Numerous Cellular Processes (numerous + cellular_process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Positively Charged Material Surfaces Generated by Plasma Polymerized Allylamine Enhance Vinculin Mobility in Vital Human Osteoblastss,

Henrike Rebl
Abstract Several studies suggest that the modification of an implant surface by chemical means plays an important role in bone tissue engineering. Previously we have shown that osteoblast cell adhesion and spreading can strongly be increased by a positively charged surface. Cell adhesion and migration are two vital processes that are completely dependent on coordinated formation of focal adhesions. Changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the focal adhesions are essential for numerous cellular processes including cell motility and tissue morphogenesis. We examined the mobility of the cytoskeletally associated protein vinculin on functionalized surfaces using plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAAm), a homogenous plasma polymer layer with randomly distributed amino groups. In living, GFP,vinculin transfected osteoblastic cells we determined a significant increase in vinculin mobility and vinculin contact length on PPAAm compared to collagen I coated surfaces during the initial adhesion phase. We suggest that positive charges control the cell physiology which seems to be dominant over the integrin receptor binding to collagen I. The results emphasize the role of the surface charge for the design of artificial scaffolds in bone repair. [source]

From JNK to Pay Dirt: Jun Kinases, their Biochemistry, Physiology and Clinical Importance

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4-5 2005
Michael Karin
Abstract The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) were originally identified by their ability to phosphorylate c-Jun in response to UV-irradiation, but now are recognized as critical regulators of various aspects of mammalian physiology, including: cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, DNA repair and metabolism. JNK-mediated phosphorylation enhances the ability of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, to activate transcription, in response to a plethora of extracellular stimuli. The JNK activation leads to induction of AP-1-dependent target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell death, inflammation, and DNA repair. The JNKs, which are encoded by three different Jnk loci, are now known to be regulated by many other stimuli, from pro-inflammatory cytokines to obesity, in addition to UV-irradiation. Targeted disruption of the Jnk loci in mice has proved to be a critical tool in better understanding their physiological functions. Such studies revealed that the JNKs play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including: programmed cell death, T cell differentiation, negative regulation of insulin signaling, control of fat deposition, and epithelial sheet migration. Importantly, the JNKs have become prime targets for drug development in several important clinical areas, including: inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. IUBMB Life, 57: 283-295, 2005 [source]

The Pleural Curtain of the Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Gerald R. Buzzell
Abstract The visceral pleura of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) possesses a fibrous curtain of pleural threads or extensions along its basal margins, which extends into the pleural cavity of the costophrenic recesses. These threads are lined by mesothelium and have a core or stroma, which is largely collagenous. Small threads are avascular and nearly acellular. In larger proximal threads, blood vessels in the stroma are often arranged in a branching network, with irregular endothelia surrounded by several incomplete basal laminae. Lymphocytes and other inflammatory cell types aggregate in the stroma near blood vessels. The threads are lined by typical mesothelium except in patches close to the main pleural surface. These patches consist of layers of loosely applied cells with numerous cellular processes and features suggestive of phagocytosis. The position of the pleural curtain in the costophrenic recess and the presence of possibly phagocytotic cells suggest that the pleural curtain stirs, samples, and cleans the pleural fluid. The pleural curtain appears to be a feature of camelids and has also been seen in giraffes. Anat Rec 293:1776,1786, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Visualization of protein interactions in living plant cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation

Michael Walter
Summary Dynamic networks of protein,protein interactions regulate numerous cellular processes and determine the ability to respond appropriately to environmental stimuli. However, the investigation of protein complex formation in living plant cells by methods such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer has remained experimentally difficult, time consuming and requires sophisticated technical equipment. Here, we report the implementation of a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technique for visualization of protein,protein interactions in plant cells. This approach relies on the formation of a fluorescent complex by two non-fluorescent fragments of the yellow fluorescent protein brought together by association of interacting proteins fused to these fragments (Hu et al., 2002). To enable BiFC analyses in plant cells, we generated different complementary sets of expression vectors, which enable protein interaction studies in transiently or stably transformed cells. These vectors were used to investigate and visualize homodimerization of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor bZIP63 and the zinc finger protein lesion simulating disease 1 (LSD1) from Arabidopsis as well as the dimer formation of the tobacco 14-3-3 protein T14-3c. The interaction analyses of these model proteins established the feasibility of BiFC analyses for efficient visualization of structurally distinct proteins in different cellular compartments. Our investigations revealed a remarkable signal fluorescence intensity of interacting protein complexes as well as a high reproducibility and technical simplicity of the method in different plant systems. Consequently, the BiFC approach should significantly facilitate the visualization of the subcellular sites of protein interactions under conditions that closely reflect the normal physiological environment. [source]