Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Postoperative therapy for Crohn's disease

    Eric Blum MD
    Abstract Prevention of the postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) remains a challenging clinical problem. The majority of patients with CD will need surgery for treatment of the disease, most of these patients will develop recurrent symptoms within 5 years postoperatively, and many patients will need reoperation within 10 years. In patients with an ileocolic anastomosis, endoscopic recurrence precedes clinical recurrence and the severity of endoscopic recurrence correlates with the risk of clinical recurrence. Despite multiple studies, the best postoperative prophylactic therapy remains uncertain. Numerous randomized controlled trials of 5-aminosalicylates have shown only modest effect. Antibiotics, including metronidazole and ornidazole, decrease short-term, but not long-term endoscopic recurrence and are limited by side effects. Immunomodulators have yet to be extensively evaluated, although limited data suggest possible efficacy in preventing postoperative recurrence, particularly in high-risk patients. This review will evaluate the current state of the art therapy for postoperative prophylaxis in CD, with an emphasis on critical analysis of the available randomized controlled trials. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Arnon D. Cohen MD
    A 91-year-old patient presented with a nonfebrile, pruritic, widespread eruption that appeared 10 days after starting therapy with cefuroxime tablets, 1000 mg/day, due to stasis dermatitis with secondary infection. The patient was also treated with paracetamol tablets, 500,1000 mg/day, 10 days before the onset of the eruption. Previous diseases included congestive heart disease, hyperglycemia, and ectropion. There was no personal or family history of psoriasis. Additional medications, taken for more than 2 years at the time of the eruption, included indomethacin, captopril, hydrochlorothiazide, isosorbide-5-mononitrate tablets, and a combination drug Laxative®. Examination revealed widespread erythema involving 95% of the total body surface area, with numerous 1,2 mm nonfollicular pustules (Fig. 1). There was no predilection to the body folds. Within 24 h of hospitalization, during intravenous therapy with cefuroxime, the patient's condition worsened and bullae containing clear fluid appeared. Nikolsky's sign was positive on erythematous skin, and eventually skin detachment involved 41% of the total body surface area (Fig. 2). There were no target or target-like lesions and there was no involvement of the mucous membranes. Figure 1. Numerous, 1,2 mm, nonfollicular pustules, with confluence (viewed in the lower left part of the photograph), on erythematous skin Figure 2. Widespread skin detachment An early biopsy from a pustule revealed subcorneal and intraepidermal spongiform pustules, papillary edema, perivascular mononuclear infiltrate with a few eosinophils in the dermis, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. A later biopsy showed similar findings with no evidence of full-thickness epidermal necrosis or necrotic keratinocytes. Direct immune fluorescence (DIF) taken from erythematous skin was negative. Laboratory studies showed the following results: sedimentation rate, 80 mm/h; white blood cell count, 26,200/mm3 with 87% polymorphonuclears and 1.8% eosinophils; hemoglobin, 13.0 g/dL; albumin, 2.8 g/dL (normal, 3.5,5.5 g/dL); other blood chemistry tests were normal. Immunologic studies for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, antismooth muscle antibodies, antiparietal cell antibodies, antimitochondrial antibodies, C3, and C4 were normal or negative. Serology for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, Epstein,Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and antistreptolysin titer was negative. Chest X-ray was normal. Blood cultures were negative. Swab cultures taken from the pustules revealed Staphylococcus aureus as well as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. All systemic drugs, including intravenous cefuroxime, were withdrawn with close monitoring for signs of heart failure or infection. Topical therapy consisted of application of wet dressings. Within 10 days, the eruption resolved with re-epithelialization of the erosions and the appearance of widespread post-pustular desquamation (Fig. 3) Figure 3. Post-pustular desquamation on the trunk [source]

    TLR-related pathway analysis: novel gene,gene interactions in the development of asthma and atopy

    ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
    N. E. Reijmerink
    To cite this article: Reijmerink NE, Bottema RWB, Kerkhof M, Gerritsen J, Stelma FF, Thijs C, van Schayck CP, Smit HA, Brunekreef B, Koppelman GH, Postma DS. TLR-related pathway analysis: novel gene,gene interactions in the development of asthma and atopy. Allergy 2010; 65: 199,207. Abstract Background:, The toll-like receptor (TLR)-related pathway is important in host defence and may be crucial in the development of asthma and atopy. Numerous studies have shown associations of TLR-related pathway genes with asthma and atopy phenotypes. So far it has not been investigated whether gene,gene interactions in this pathway contribute to atopy and asthma development. Methods:, One hundred and sixty-nine haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 29 genes (i.e. membrane and intracellular receptors, TLR4 or lipopolysaccharide-binding/facilitating proteins, adaptors, interleukin-1 receptor associated kinases, kinases, chaperone molecules, transcription factors and inhibitors) were analysed for single- and multilocus associations with atopy [total and specific immunglobulin E (IgE) at 1,2 and 6,8 years] and asthma (6,8 years). A total of 3062 Dutch children from the birth cohorts PIAMA, PREVASC and KOALA (Allergenic study) were investigated. Chi-squared test, logistic regression and the data mining approach multifactor dimensionality reduction method (MDR) were used in analysis. Results:, Several genes in the TLR-related pathway were associated with atopy and/or asthma [e.g. IL1RL1, BPI, NOD1, NOD2 and MAP3K7IP1]. Multiple, single associations were found with the phenotypes under study. MDR analysis showed novel, significant gene,gene interactions in association with atopy and asthma phenotypes (e.g. IL1RL1 and TLR4 with sIgE to indoor allergens and IRAK1, NOD1 and MAP3K7IP1 with asthma). Interestingly, gene,gene interactions were identified with SNPs that did not have an effect on their own. Conclusion:, Our unbiased approach provided suggestive evidence for interaction between several TLR-related pathway genes important in atopy and/or asthma development and pointed to novel genes. [source]

    Quality of life and obesity

    OBESITY REVIEWS, Issue 4 2001
    R. L. Kolotkin
    Abstract Interest in the quality of life of patients with different diseases continues to grow. Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity worldwide, stimulating interest in the health and quality of life consequences of this phenomenon. The body of research on the quality of life of obese individuals has grown to a point that a review of this literature is warranted. Numerous studies have demonstrated that obese persons experience significant impairments in quality of life as a result of their obesity, with greater impairments associated with greater degrees of obesity. Weight loss has been shown to improve quality of life in obese persons undergoing a variety of treatments. Further research is needed to clarify whether quality of life differs among subsets of obese persons. Until recently, there has been little standardization of quality of life measures in obesity. The SF-36 has been used in a number of studies of obese persons. Several obesity-specific instruments have also been developed and have shown great promise. The quality of life of obese individuals is an important issue that should be included in weight management treatment and research. [source]

    JunD mediates androgen-induced oxidative stress in androgen dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells,

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 9 2008
    Farideh Mehraein-Ghomi
    Abstract BACKGROUND Numerous and compelling evidence shows that high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in prostate cancer occurrence, recurrence and progression. The molecular mechanism of ROS overproduction in the prostate gland, however, remains mostly unknown. Unique AP-1 transcription factor JunD has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, promote differentiation and mediate stress responses in a variety of eukaryotic cells. We previously reported that androgen,androgen receptor induced ROS production in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells is associated with increased JunD level/AP-1 transcriptional activity. METHODS LNCaP cells constitutively overexpressing a functionally inactive form of JunD (JunD,TA) or stably transfected with JunD siRNA (siJunD) to suppress JunD protein expression were established. Overexpression of JunD in LNCaP cells using transient transfection method was applied to assess the induction of ROS production in LNCaP cells. DCF assay was used to measure the ROS concentrations in the transfected as well as non-transfected control cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to confirm silencing or overexpression of JunD in the transfected cells. RESULTS In the absence of androgen, LNCaP cells transiently transfected with a JunD overexpressing vector have relatively enhanced cellular ROS levels as compared to LNCaP cells transfected with a vector control. LNCaP cells that fail to express functional JunD (JunD,TA or siJunD) do not exhibit any increase in ROS production in response to androgen. CONCLUSION Based on these data, we conclude that JunD is an essential mediator of the androgen-induced increase in ROS levels in LNCaP cells. Prostate 68:924,934, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aberrant hypertrophy in Smad3-deficient murine chondrocytes is rescued by restoring transforming growth factor ,,activated kinase 1/activating transcription factor 2 signaling: A potential clinical implication for osteoarthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
    Tian-Fang Li
    Objective To investigate the biologic significance of Smad3 in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA), the crosstalk between Smad3 and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) in the transforming growth factor , (TGF,) signaling pathway, and the effects of ATF-2 overexpression and p38 activation in chondrocyte differentiation. Methods Joint disease in Smad3-knockout (Smad3,/,) mice was examined by microfocal computed tomography and histologic analysis. Numerous in vitro methods including immunostaining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, an ATF-2 DNA-binding assay, and a p38 kinase activity assay were used to study the various signaling responses and protein interactions underlying the altered chondrocyte phenotype in Smad3,/, mice. Results In Smad3,/, mice, an end-stage OA phenotype gradually developed. TGF,-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)/ATF-2 signaling was disrupted in Smad3,/, mouse chondrocytes at the level of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) activation, resulting in reduced ATF-2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. Reintroduction of Smad3 into Smad3,/, cells restored the normal p38 response to TGF,. Phosphorylated p38 formed a complex with Smad3 by binding to a portion of Smad3 containing both the MAD homology 1 and linker domains. Additionally, Smad3 inhibited the dephosphorylation of p38 by MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). Both ATF-2 overexpression and p38 activation repressed type X collagen expression in wild-type and Smad3,/, chondrocytes. P38 was detected in articular cartilage and perichondrium; articular and sternal chondrocytes expressed p38 isoforms ,, ,, and ,, but not ,. Conclusion Smad3 is involved in both the onset and progression of OA. Loss of Smad3 abrogates TAK1/ATF-2 signaling, most likely by disrupting the Smad3,phosphorylated p38 complex, thereby promoting p38 dephosphorylation and inactivation by MKP-1. ATF-2 and p38 activation inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Modulation of p38 isoform activity may provide a new therapeutic approach for OA. [source]

    In vitro spontaneous osteoclastogenesis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is not crucially dependent on T lymphocytes,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 4 2009
    Bernard Vandooren
    Objective In vitro spontaneous osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is increased in diseases with excessive bone loss. The purpose of this study was to reassess the role of T lymphocytes in this process. Methods Fresh or cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from healthy subjects and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and non-psoriatic spondylarthritis were cultured at high density and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Resorption of mineralized matrix was assessed by a dentin disc assay. CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were selected using magnetically labeled antibodies. Results Numerous multinucleated, TRAP+, dentin-resorbing osteoclasts developed spontaneously from fresh PBMCs from healthy individuals. This process was abrogated by T cell depletion and was restored by exogenous macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL, indicating the important role of T cells in spontaneous osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Using physiologic freezing and thawing as a model for the activation of PBMCs, spontaneous osteoclastogenesis was significantly increased in cryopreserved versus fresh cells. Under these conditions, spontaneous osteoclastogenesis was not dependent on T lymphocytes, since it was not influenced by T cell depletion and persisted in purified CD14+ cell cultures supplemented with M-CSF and RANKL. In contrast to studies with fresh PBMCs, spontaneous osteoclastogenesis under these conditions did not appear to be clearly different between healthy subjects and patients with arthritis. Conclusion Spontaneous osteoclastogenesis in vitro is dependent on T lymphocytes or on the direct activation of monocytic cells, depending on the test conditions. This variability warrants better validation of the relevance of this functional test for in vivo osteoclastogenesis. [source]

    A New Frontier in Soy Bioactive Peptides that May Prevent Age-related Chronic Diseases

    Wenyi Wang
    ABSTRACT During gastrointestinal digestion or food processing of proteins, small peptides can be released and may act as regulatory compounds with hormone-like activities. Numerous biologically active peptides (bioactive peptides) have been identified. Most bioactive peptides are derived from milk and dairy products, with the most common being angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Soybean protein and soybean derived peptides also play an important role in soybean physiological activities, particularly those related to the prevention of chronic diseases. However, the bioactive potential of soybean derived bioactive peptides is yet to be fully appreciated. After a general introduction of approaches and advances in bioactive peptides from food sources, this review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean proteins and their physiological properties. Technological approaches to generate bioactive peptides, their isolation, purification, characterization, and quantification, and further application in food and drug design are also presented. Safety concerns, such as potential toxicity, allergenicity, and sensory aspect of these peptides are likewise discussed. [source]

    Interactive animation of cloth-like objects in virtual reality

    Mark Meyer
    Abstract Modeling and animation of cloth have experienced important developments in recent years. As a consequence, complex textile models can be used to realistically drape objects or human characters in a fairly efficient way. However, real-time realistic simulation remains a major challenge, even if applications are numerous, from rapid prototyping to e-commerce. In this paper, we present a stable, real-time algorithm for animating cloth-like materials. Using a hybrid explicit/implicit algorithm, we perform fast and stable time integration of a physically based model with rapid collision detection and response, as well as wind or liquid drag effects to enhance realism. We demonstrate our approach through a series of examples in virtual reality environments, proving that real-time animation of cloth, even on low-end computers, is now achievable. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Motivations for the Restoration of Ecosystems

    cambio climático; capital natural; restauración ecológica Abstract:,The reasons ecosystems should be restored are numerous, disparate, generally understated, and commonly underappreciated. We offer a typology in which these reasons,or motivations,are ordered among five rationales: technocratic, biotic, heuristic, idealistic, and pragmatic. The technocratic rationale encompasses restoration that is conducted by government agencies or other large organizations to satisfy specific institutional missions and mandates. The biotic rationale for restoration is to recover lost aspects of local biodiversity. The heuristic rationale attempts to elicit or demonstrate ecological principles and biotic expressions. The idealistic rationale consists of personal and cultural expressions of concern or atonement for environmental degradation, reengagement with nature, and/or spiritual fulfillment. The pragmatic rationale seeks to recover or repair ecosystems for their capacity to provide a broad array of natural services and products upon which human economies depend and to counteract extremes in climate caused by ecosystem loss. We propose that technocratic restoration, as currently conceived and practiced, is too narrow in scope and should be broadened to include the pragmatic rationale whose overarching importance is just beginning to be recognized. We suggest that technocratic restoration is too authoritarian, that idealistic restoration is overly restricted by lack of administrative strengths, and that a melding of the two approaches would benefit both. Three recent examples are given of restoration that blends the technocratic, idealistic, and pragmatic rationales and demonstrates the potential for a more unified approach. The biotic and heuristic rationales can be satisfied within the contexts of the other rationales. Resumen:,Las razones por la que los ecosistemas deben ser restaurados son numerosas, dispares, generalmente poco sustentadas, y comúnmente poco apreciadas. Ofrecemos una tipología en la que estas razones,o motivaciones,son ordenadas entre cinco razonamientos: tecnocrático, biótico, heurístico, idealista y pragmático. El razonamiento tecnocrático se refiere a la restauración que es llevada a cabo por agencias gubernamentales u otras grandes organizaciones para satisfacer misiones y mandatos institucionales específicos. El razonamiento biótico de la restauración es la recuperación de aspectos perdidos de la biodiversidad local. El razonamiento heurístico intenta extraer o demostrar principios ecológicos y expresiones bióticas. El razonamiento idealista consiste de expresiones personales y culturales de la preocupación o reparación de la degradación ambiental, reencuentro con la naturaleza y/o cumplimiento espiritual. El razonamiento pragmático busca recuperar o reparar ecosistemas por su capacidad de proporcionar una amplia gama de servicios y productos naturales de la que dependen las economías humanas y para contrarrestar extremos en el clima causados por la pérdida de ecosistemas. Proponemos que la restauración tecnocrática, como se concibe y practica actualmente, es muy corta en su alcance y debiera ampliarse para incluir al razonamiento pragmático, cuya importancia apenas comienza a ser reconocida. Sugerimos que la restauración tecnocrática es demasiado autoritaria, que la restauración idealista esta muy restringida por la falta de fortalezas administrativas, y que una mezcla de los dos enfoques podría beneficiar a ambas. Proporcionamos tres ejemplos recientes de restauración que combinan los razonamientos tecnocrático, idealista y pragmático y demuestran el potencial para un enfoque más unificado. Los razonamientos biótico y heurístico pueden ser satisfechos en el contexto de los otros razonamientos. [source]

    Non-pigmenting fixed drug eruption caused by allylisopropylacetylurea

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2003
    Yukikazu Numata
    An unusual case of a non-pigmenting fixed drug eruption caused by allylisopropylacetylurea is reported. Several hours after taking an analgesic (New Kaiteki A®), a 30-year-old Japanese woman, who had experienced similar eruptions several times after taking other analgesics, developed numerous variously sized, itchy, round-to-oval erythematous eruptions on the trunk and extremities. After she discontinued taking this drug, all such eruptions resolved within 2 weeks, without leaving postinflammatory pigmentation. Patch testing with New Kaiteki A® itself and one of its active ingredients, allylisopropylacetylurea, on lesional skin, but not on uninvolved skin, showed positive erythematous reactions after 2 days. [source]

    Modulation of antigen expression in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction therapy is partly transient: Evidence for a drug-induced regulatory phenomenon.

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2010
    Results of the AIEOP-BFM-ALL-FLOW-MRD-Study Group
    Abstract Background: Changes of antigen expression on residual blast cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occur during induction treatment. Many markers used for phenotyping and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring are affected. Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced expression modulation has been causally suspected, however, subclone selection may also cause the phenomenon. Methods: We investigated this by following the phenotypic evolution of leukemic cells with flow cytometry from diagnosis to four time points during and after GC containing chemotherapy in the 20 (of 360 consecutive) B-cell precursor patients with ALL who had persistent MRD throughout. Results: The early expression changes of CD10 and CD34 were reversible after stop of GC containing chemotherapy. Modulation of CD20 and CD45 occurred mostly during the GC phase, whereas CD11a also changed later on. Blast cells at diagnosis falling into gates designed according to "shifted" phenotypes from follow-up did not form clusters and were frequently less numerous than later on. Conclusions: Our data support the idea that drug-induced modulation rather than selection causes the phenomenon. The good message for MRD assessment is that modulation is transient in at least two (CD10 and CD34) of the five prominent antigens investigated and reverts to initial aberrant patterns after stop of GC therapy, whereas CD20 expression gains new aberrations exploitable for MRD detection. © 2010 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Psychometric properties of the Trauma Assessment for Adults

    Matt J. Gray Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: The Trauma Assessment for Adults (TAA) was developed to facilitate the assessment of exposure to traumatic events that could result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The TAA inquires about numerous potentially traumatic events that an individual may have experienced. Although the TAA has been used extensively for clinical and research purposes, its psychometric properties have never been formally evaluated. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this frequently used measure. Methods: The studies reported here describe the performance of the TAA in two samples,college undergraduates (N=142) and community mental health center clients (N=67). Among undergraduates, 1-week temporal stability was evaluated and, in both samples, item- and scale-level convergence of the TAA with an established trauma exposure measure was assessed. Convergence of the TAA with clinically related constructs was also evaluated. Results: The TAA exhibited adequate temporal stability (r=.80) and satisfactory item-level convergence with existing measures of trauma history among college students. In the clinical sample, the TAA again converged well with an established measure of trauma exposure (r=.65). It was not as strongly predictive, in either sample, of trauma-related distress relative to an alternate trauma exposure measure. Conclusion: Although it performs satisfactorily, the TAA does not appear to be superior to other existing measures of trauma exposure. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Striae Distensae (Stretch Marks) and Different Modalities of Therapy: An Update

    BACKGROUND Striae distensea (SD; stretch marks) are a well-recognized, common skin condition that rarely causes any significant medical problems but are often a significant source of distress to those affected. The origins of SD are poorly understood, and a number of treatment modalities are available for their treatment, yet none of them is consistently effective, and no single therapy is considered to be pivotal for this problem. With a high incidence and unsatisfactory treatments, stretch marks remain an important target of research for an optimum consensus of treatment. OBJECTIVE To identify the current treatment modalities and their effectiveness in the treatment of stretch marks. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of the recent literature regarding clinical treatment of stretch marks with emphasis on the safety and efficacy of the newer optical devices and laser applications. RESULTS No current therapeutic option offers complete treatment, although there are a number of emerging new modalities that are encouraging. CONCLUSION The therapeutic strategies are numerous, and no single modality has been far more consistent than the rest. The long-term future of treatment strategies is encouraging with the advance in laser technologies. [source]

    Immediate and Midterm Complications of Sclerotherapy: Report of a Prospective Multicenter Registry of 12,173 Sclerotherapy Sessions

    FACPH, Jean-Jérôme Guex MD
    Background Growing interest in sclerotherapy has emphasized the need for complete knowledge of all aspects of this method. Objective To precisely delineate the actual incidence of immediate and delayed untoward events of daily sclerotherapy. Methods A multicenter prospective registry was established in 22 phlebology clinics to report their activity and complications. Results During the study period, 12,173 sessions of sclerotherapy were carried out, 5,434 with liquid, 6,395 with foam, and 344 using both. Four thousand eighty-eight (33.9%) sessions were carried out with ultrasound guidance. Forty-nine incidents or accidents (0.4%) occurred, of which 12 were with liquid and 37 with foam. These were reported during the time of the study and an additional 1-month follow-up. Most numerous were 20 cases of visual disturbances (in 19 cases, foam or air block was used); all resolved shortly, without any after-effects. A femoral vein thrombosis was the only severe adverse event in this study. Conclusions This study demonstrates that sclerotherapy is a safe technique. FUNDING FOR RESEARCH WAS PROVIDED BY THE FRENCH SOCIETY OF PHLEBOLOGY, A NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION. [source]

    Development and fine structure of the yolk nucleus of previtellogenic oocytes in the medaka Oryzias latipes

    Hirokuni Kobayashi
    The development and fine structure of yolk nuclei in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic oocytes were examined by electron microscopy during several stages of oogenesis in the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Shortly after oogenesis starts, oocytes 20,30 ,m in diameter have much electron-dense (basophilic) cytoplasm, within which a continuous or discontinuous, irregular ring-shaped lower electron-dense area of flocculent appearance (LF) begins to emerge around the nucleus. The yolk nucleus is first recognized within an LF area as a few fragments of dense granular thread measuring 20,25 nm in width. The threads consist of two rows of very dense granules resembling ribosomes or ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-like particles in size and electron density. These thread-like fragments gradually increase in number and length until they assemble into a compact, spherical mass of complicated networks. Analysis of serial sections suggests that the yolk nucleus is a complicated mass of numerous, small deformed vacuoles composed of a single lamella with double layers of ribosomes or RNP-like granules, rather than a mass of granular threads. When oocytes develop to greater than 100 ,m in diameter, the yolk nucleus begins to fragment before dispersing throughout the surrounding cytoplasm, concomitantly with the disappearance of LF areas. At this stage of oogenesis, a restricted region of the granulosa cell layer adjacent to the yolk nucleus becomes somewhat columnar in morphology, fixing the vegetal pole region of the oocyte. [source]

    Reduction of intramembranous particles in the periacrosomal plasma membrane of boar spermatozoa during in vitro capacitation: A statistical study

    Fumie Suzuki-Toyota
    Membrane remodeling in the periacrosomal plasma membrane (PAPM) of boar spermatozoa during incubation in capacitation medium was examined by the freeze-fracture technique. In the preservation medium (PM) group, the major small (about 8 nm) intramembranous particles (IMP) and the minor large (> 10 nm) IMP were distributed evenly in the PAPM. The IMP-free area increased during capacitation. To correct the IMP-free area, arithmetically redistributed (ARD)-IMP density was used for statistical analysis. In the PM group, the mean density ± SD of large IMP was 379 ± 64 and 266 ± 58/,m2, and that of small IMP was 1450 ± 155 and 672 ± 252/,m2 in protoplasmic (P) and external (E) faces, respectively. During capacitation, the significant (P < 0.01) reduction of large IMP density was encountered only in the E face of a few incubation groups, while that of the small IMP density occurred in the P face by 2 h. Consequently, reduction of the total IMP density of both faces was not significant in the large IMP, but it was significant (P < 0.01) in the small IMP. One-fifth of the total small IMP density reduced by 2 h. Filipin-sterol complexes (FSC) were numerous in the PAPM, and FSC-free areas also increased during capacitation. The mechanism of IMP-free area formation and the behavior of the small IMP in the PAPM during capacitation were discussed in relation to membrane stability. [source]

    Ultrastructural analysis of the smooth-to-striated transition zone in the developing mouse esophagus: Emphasis on apoptosis of smooth and origin and differentiation of striated muscle cells

    Jürgen Wörl
    Abstract The exact mechanism of smooth-to-striated muscle conversion in the mouse esophagus is controversial. Smooth-to-striated muscle cell transdifferentiation vs. distinct differentiation pathways for both muscle types were proposed. Main arguments for transdifferentiation were the failure to detect apoptotic smooth and the unknown origin of striated muscle cells during esophageal myogenesis. To reinvestigate this issue, we analyzed esophagi of 4-day-old mice by electron microscopy and a fine-grained sampling strategy considering that, in perinatal esophagus, the replacement of smooth by striated muscle progresses craniocaudally, while striated myogenesis advances caudocranially. We found numerous (1) apoptotic smooth muscle cells located mainly in a transition zone, where smooth intermingled with developing striated muscle cells, and (2) mesenchymal cells in the smooth muscle portion below the transition zone, which appeared to give rise to striated muscle fibers. Taken together, these results provide further evidence for distinct differentiation pathways of both muscle types during esophagus development. Developmental Dynamics 233:964,982, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphology of the digestive tract and feeding habits of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 in a Brazilian reservoir

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    L. F. Salvador-Jr
    Abstract The present study describes some aspects of the morphology of the digestive tract and the feeding patterns of Loricaria lentiginosa. Sixty-three specimens with gut contents were captured quarterly from November 2001 to August 2002 in Porto Colômbia reservoir, Rio Grande basin, southeastern Brazil. The species has bicuspid teeth inserted in the lips, unicuspid teeth in the dentary bone and pharyngeal teeth, besides having short, numerous and slightly separated gill rakers. The stomach is rudimentary and the intestine is relatively short (Intestinal Quotient = 1.32 ± 0.15). Molluscs, especially bivalves, represented the most important item on the diet of this species, followed by organic matter. The characteristics of the digestive tract as well as the dietary pattern, suggest that L. lentiginosa is able to explore bottom food resources, being classified as benthophagous with a tendency to malacophagy, and utilizing organic matter as an associated or additional food resource. Loricariidae species are able to use not only algae, sediment and detritus, but also plant and invertebrate items. [source]

    Geological constraints on Antarctic palaeo-ice-stream retreat

    Colm Ó Cofaigh
    Abstract Submarine landforms preserved in bathymetric troughs on the Antarctic continental shelf show that the style of ice stream retreat across the shelf following the last glacial maximum varied between different troughs. Three styles of retreat are inferred from the geological evidence: rapid, episodic and slow. Rapid retreat by ice stream floatation and calving is recorded by the preservation of a landform assemblage of unmodified streamlined subglacial bedforms including mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) that record streaming flow along these troughs. These elongate bedforms are not overprinted by recessional glacial landforms formed transverse to ice flow such as moraines or grounding-zone wedges, and overlying deglacial sediments are thin. A second type of landform assemblage consists of MSGLs overprinted or interrupted by transverse grounding-zone wedges. This assemblage implies episodic retreat between successive grounding-zone positions. The third type of landform assemblage is that of numerous, closely spaced, recessional moraines and intermittent grounding-zone wedges that overlie and interrupt MSGLs. This assemblage records the slow retreat of grounded ice across the shelf. Variation in the style of ice stream retreat between the different bathymetric troughs indicates that Antarctic palaeo-ice-streams did not respond uniformly to external forcing at the end of the last glacial cycle. Rather, their diachronous retreat reflects the dominance of local controls in the form of bathymetry and drainage basin size. More broadly, these data show that retreat of marine-based ice sheets in areas of reverse bed slope is not necessarily catastrophic, and they provide important constraints for numerical models that attempt to predict the dynamics of large polar ice sheets. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Characteristics and dynamics of multiple intertidal bars, north Lincolnshire, England

    Selma van Houwelingen
    Abstract Multiple intertidal bars and troughs, often referred to as ,ridges and runnels', are significant features on many macrotidal sandy beaches. Along the coastline of England and Wales, they are particularly prevalent in the vicinity of estuaries, where the nearshore gradient is gentle and a large surplus of sediment is generally present. This paper examines the dynamics of such bar systems along the north Lincolnshire coast. A digital elevation model of the intertidal morphology obtained using LIDAR demonstrates that three to five intertidal bars are consistently present with a spacing of approximately 100 m. The largest and most pronounced bars (height = 0·5,0·8 m) are found around mean sea level, whereas the least developed bars (height = 0·2,0·5 m) occur in the lower intertidal zone. Annual aerial photographs of the intertidal bar morphology were inspected to try to track individual bars from year to year to derive bar migration rates; however, there is little resemblance between concurrent photographs, and ,resetting' of the intertidal profile occurs on an annual basis. Three-dimensional beach surveys were conducted monthly at three locations along the north Lincolnshire coast over a one-year period. The intertidal bar morphology responds strongly to the seasonal variation in the forcing conditions, and bars are least numerous and flattest during the more energetic winter months. Morphological changes over the monthly time scale are strongly affected by longshore sediment transport processes and the intertidal bar morphology can migrate along the beach at rates of up to 30 m per month. The behaviour of intertidal bars is complex and varies over a range of spatial and temporal scales in response to a combination of forcing factors (e.g. incident wave energy, different types of wave processes, longshore and cross-shore sediment transport), relaxation time and morphodynamic feedback. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ultrastructure of the seminal receptacle and the dimorphic sperm in the commensal bivalve Mysella bidentata (Veneroida; Galeommatoidea; Montacutidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2001
    Åse Jespersen
    Abstract Jespersen, Å. and Lützen, J. 2001. Ultrastructure of the seminal receptacle and the dimorphic sperm in the commensal bivalve Mysella bidentata (Veneroida: Galeommatoidea: Montacutidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 82: 107,115 The seminal receptacle and the euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa of Mysella bidentata were examined at an ultrastructural level and the results were compared with earlier findings of the same and other species of the Montacutidae. The euspermatozoon has a slender 13 µm long nucleus and a 1.1 µm long bullet-shaped acrosome. The acrosome of the paraspermatozoon is almost identical in ultrastructure to that of the euspermatozoa but is longer (1.9 µm) and more slender and is bent at an angle to the diminutive nucleus (1.1 µm long). The unpaired seminal receptacle is lined by a heavily ciliated epithelium and a non-ciliated epithelium with short and broad microvilli. Euspermatozoa only are stored in the receptacle. They are densely packed and orientated with their heads towards the non-ciliated epithelium. In this position they develop numerous extremely fine microvilli from the acrosome which apparently serve to attach them to the epithelial microvillar surface. Stored sperm may presumably remain functional for at least six months. A possible function of paraspermatozoa could be to clump sperm into sperm bags to keep them in suspension. [source]

    Organic litter: dominance over stones as a source of interrill flow roughness on low-gradient desert slopes at Fowlers Gap, arid western NSW, Australia

    David Dunkerley
    Abstract Thirty-six runoff plot experiments provide data on flow depths, speeds, and Darcy,Weisbach friction coefficients (f) on bare soil surfaces, and surfaces to which were added sufficient extra plant litter or surface stones to provide projected cover of 5, 10 and 20 per cent. Precision flow depth data were derived with a computer-controlled gantry and needle gauge for two different discharges for each plot treatment. Taking a fixed flow intensity (Reynolds number, Re = 150) for purposes of comparison shows means of f = 17·7 for bare soil surfaces, f = 11·4 for added stone treatments, and f = 23·8 for added litter treatments. Many individual values of f for stone treatments are lower than for the bare soil surface, but all litter treatments show increases in fcompared to bare soil. The lowering of f in stone treatments relates to the submerged volume that the stones occupied, and the associated concentration of flow onto a smaller part of the plot surface. This leads to locally higher flow intensities and lower frictional drag along threads of flow that the obstacles create. Litter causes higher frictional drag because the particles are smaller, and, for the same cover fraction, are 100 times more numerous and provide 20 times the edge or perimeter length. Along these edges, which in total exceed 2·5 m g,1 (equivalent to 500 m m,2 for a loading of 2 t ha,1), surface tension draws up water from between the litter particles. This reduces flow depth there, and as a consequence of the lower flow intensity, frictional drag rises. Furthermore, no clear passage remains for the establishment of flow threads. These findings apply to shallow interrill flows in which litter is largely immobile. The key new result from these experiments is that under these conditions, a 20 per cent cover of organic litter can generate interrill frictional retardation that exceeds by nearly 41 per cent that of a bare soil surface, and twice that contributed by the same cover fraction of surface stones. Even greater dominance by litter can be anticipated at the many dryland sites where litter covers exceed those tested here. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thrips see red , flower colour and the host relationships of a polyphagous anthophilic thrips

    A. YAKU
    Abstract 1.,The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei, is a polyphagous anthophilic species that colonises a wide range of host-plant species across different plant taxa. The environmental cues used by these polyphagous insects to recognise and locate host plants are not known. We therefore determined if colour is an important environmental signal used by F. schultzei to recognise flowers of eight of its more significant host-plant species. 2.,The effect of flower colour on the colonisation of different host plant species by F. schultzei was investigated by collecting and analysing the following: (a) numbers of thrips from different heights and aspects of the primary host plant Malvaviscus arboreus, (b) thrips distribution within flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis, (c) colour reflectance from flowers of eight different host-plant species, and (d) reflectance from different coloured sticky traps and the number of thrips trapped on them at different times of the day and on different dates. 3.,The results indicate that: (a) the thrips (both sexes) concentrate towards the top of the primary host plant M. arboreus and are not distributed differentially according to sunny or shady aspect of the plant, (b) the number of female thrips on H. rosasinensis was higher in anthers compared to petals (corolla) and the basal parts of the flower, and males were as numerous on the petals as were females, and (c) there is a common floral reflectance pattern (but with different intensities) across the eight host plant species, mainly in the red part of the spectrum (600,700 nm). 4.,Results of colour sticky trapping show that red attracts more female thrips compared to any other colour and that most were caught between 09.00 and 11.00 hours. By contrast, more male thrips were trapped between 07.00 and 09.00 hours. Males were more evenly distributed across the different colours but the highest numbers were associated with the yellow traps. 5.,The higher densities of thrips at the top of their host plant may be related to the early morning (07.00,11.00 hours) activity of the thrips, when the top portions of the plant are more exposed to sunlight. The sex-related distributions of F. schultzei thrips across time, coloured sticky traps, and various parts of the flowers seem to be related to mating swarm formation by the males, on the one hand, and the relative frequency and intensity of the use of M. arboreus by the females, on the other, as a feeding and oviposition site. Frankliniella schultzei females respond more strongly to red than to any other colours, so it is predicted that the spectral properties of colour recognition by this species will correlate with the predominant red reflectance of its primary host, M. arboreus, and that there may well be a sex-related difference in colour recognition within this species. [source]

    Knowledge Bases, Talents, and Contexts: On the Usefulness of the Creative Class Approach in Sweden

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2009
    Bjørn Asheim
    abstract The geography of the creative class and its impact on regional development has been debated for some years. While the ideas of Richard Florida have permeated local and regional planning strategies in most parts of the Western world, critiques have been numerous. Florida's 3T's (technology, talent, and tolerance) have been adopted without considering whether the theory fits into the settings of a specific urban and regional context. This article aims to contextualize and unpack the creative class approach by applying the knowledge-base approach and break down the rigid assumption that all people in the creative class share common locational preferences. We argue that the creative class draws on three different knowledge bases: synthetic, analytical, and symbolic, which have different implications for people's residential locational preferences with respect to a people climate and a business climate. Furthermore, the dominating knowledge base in a region has an influence on the importance of a people climate and a business climate for attracting and retaining talent. In this article, we present an empirical analysis in support of these arguments using original Swedish data. [source]

    Are differences in guidelines for the treatment of nicotine dependence and non-nicotine dependence justified?

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    John R. Hughes
    ABSTRACT Despite the many similarities between nicotine dependence and other drug dependences, national guidelines for their treatment differ in several respects. The recent national guideline for the treatment of nicotine dependence has (i) less emphasis on detailed assessment; (ii) less emphasis on treatment of psychiatric comorbidity; (iii) less acceptance of reduction of use as an initial treatment goal; (iv) greater emphasis on pharmacological interventions; and (v) less emphasis on psychosocial treatment than national guidelines for non-nicotine dependences. These treatment differences may occur because (i) nicotine does not cause behavioral intoxication; (ii) psychiatric comorbidity is less problematic with nicotine dependence; (iii) psychosocial problems are less severe with nicotine dependence; and (iv) available pharmacotherapies for nicotine dependence are safer, more numerous and more easily available. However, it is unclear whether these treatment differences are, in fact, justifiable because of the scarcity of empirical tests. We suggest several possible empirical tests. [source]

    SECM Visualization of Spatial Variability of Enzyme-Polymer Spots.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19-20 2006
    2: Complex Interference Elimination by Means of Selection of Highest Sensitivity Sensor Substructures, Artificial Neural Networks
    Abstract Polymer spots with entrapped glucose oxidase were fabricated on glass surfaces and the localized enzymatic response was subsequently visualized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in the generator,collector mode. SECM images were obtained under simultaneous variation of the concentration of glucose (0,6,mM) and ascorbic acid (0,200,,M), or, in a second set of experiments, of glucose (0,2,mM) and 2-deoxy- D(+)-glucose (0,4,mM). Aiming at the quantification of the mixture components discretization of the response surfaces of the overall enzyme/polymer spot into numerous spatially defined microsensor substructures was performed. Sensitivity of sensor substructures to measured analytes was calculated and patterns of variability in the data were analyzed before and after elimination of interferences using principal component analysis. Using artificial neural networks which were fed with the data provided by the sensor substructures showing highest sensitivity for glucose, glucose concentration could be calculated in solutions containing unknown amounts of ascorbic acid with a good accuracy (RMSE 0.17,mM). Using, as an input data set, measurements provided by sensing substructures showing highest sensitivity for ascorbic acid in combination with the response of the sensors showing highest dependence on the glucose concentration, the error of the ascorbic acid concentration calculation in solution containing the unknown amount of glucose was 10,,M. Similarly, prediction of the glucose concentration in the presence of 2-deoxy- D(+)-glucose was possible with a RMSE of 0.1,mM while the error of the calculation of 2-deoxy- D(+)-glucose concentrations in the presence of unknown concentrations of glucose was 0.36,mM. [source]

    Voltammetry as a Virtual Potentiometric Sensor in Modeling of a Metal-Ligand System and Refinement of Stability Constants.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 8 2004
    Part 1.
    Abstract A mathematical conversion of data coming from nonequilibrium and dynamic voltammetric techniques (a direct current sampled (DC) and differential pulse (DP) polarography) into potentiometric sensor type of data is described and tested on a dynamic metal-ligand system. A combined experiment involving DCP, DPP and glass electrode potentiometry (GEP) was performed on a single solution sample containing a fixed [LT],:,[MT] ratio (acid-base titration). Dedicated potentiometric software ESTA was successfully employed in the refinement operations performed on virtual potentiometric (VP) data obtained from DC and DP polarography. It was possible to refine stability constants either separately, from VP-DC or VP-DP, or simultaneously from any combination of VP-DC, VP-DP and GEP. The concept of VP-DC or VP-DP is reported for the first time and numerous documented and possible advantages are discussed. The proposed procedure can be easily utilized also by nonelectrochemists who are interested in, e.g., the ligand design strategies. [source]

    FlexMaster: a universal system

    ENDODONTIC TOPICS, Issue 1 2005
    David Sonntag
    FlexMaster® NiTi files have been in successful application for some years, not only in Germany but also worldwide, and their use is becoming increasingly widespread. The cutting blade design of K-type files provides for efficient working and effective removal of dentinal debris. Due to their convex cross-sectional profile, these instruments are moreover equipped with a more solid instrument core which reduces the risk of fractures and deformations. FlexMaster® instruments are among the most comprehensively investigated rotary NiTi instruments. Very good results have been reported both in numerous in vitro studies and in an in vivo setting. The present article elucidates and assesses both the scientific setting and the clinical aspects of the system. [source]

    Human exposure to heterocyclic amine food mutagens/carcinogens: Relevance to breast cancer ,

    James S. Felton
    Abstract Heterocyclic amines produced from overcooked foods are extremely mutagenic in numerous in vitro and in vivo test systems. One of these mutagens, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast tumors in rats and has been implicated in dietary epidemiology studies as raising the risk of breast cancer in humans. Efforts in our laboratory and others have centered on defining the exposure to PhIP and other dietary mutagens derived from cooked food. We accomplish this by analyzing the foods with a series of solid-phase extractions and HPLC. We have developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major human PhIP metabolites (sulfates and glucuronides) following a single meal containing 27 ,g of cooking-produced PhIP in 200 g of grilled meat. Although the intake of PhIP was similar for each of eight women, the total amount excreted in the urine and the metabolite profiles differed among the subjects. It appears that adsorption (digestion) from the meat matrix, other foods in the diet, and genetic differences in metabolism may contribute to the variation. The four major metabolites that can be routinely assayed in the urine are N2 -OH-PhIP- N2 -glucuronide, PhIP- N2 -glucuronide, 4,-PhIP-glucuronide, and N2 -OH-PhIP- N3-glucuronide. This work is suited to investigate individual exposure and risk, especially for breast cancer, from these potent dietary mutagens. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 39:112,118, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]