Numerous Biological Processes (numerous + biological_process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Structural and functional evidence for a singular repertoire of BMP receptor signal transducing proteins in the lophotrochozoan Crassostrea gigas suggests a shared ancestral BMP/activin pathway

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2005
Amaury Herpin
The transforming growth factor , (TGF-,) superfamily includes bone morphogenetic proteins, activins and TGF-,sensu stricto (s.s). These ligands, which transduce their signal through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II receptors, have been shown to play a key role in numerous biological processes including early embryonic development in both deuterostomes and ecdyzozoans. Lophochotrozoans, the third major group of bilaterian animals, have remained in the background of the molecular survey of metazoan development. We report the cloning and functional study of the central part of the BMP pathway machinery in the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea gigas (Cg- BMPR1 type I receptor and Cg- TGF,sfR2 type II receptor), showing an unusual functional mode of signal transduction for this superfamily. The use of the zebrafish embryo as a reporter organism revealed that Cg- BMPR1, Cg- TGF,sfR2, Cg- ALR I, an activin Type I receptor or their dominant negative acting truncated forms, when overexpressed during gastrulation, resulted in a range of phenotypes displaying severe disturbance of anterioposterior patterning, due to strong modulations of ventrolateral mesoderm patterning. The results suggest that Cg- BMPR1, and to a certain degree Cg- TGF,sfR2 proteins, function in C. gigas in a similar way to their zebrafish orthologues. Finally, based on phylogenetic analyses, we propose an evolutionary model within the complete TGF-, superfamily. Thus, evidence provided by this study argues for a possible conserved endomesoderm/ectomesoderm inductive mechanism in spiralians through an ancestral BMP/activin pathway in which the singular, promiscuous and probably unique Cg- TGF,sfR2 would be the shared type II receptor interface for both BMP and activin ligands. [source]

Specific transcriptional responses induced by 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA in yeast

Michèle Dardalhon
Abstract Treatment of eukaryotic cells with 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA irradiation (8-MOP/UVA) induces pyrimidine monoadducts and interstrand crosslinks and initiates a cascade of events leading to cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic responses. Transcriptional activation plays an important part in these responses. Our previous study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the repair of these lesions involves the transient formation of DNA double-strand breaks and the enhanced expression of landmark DNA damage response genes such as RAD51, RNR2 and DUN1, as well as the Mec1/Rad53 kinase signaling cascade. We have now used DNA microarrays to examine genome-wide transcriptional changes produced after induction of 8-MOP/UVA photolesions. We found that 128 genes were strongly induced and 29 genes strongly repressed. Modifications in gene expression concern numerous biological processes. Compared to other genotoxic treatments, c. 42% of the response genes were specific to 8-MOP/UVA treatment. In addition to common DNA damage response genes and genes induced by environmental stresses, a large fraction of 8-MOP/UVA response genes correspond to membrane-related functions. [source]

Identification of genes related to mechanical stress in human periodontal ligament cells using microarray analysis

R. M. S. De Araujo
Background and Objective:, Differential expression of genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL) under mechanical stress, such as orthodontic force, is thought to be involved in the remodeling of PDL cells and periodontal tissues. However, little is known about the genes expressed in PDL cells under mechanical stress. Material and Methods:, We employed microarray analysis to assess, in a comprehensive manner, the gene expression profiles in PDL cells compressed by a static force using an in vitro three-dimensional culture system. Six genes were selected and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, consistent with the microarray data. Results:, The microarray data revealed that 108 of 30,000 genes tested were differentially expressed by mechanical force loading. Among them, 85 genes were up-regulated by mechanical stress, while 23 genes were down-regulated, judging by the thresholds of a two-fold increase/decrease compared with the controls. Thirty-two of the up-regulated and eight of the down-regulated genes, well-characterized in protein function, were involved in numerous biological processes including cell communication, cell signaling, cell cycle, stress response, and calcium release. However, several genes differentially expressed in our microarray data have not been well defined as stress-response molecules. Conclusion:, Our microarray is the first to show the gene profile in PDL cells caused by mechanical stress; however, further studies to clarify the physiological function of these molecules in PDL cells are required. [source]

Sirtuins, melatonin and circadian rhythms: building a bridge between aging and cancer

Brittney Jung-Hynes
Abstract:, Histone deacetylases (HDAC) have been under intense scientific investigation for a number of years. However, only recently the unique class III HDAC, sirtuins, have gained increasing investigational momentum. Originally linked to longevity in yeast, sirtuins and more specifically, SIRT1 have been implicated in numerous biological processes having both protective and/or detrimental effects. SIRT1 appears to play a critical role in the process of carcinogenesis, especially in age-related neoplasms. Similarly, alterations in circadian rhythms as well as production of the pineal hormone melatonin have been linked to aging and cancer risk. Melatonin has been found act as a differentiating agent in some cancer cells and to lower their invasive and metastatic status. In addition, melatonin synthesis and release occurs in a circadian rhythm fashion and it has been linked to the core circadian machinery genes (Clock, Bmal1, Periods, and Cryptochromes). Melatonin has also been associated with chronotherapy, the timely administration of chemotherapy agents to optimize trends in biological cycles. Interestingly, a recent set of studies have linked SIRT1 to the circadian rhythm machinery through direct deacetylation activity as well as through the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) salvage pathway. In this review, we provide evidence for a possible connection between sirtuins, melatonin, and the circadian rhythm circuitry and their implications in aging, chronomodulation, and cancer. [source]