental studies have shown that non-coaxiality or non-coincidence of principal plastic strain increments with principal stress axes under loadings involving the rotation of principal stress axes may be considerable. Besides, the rotation of the principal stress axes results in dramatic effects on stiffness and dilatant behavior of sand. Therefore, the consequences of principal stress axes rotation on deformational behavior, dilatancy and soil stiffness must be taken into account in theoretical and practical problems. To this aim, the following steps are taken: (1) A general relationship for flow direction with respect to possibility of non-coaxial flow is developed. Moreover, special circumstances linking non-coaxiality to instantaneous interaction between loading and soil fabric are proposed. (2) Proposing novel expressions for plastic modulus and dilatancy function, the model is enforced to provide realistic simulations when sand is subjected to the rotation of the principal stress axes. Finally, with numerous examples and comparisons, the model capabilities are shown under various stress paths and drainage conditions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Analysis of 3D problems using a new enhanced strain hexahedral element

P. M. A. Areias
Abstract The now classical enhanced strain technique, employed with success for more than 10 years in solid, both 2D and 3D and shell finite elements, is here explored in a versatile 3D low-order element which is identified as HIS. The quest for accurate results in a wide range of problems, from solid analysis including near-incompressibility to the analysis of locking-prone beam and shell bending problems leads to a general 3D element. This element, put here to test in various contexts, is found to be suitable in the analysis of both linear problems and general non-linear problems including finite strain plasticity. The formulation is based on the enrichment of the deformation gradient and approximations to the shape function material derivatives. Both the equilibrium equations and their variation are completely exposed and deduced, from which internal forces and consistent tangent stiffness follow. A stabilizing term is included, in a simple and natural form. Two sets of examples are detailed: the accuracy tests in the linear elastic regime and several finite strain tests. Some examples involve finite strain plasticity. In both sets the element behaves very well, as is illustrated in numerous examples. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Exploring a taxonomy for aggression against women: can it aid conceptual clarity?

Sarah Cook
Abstract The assessment of aggression against women is demanding primarily because assessment strategies do not share a common language to describe reliably the wide range of forms of aggression women experience. The lack of a common language impairs efforts to describe these experiences, understand causes and consequences of aggression against women, and develop effective intervention and prevention efforts. This review accomplishes two goals. First, it applies a theoretically and empirically based taxonomy to behaviors assessed by existing measurement instruments. Second, it evaluates whether the taxonomy provides a common language for the field. Strengths of the taxonomy include its ability to describe and categorize all forms of aggression found in existing quantitative measures. The taxonomy also classifies numerous examples of aggression discussed in the literature but notably absent from quantitative measures. Although we use existing quantitative measures as a starting place to evaluate the taxonomy, its use is not limited to quantitative methods. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 35:462,476, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

An Institutional Framework for Japanese Crisis Management

Shun'ichi Furukawa
This paper discusses an institutional framework and inter-governmental relationships pertaining to crisis management in Japan. While the current law shifts most responsibility to local governments, the compartmentalized and fragmented nature of the central government and a lack of viable organization therein to oversee crisis management, hinder decisive and responsive action. Crisis management is inherently local in nature and numerous examples from the local level highlight this nature of crisis management. Three features of crisis management are identified: the decentralized nature of centralized government and centralized leadership in local government, fused inter-governmental relationship and lack of political authority. [source]

Small-worlds: A review of recent books

I. Frommer
Abstract Small-worlds research and related fields study a set of network structures with well-defined properties. This new area has been gaining momentum lately. Theoretical studies have advanced our understanding of such networks while empirical studies have shown these networks to be ubiquitous in both nature and society. In particular, systems that appear to be well modeled by such networks include World Wide Web documents, Internet routers, the cellular metabolic network, ecological food webs, social networks, and many others. The two main structures being investigated are small-world networks and scale-free networks. Three recent books, including two just published this summer, describe the research being undertaken in this burgeoning field. We survey and review these books through a discussion of the field of small-worlds research with numerous examples and considerations of the future of the field. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Board Accountability: Lessons from the Field

Thomas P. Holland
Accountability has become a major issue in the nonprofit sector. Numerous external and internal approaches to strengthening performance in this area exist, and many nonprofit boards expect their executives to account foruse of their organizations' resources. However, few boards apply any such expectations to themselves. Qualitative analysis of records from interviews, consultations, and meeting observations with 169 board members of thirty-four diverse nonprofit organizations revealed six sets of practices that foster board accountability. They include setting clear expectations and standards for the group and for its members, actively using policies regarding conflicts of interests, identifying and staying focused on priorities, maintaining strong two-way communications directly with constituency groups, conducting assessments of meetings and board performance, and experimenting intentionally with new approaches to their work. The experiences of these boards provide numerous examples of practical steps that others may consider when they seek to increase the value they add to their organizations as well as to strengthen public trust. [source]

Lack of statistical significance

Thomas J. Kehle
Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this article we present an argument against SST and its consequent p values in favor of the use of confidence intervals and effect sizes. Further, we present instances of common errors that impede cumulative knowledge in the literature related to school psychology. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 417,422, 2007. [source]

MicroRNA identity and abundance in porcine skeletal muscles determined by deep sequencing

M. Nielsen
Summary MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to complementary sequences in the 3, untranslated region (3, UTR) of target mRNAs. MiRNAs participate in the regulation of myogenesis, and identification of the complete set of miRNAs expressed in muscles is likely to significantly increase our understanding of muscle growth and development. To determine the identity and abundance of miRNA in porcine skeletal muscle, we applied a deep sequencing approach. This allowed us to identify the sequences and relative expression levels of 212 annotated miRNA genes, thereby providing a thorough account of the miRNA transcriptome in porcine muscle tissue. The expression levels displayed a very large range, as reflected by the number of sequence reads, which varied from single counts for rare miRNAs to several million reads for the most abundant miRNAs. Moreover, we identified numerous examples of mature miRNAs that were derived from opposite sides of the same predicted precursor stem-loop structures, and also observed length and sequence heterogeneity at the 5, and 3, ends. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis suggested that highly expressed miRNAs are involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, signal transduction, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix communication and neural development and function. [source]