Numerical Scale (numerical + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The listener's temperament and perceived tempo and loudness of music

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 8 2009
Joanna Kantor-MartynuskaArticle first published online: 8 JUL 200
Abstract The relationship between the listener's temperament and perceived magnitude of tempo and loudness of music was studied using the techniques of magnitude production, magnitude estimation scaling and cross-modal matching. Four piano pieces were presented at several levels of tempo and loudness. In Study 1, participants adjusted tempo and loudness of music to their subjective level of comfort. In Study 2, participants estimated these parameters on a numerical scale and matched the length of a line segment to the estimates of these musical features. The results showed significant correlations of selected aspects of perceived tempo with perseveration and endurance as well as of selected aspects of perceived loudness with endurance and emotional reactivity. Perceived tempo and loudness, as measured by magnitude production and cross-modal matching tasks, do not seem to systematically correlate with the six formal characteristics of behaviour distinguished in the most recent version of the Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT). Additionally, there is some evidence that they are selectively associated with reactivity and activity, the dimensions of a previous version of the RTT. The study extends the methodology of research on music preferences and the stimulatory value of music. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Accuracy of patient recall of preoperative symptom severity (angina and breathlessness) at one year following aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 3 2009
Grace M Lindsay
Aim and objective., The accuracy with which patients recall their cardiac symptoms prior to aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting is assessed approximately one year after surgery together with patient-related factors potentially influencing accuracy of recall. Background., This is a novel investigation of patient's rating of preoperative symptom severity before and approximately one year following aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting. Design., Patients undergoing aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 208) were recruited preoperatively and 177 of these were successfully followed up at 164 (SD 21) months after surgery and asked to describe current and recalled preoperative symptoms using a 15-point numerical scale. Method., Accuracy of recall was measured and correlated (Pearson's correlation) with current and past symptoms, health-related quality of life and coronary artery disease risk factors. Hypothesis tests used Student's t -test and the chi-squared test. Results., Respective angina and breathlessness scores were recalled accurately by 169% and 141% while 59% and 58% were inaccurate by more than one point. Although the mean preoperative and recalled scores for severity of both angina and breathlessness and were not statistically different, patients who recalled most accurately their preoperative scores had, on average, significantly higher preoperative scores than those with less accurate recall. Patients whose angina and breathlessness symptoms were relieved by operation had significantly better accuracy of recall than patients with greater levels of symptoms postoperatively. Conclusion., Patient's rating of preoperative symptom severity before and one year following aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting was completely accurate in approximately one sixth of patients with similar proportions of the remaining patients overestimating and underestimating symptoms. The extent to which angina and breathlessness was relieved by operation was a significant factor in improving accuracy of recall. Relevance to clinical practice., Factors associated with accuracy of recall of symptoms provide useful insights for clinicians when interpreting patients' views of the effectiveness of aorta-coronary artery bypass grafting for the relief of symptoms associated with coronary heart disease. [source]


Zinc deficiency may be a cause of burning mouth syndrome as zinc replacement therapy has therapeutic effects

JOURNAL OF ORAL PATHOLOGY & MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
Gye Song Cho
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 722,727 Background:, Zinc is known to play an important role for growth and development, the immune response, neurological function, and reproduction. Although the etiology of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is unknown, zinc deficiency may be implicated in the pathogenesis of BMS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and BMS and to assess whether zinc replacement is an effective therapy for BMS. Methods:, Serum zinc level was evaluated in 276 patients with BMS. To assess the therapeutic effect of zinc replacement, patients with zinc deficiency were administered a zinc supplement (14.1 mg/day). Pain intensity 6 months after zinc replacement was evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. We also developed an animal model of zinc deficiency to assess the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral mucosa. Results:, Of the 276 patients with BMS, 74 (26.8%) had low serum zinc levels. Zinc replacement therapy lowered the mean numerical pain scale in these patients from 8.1 to 4.1, compared with a mean decrease from 7.7 to 6.7 in a control group (P = 0.004). In our animal model of zinc deficiency, the main pathologic findings were hyperkeratinization and increased mitosis on the dorsum of the tongue, although there were no gross oral mucosal lesions. Conclusions:, Zinc deficiency might play a role in some patients with BMS. In such patients, appropriate zinc replacement therapy is effective in relieving symptoms. [source]


Single-treatment skin tightening by radiofrequency and long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd: YAg laser compared,

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
Douglas J. Key MD
Abstract Background and Objective To compare single-treatment facial skin tightening achieved with the current radiofrequency (RF) protocol with single-treatment tightening achieved with the long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. Study Design/Materials and Methods A total of 12 patients were treated with RF energy on one side of the face and laser energy on the other. Results were evaluated on a numerical scale (0,12 with 12,=,greatest enhancement) from pre- and posttreatment photographs by a blinded panel. Results Upper face improvement (posttreatment score minus pretreatment score) was essentially the same on both sides (30.2 and 31.3% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P,=,0.89). Lower face improvement was greater in the laser-treated side (35.7 and 23.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P,=,0.074). Overall face improvement was significantly greater on the laser-treated side (47.5 and 29.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P,=,0.028). Conclusion A single high-fluence treatment with the long-pulse 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser may improve skin laxity more than a single treatment with the RF device. Further controlled split-face or very large non-self controlled studies are needed to conclusively determine the relative efficacies of the two technologies. Lasers Surg. Med. 39:169,175, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


How painful are amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling?,

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 1 2006
Akos Csaba
Abstract Objectives To compare the levels of pain and anxiety associated with amniocentesis (AC), transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS), and transcervical chorionic villus sampling (TC-CVS). Methods We prospectively administered a questionnaire about pain and anxiety to 124 women undergoing AC, 40 undergoing TA-CVS, and 24 undergoing TC-CVS for singleton pregnancies. The level of pain was quantified with numerical and pictorial scales and the degree of anxiety was quantified with a numerical scale (0,100 in increments of 10). Results The mean pain score for TA-CVS, 41.4 18.1, was significantly higher than that for TC-CVS, 26.4 25.3, p = 0.008. The mean pain score for AC, 35.1 27.6, was intermediate. A higher degree of anxiety was associated with younger maternal age and nulliparity. A higher degree of anxiety was associated with a higher level of pain. Conclusion In general, each procedure is associated with a tolerable amount of pain. TA-CVS appears to be the most painful procedure while TC-CVS appears to be the least painful procedure. In certain groups of patients, the procedures may be associated with higher levels of pain and/or anxiety. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]