Numerical System (numerical + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Transient solution for multilayered poroviscoelastic media obtained by an exact stiffness matrix formulation

A. Mesgouez
Abstract The authors propose a semi-analytical approach to studying wave propagation in multilayered poroviscoelastic grounds due to transient loads. The theoretical development is based on the exact stiffness matrix method for the Biot theory coupled with a matrix conditioning technique. It is developed in the wavenumber frequency domain after a Fourier transform on the surface space variables and the time variable. The usual methods yield a poorly conditioned numerical system. This is due in particular to the presence of mismatched exponential terms. In this article, increasing exponential terms are eliminated and only decreasing exponential terms remain. Consequently, the method can be applied to a large field of configurations without restriction concerning high frequencies, large Fourier transform parameters or large layer thicknesses. Validation and efficiency of the method are discussed. Effects of layering show that the layer impedance influence on solid and fluid displacements. Moreover, this approach can be of interest for the validation of numerical tools. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Crack edge element of three-dimensional displacement discontinuity method with boundary division into triangular leaf elements

H. Li
Abstract In this paper, the existing Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) for three-dimensional elastic analysis with boundary discretized into triangular elements, which is purely based on analytical integrals, is extended from the constant element to the square-root crack edge element. In order to evaluate the singular integral when the receiver point falls into the remitter element, i.e., the observed point (x,y) ,,, a part analytical and part numerical integration procedure is adopted effectively. The newly developed codes prove valid in estimating the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) KI. Furthermore, for the sake of keeping the advantages of high-speed and high-accuracy in developing the numerical system, a novel method to realize pure analytical integration of influence function is found by the aid of symbolic computation technology of Mathematica. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A numerical study of the effect of sea breeze circulation on photochemical pollution over a highly industrialized peninsula

Cristina Mangia
Abstract Numerical simulations compared with measurements are used to investigate the effect of sea breeze circulation on the ozone accumulation over a highly industrialized peninsula in southern Italy, where high levels of ozone concentration are often registered. A frequent meteorological phenomenon in this region during weak summer synoptic conditions is the development of complex sea breeze systems from the coastlines, with convergence areas within the peninsula. A case study characterized by strong winds alternating with sea breeze circulations was selected. The simulations show that during weak synoptic conditions, sea breezes transport ozone and its precursors over land from the sea, as well as from the coastlines where the largest industrialized districts are localized. The overlapping breezes lead to ozone accumulation in the area where sea breeze convergence occurs. This may explain the high values of ozone registered close to the sea breeze convergence lines. The comparison between predictions and experimental data indicates that the numerical system successfully reproduces both weather and ground level ozone concentration in different meteorological conditions, resulting in a fundamental tool for both scientific comprehension of the evolution of air contaminants and interpretation of the monitoring data. Copyright 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Phenological growth stages of cacao plants (Theobroma sp.): codification and description according to the BBCH scale

N. Niemenak
The detailed description of growth stages of useful plants followed by adequate codification facilitates communication between scientists and practicians if, for example, new findings of science have to be transferred to management procedures or if experiences made at one growing site have to be adapted to another. We describe the growth stages of the worldwide species of cacao trees (Theobroma sp.) to prepare the basis for production management, comparisons of epidemiological studies of disease, of growth patterns under different environmental factors and of genetically clone specific parameters. The codification follows the ,extended BBCH (BBCH, Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemische Industrie, Germany) scale', a numerical system that differentiates between principal, secondary and tertiary growth stages. Each growth stage presented from seed germination to crown development and harvest is correlated with general management practices. This scale will be of great help to cacao growers and scientists around the world for better communication, more efficient planning of management practices and experiments. [source]

Semi-coupled air/water immersed boundary approach for curvilinear dynamic overset grids with application to ship hydrodynamics

Juntao Huang
Abstract For many problems in ship hydrodynamics, the effects of air flow on the water flow are negligible (the frequently called free surface conditions), but the air flow around the ship is still of interest. A method is presented where the water flow is decoupled from the air solution, but the air flow uses the unsteady water flow as a boundary condition. The authors call this a semi-coupled air/water flow approach. The method can be divided into two steps. At each time step the free surface water flow is computed first with a single-phase method assuming constant pressure and zero stress on the interface. The second step is to compute the air flow assuming the free surface as a moving immersed boundary (IB). The IB method developed for Cartesian grids (Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2005; 37:239,261) is extended to curvilinear grids, where no-slip and continuity conditions are used to enforce velocity and pressure boundary conditions for the air flow. The forcing points close to the IB can be computed and corrected under a sharp interface condition, which makes the computation very stable. The overset implementation is similar to that of the single-phase solver (Comput. Fluids 2007; 36:1415,1433), with the difference that points in water are set as IB points even if they are fringe points. Pressure,velocity coupling through pressure implicit with splitting of operators or projection methods is used for water computations, and a projection method is used for the air. The method on each fluid is a single-phase method, thus avoiding ill-conditioned numerical systems caused by large differences of fluid properties between air and water. The computation is only slightly slower than the single-phase version, with complete absence of spurious velocity oscillations near the free surface, frequently present in fully coupled approaches. Validations are performed for laminar Couette flow over a wavy boundary by comparing with the analytical solution, and for the surface combatant model David Taylor Model Basin (DTMB) 5512 by comparing with Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD) and the results of two-phase level set computations. Complex flow computations are demonstrated for the ONR Tumblehome DTMB 5613 with superstructure subject to waves and wind, including 6DOF motions and broaching in SS7 irregular waves and wind. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]