Numerous Areas (numerous + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Current Status and Prospects of the ,Strategic Partnership' between the EU and China: Towards the Conclusion of a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement

Antoine Sautenet
In the absence of a category of ,emerging countries' in international economic law, the Union must adapt its foreign policy with regard to this major economic and commercial power. Relations between the European Community and China are currently governed by a second-generation agreement from 1985. However, a new dynamic has been set in motion since 2003, by the drawing up of preparatory documents by both parties and joint declarations at annual summits bearing on the ,strategic partnership'. Seen in a long-term perspective, this partnership helps provide a measure of predictability in relations between the two partners, through combining elements of ,soft law' and ,hard law'. If the insertion of political dialogue into the strategic partnership seems to alter the coherence of the Union, notably with regard to the difficulties of implementing the dialogue on human rights, the added value of the partnership lies essentially in its economic and commercial aspects, through not only the putting into place of non-binding ,economic dialogues' which cover a large spectrum of the relationship, but also by the multiplication of sector-based accords in numerous areas (maritime transport, customs cooperation, etc.). This constant development has thus allowed parties, at the last annual summit, to envisage the conclusion of a new framework agreement: this is the origin of the mandate given to the Commission in December 2005 to conclude a partnership and cooperation agreement. This article will sketch out a forecast of the legal framework, measured against the yardsticks of Asiatic regional reconfigurations and the law of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The commercial risks of the relationship could imply the integration of the domains known as ,WTO plus' into the future agreement, notably in the field of investments and intellectual property rights, which would introduce a greater variety into the agreement. That being the case, the negotiations risk being equally fragile at the political level, in particular concerning the insertion of a clause of democratic conditionality in the future agreement. Also, any clash between the values and the interests of the EU would be uncomfortably highlighted during negotiations. [source]

Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples and Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

Heather B. MacIntosh
This study explored Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners. Half of the couples in this study reported clinically significant increases in mean relationship satisfaction and clinically significant decreases in trauma symptoms, and thematic analyses identified numerous areas where trauma survivors were challenged in fully engaging in the therapy process. In particular, trauma symptoms such as affect dysregulation and hypervigilance were identified to play a role in the challenges that survivors experienced in fully engaging in the EFT process. Results of these thematic analyses yielded clinical recommendations for working with CSA survivors and their partners in EFT for traumatized couples. Recommendations for future study were articulated. [source]

Dendritic macromolecules at the interface of nanoscience and nanotechnology

Jean M.J. Fréchet
Abstract As a result of their unique architecture and structural as well as functional versatility, dendrimers have generated considerable interest in numerous areas of the physical sciences, engineering, as well as the biological sciences. Both their size - in the 1-10 nm range - and their globular shape resemble those of many proteins suggesting a host of biomimetic and nanotechnological applications. This brief highlight describes some of our recent work with nascent applications of dendrimers as unimolecular nanoreactors, as nanoscale antennae for energy harvesting and transduction, and as nanosized carriers for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. While implementation of some of these applications may still be distant, the impatient critic might remember that new markets are not created overnight as demonstrated by the slow commercial acceptance of many promising molecules and technologies with development frequently extending decades after their initial discovery. [source]

Mediastinal gastroenteric cyst in a neonate containing respiratory-type epithelium and pancreatic tissue

Eleftherios Anagnostou MD
Abstract Mediastinal gastroenteric cyst is an uncommon congenital malformation and a distinct histopathological entity within the family of foregut duplication cysts. This lesion is mainly encountered in neonates and infants. Histologically, it is characterized by double-layered smooth muscle wall and gastric lining mucosa. We report on a case of a 2-day-old girl, with a posterior mediastinal cystic mass associated with T3,T4 hemivertebrae, presenting with severe respiratory distress. The cyst was multilocular, surgically removed, and histopathologic analysis revealed that it was of gastroenteric type. However, in numerous areas of the lesion, respiratory-type epithelium was observed, as well as pancreatic tissue. After removal of the lesion the patient made an uneventful recovery and shows no signs of long-term pulmonary sequelae. We failed to demonstrate in the available literature the presence of this variable epithelial lining within a single mediastinal foregut cyst. In addition, pancreatic tissue within an intrathoracic enteric cyst has been reported only twice. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:1240,1243. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Emulsion copolymerization of styrene and sodium styrene sulfonate: kinetics, monomer reactivity ratios and copolymer properties

Dhamodaran Arunbabu
Abstract BACKGROUND: The synthesis of poly[styrene- co -(sodium styrene sulfonate)], poly(S- co -NaSS), with a high loading of sulfonate groups is of current interest owing to its potential use in numerous areas. A series of these copolymers with various sulfonate loads were synthesized using the emulsion polymerization technique with a study of the copolymerization kinetics, monomer reactivity ratio and copolymer properties. RESULTS: The copolymerization kinetics are significantly enhanced with an increase of NaSS feed in the polymerization. Monomer reactivity ratios were determined from NMR data by employing the Fineman,Ross and Kelen,Tüdös methods. Styrene (r1) and NaSS (r2) reactivity ratios are 0.5 and 10, respectively. The colloidal particle size of the copolymers depends upon the NaSS composition. The thermal stability of the copolymers is greatly enhanced with higher NaSS content in the copolymer backbone. Higher glass transition temperatures are observed for the copolymers with higher NaSS content. CONCLUSION: The reactivity ratio values suggest that styrene prefers to form copolymers whereas NaSS produces homopolymers. It is also found that styrene copolymerization with NaSS is only twice as fast as homopolymerization. In contrast, NaSS homopolymerization is ten times faster than NaSS copolymerization with styrene. The NaSS content in the copolymer backbone affects the thermal stability and the glass transition of the copolymers. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]