Numerous Cell Types (numerous + cell_type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Matrigel: A complex protein mixture required for optimal growth of cell culture

Chris S. Hughes
Abstract Numerous cell types require a surface for attachment to grow and proliferate. Certain cells, particularly primary and stem cells, necessitate the use of specialized growth matrices along with specific culture media conditions to maintain the cells in an undifferentiated state. A gelatinous protein mixture derived from mouse tumor cells and commercialized as Matrigel is commonly used as a basement membrane matrix for stem cells because it retains the stem cells in an undifferentiated state. However, Matrigel is not a well-defined matrix, and therefore can produce a source of variability in experimental results. In this study, we present an in-depth proteomic analysis of Matrigel using a dynamic iterative exclusion method coupled with fractionation protocols that involve ammonium sulfate precipitation, size exclusion chromatography, and one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The ability to identify the low mass and abundance components of Matrigel illustrates the utility of this method for the analysis of the extracellular matrix, as well as the complexity of the matrix itself. [source]

Micronuclei and chromatid buds are the result of related genotoxic events

Luis Serrano-García
Abstract Chromatin buds (CHB), broken eggs, or budding cell nuclei are structures similar to micronuclei (MN) in shape, structure, and size, which are linked to the main nuclei of cells by a thread or stalks of chromatin. They have been observed in numerous cell types and there are reports of their existence relating them with MN or with genotoxic events. However, there is no systematic study reporting their frequency and no experiment has been done to ascertain whether they are really induced by genotoxins. Furthermore, they have been discarded as genotoxic events with the argument that they are not formed in dividing cells. Studies are presented here that indicate that CHB can be considered as genotoxic events and that their origin is comparable to that of MN. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferating lymphocytes, which were later identified by means of an immunohistochemical method, using the H2O2,DAB stain. The results show that CHB are consistently formed where MN are seen. CHB were induced by the clastogen mitomycin C (MMC) as well as by the aneuploidogen colcemid, with frequencies similar to MN in both cases, and to multinucleated cells in the case of colcemid. CHB occur in lymphocytes of smokers with frequencies similar to those of MN, and we found that the infection with Taenia solium metacestodes induced a comparable increase of both MN and CHB frequency in lymphocytes from pigs. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 38:38,45, 2001 © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Macrophage Depletion Suppresses Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Mice

W. H. Kitchens
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major source of late posttransplant mortality. Although numerous cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of CAV, it is unclear which cells actually induce the vascular damage that results in intimal proliferation. Because macrophages are abundant in CAV lesions and are capable of producing growth factors implicated in neointimal proliferation, they are leading end-effector candidates. Macrophages were depleted in a murine heterotopic cardiac transplant system known to develop fulminant CAV lesions. C57BL/6 hearts were transplanted into (C57BL/6 × BALB/c)F1 recipients, which then received anti-macrophage therapy with intraperitoneal carrageenan or i.v. gadolinium. Intraperitoneal carrageenan treatment depleted macrophages by 30,80% with minimal effects upon T, B or NK cells as confirmed by flow cytometry and NK cytotoxicity assays. Carrageenan treatment led to a 70% reduction in the development of CAV, as compared to mock-treated controls (p = 0.01), which correlated with the degree of macrophage depletion. Inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis alone with gadolinium failed to prevent CAV. Macrophages may represent the end-effector cells in a final common pathway towards CAV independent of T-cell or B-cell alloreactivity and exert their injurious effects through mechanisms related to cytokine/growth factor production rather than phagocytosis. [source]

Hsp90 mediates insulin-like growth factor 1 and interleukin-1, signaling in an age-dependent manner in equine articular chondrocytes

Amber K. Boehm
Objective Many metabolic processes in chondrocytes thought to contribute to age-related changes in the extracellular matrix are influenced by known roles of Hsp90. Age-related decreases in the level of Hsp90 have been documented in numerous cell types and could contribute to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of age and Hsp90 in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin-1, (IL-1,) signaling in chondrocytes. Methods Levels of Hsp90 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, with respect to age, were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (50 nM, 100 nM, or 500 nM) was used to assess age-related responses to Hsp90 with concurrent IGF-1 or IL-1, stimulation of chondrocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure COL2A1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) gene expression; Western blot analysis was performed to determine the phosphorylation status of p42/44 and Akt/protein kinase B. Results The effects of Hsp90 inhibition with geldanamycin were concentration dependent. Inhibition of Hsp90 with 100 nM or 500 nM geldanamycin blocked IGF-1,induced cell proliferation, Akt and p42/44 activation, and COL2A1 expression. Basal and IL-1,,induced up-regulation of MMP13 mRNA was blocked by all concentrations of geldanamycin tested. Gain-of-function assays with Hsp90 resulted in increased expression of MMP13 mRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in opposing signaling pathways of cartilage homeostasis, and that catabolic responses are more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than are anabolic responses. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Hsp90 inhibition in osteoarthritis in order to assess its potential as a therapeutic target. [source]

Functional role of KLF10 in multiple disease processes

BIOFACTORS, Issue 1 2010
Malayannan Subramaniam
Abstract Since the discovery by this laboratory of the zinc finger transcription factor, KLF10, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, there have been multiple publications regarding its functions and its immediate family members, in numerous cell types. KLF10 has been shown to be rapidly induced by TGF,1, 2, 3, E2, epidermal growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. TGF, inducible early gene-1 activates the TGF,-Smad signaling pathway via repression of Smad 7 expression and activation of Smad 2 expression and activity. Overall, KLF10 has been implicated in cell differentiation, as a target gene for a variety of signaling pathways, and in serving as a potential marker for human diseases such as breast cancer, cardiac hypertrophy, and osteoporosis. Like other KLF members, KLF10 is expressed in specific cell types in numerous tissues and is known to be involved in repressing cell proliferation and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis similar to that of TGF,. KLF10 binds to Sp-1-GC rich DNA sequences and can activate or repress the transcription of a number of genes. Overall, KLF10 has been shown to play a major role in the TGF, inhibition of cell proliferation and inflammation and induction of apoptosis, and its overexpression in human osteoblasts and pancreatic carcinoma cells mimics the actions of TGF,. [source]