Numerous Cases (numerous + case)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inhibition of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin by neoglycoprotein and anti-lectin antibodies which mimic GM1 receptor

Caroline A Menezes
Abstract Escherichia coli producing heat-labile enterotoxin is responsible for numerous cases of diarrhea worldwide, leading to considerable morbidity and mortality. The B subunits of this toxin are responsible for the binding to the receptor, the complex ganglioside GM1 which has galactose as its terminal sugar. In this study we showed that analogs of galactose (gal) and N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) interfere with the binding of heat-labile toxin to GM1. Antibodies to lectins which mimic sugar structures and neoglycoprotein were employed. These compounds were able to inhibit heat-labile toxin activity efficiently in Vero cells: 37 ,g of IgG-enriched fraction from an antiserum inhibited up to 70% of this activity, and 50% of the binding of heat-labile toxin to GM1. Neoglycoprotein was more efficient than antibodies, since 2.5 ,g of this ligand completely abolished the activity of heat-labile toxin on Vero cells. These data suggest that these molecules could be developed for prophylaxis and diagnosis of diarrhea caused by heat-labile toxin. [source]

Incremental detection of HIV infections by the HIV antigen/antibody combination assays: An Australian experience,

Philip Cunningham
Abstract Detection of acute cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the direct detection of HIV antigen or HIV nucleic acid assays is well known with an estimated 5,9 days reduction in the pre-seroconversion ,window period' by the detection of HIV specific antibodies. The aim of this study was to observe the impact following routine introduction of a screening assay which simultaneously detects HIV (type 1 & 2) antigen and antibody on the yield of acute HIV infection in multiple sites servicing different patient populations with a varying range of risk factors associated with HIV acquisition. During the first year (2003,2004), a total of 27 cases of acute HIV-1 infection were identified by the HIV-1/2 Ab/Ag combo test which were confirmed to be detectable for HIV antigen only that may have gone undetected should an HIV-1/2 antibody only assay have been used. Specimens referred from higher HIV case load centers were more likely to have provided relevant clinical information consistent with acute retroviral syndrome and relevant history of risk however there were numerous cases where no clinical information was provided. This study shows that routine introduction of HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody screening assays increases the identification of acute cases of HIV infection in low prevalence setting and may represent an important tool for enhanced surveillance of incident HIV infection and opportunities for prevention. J. Med. Virol. 79:S16,S22, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Historical perspective: Neurological advances from studies of war injuries and illnesses,

Douglas J. Lanska MD
Early in the 20th century during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I (WWI), some of the most important, lasting contributions to clinical neurology were descriptive clinical studies, especially those concerning war-related peripheral nerve disorders (eg, Hoffmann-Tinel sign, Guillain-Barré-Strohl syndrome [GBS]) and occipital bullet wounds (eg, the retinal projection on the cortex by Inouye and later by Holmes and Lister, and the functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex by Riddoch), but there were also other important descriptive studies concerning war-related aphasia, cerebellar injuries, and spinal cord injuries (eg, cerebellar injuries by Holmes, and autonomic dysreflexia by Head and Riddoch). Later progress, during and shortly after World War II (WWII), included major progress in understanding the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injuries by Denny-Brown, Russell, and Holbourn, pioneering accident injury studies by Cairns and Holbourn, promulgation of helmets to prevent motorcycle injuries by Cairns, development of comprehensive multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation by Rusk, and development of spinal cord injury care by Munro, Guttman, and Bors. These studies and developments were possible only because of the large number of cases that allowed individual physicians the opportunity to collect, collate, and synthesize observations of numerous cases in a short span of time. Such studies also required dedicated, disciplined, and knowledgeable investigators who made the most out of their opportunities to systematically assess large numbers of seriously ill and injured soldiers under stressful and often overtly dangerous situations. Ann Neurol 2009;66:444,459 [source]

Satellite Thermal Infrared Earthquake Precursor to the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan, China, and its Analysis on Geo-dynamics

Lejun WEI
Abstract: Based on an interpretation and study of the satellite remote-sensing images of FY-2C thermal infrared 1st wave band (10.3,11.3 ,m) designed in China, the authors found that there existed obvious and isolated satellite thermal infrared anomalies before the 5.12 Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake. These anomalies had the following characteristics: (1) The precursor appeared rather early: on March 18, 2008, i.e., 55 days before the earthquake, thermal infrared anomalies began to occur; (2) The anomalies experienced quite many and complex evolutionary stages: the satellite thermal infrared anomalies might be divided into five stages, whose manifestations were somewhat different from each other. The existence of so many anomaly stages was probably observed for the first time in numerous cases of satellite thermal infrared research on earthquakes; (3) Each stage lasted quite a long time, with the longest one spanning 13 days; (4) An evident geothermal anomaly gradient was distributed along the Longmen seismic fracture zone, and such a phenomenon might also be discovered for the first time in satellite thermal infrared earthquake research. This discovery is therefore of great guiding and instructive significance in the study of the earthquake occurrence itself and the trend of the post-earthquake phenomena. [source]