Numerical Rating Scale (numerical + rating_scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Pain: a review of three commonly used pain rating scales

Amelia Williamson MSc
Aims and objectives., This review aims to explore the research available relating to three commonly used pain rating scales, the Visual Analogue Scale, the Verbal Rating Scale and the Numerical Rating Scale. The review provides information needed to understand the main properties of the scales. Background., Data generated from pain-rating scales can be easily misunderstood. This review can help clinicians to understand the main features of these tools and thus use them effectively. Method., A MedLine review via PubMed was carried out with no restriction of age of papers retrieved. Papers were examined for methodological soundness before being included. The search terms initially included pain rating scales, pain measurement, Visual Analogue Scale, VAS, Verbal Rating Scale, VRS, Numerical/numeric Rating Scale, NRS. The reference lists of retrieved articles were used to generate more papers and search terms. Only English Language papers were examined. Conclusions., All three pain-rating scales are valid, reliable and appropriate for use in clinical practice, although the Visual Analogue Scale has more practical difficulties than the Verbal Rating Scale or the Numerical Rating Scale. For general purposes the Numerical Rating Scale has good sensitivity and generates data that can be statistically analysed for audit purposes. Patients who seek a sensitive pain-rating scale would probably choose this one. For simplicity patients prefer the Verbal Rating Scale, but it lacks sensitivity and the data it produces can be misunderstood. Relevance to clinical practice., In order to use pain-rating scales well clinicians need to appreciate the potential for error within the tools, and the potential they have to provide the required information. Interpretation of the data from a pain-rating scale is not as straightforward as it might first appear. [source]

Continuous lumbar epidural infusion of levobupivacaine: effects of small-or large-volume regimen of infusion

Background: The question of whether the dose, concentration or volume of a local anesthetic solution is the relevant determinant of the spread and quality of post-operative epidural analgesia is still open. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we compared the effects of a large volume,low concentration with a small-volume,high-concentration lumbar epidural infusion of levobupivacaine. Methods: Seventy patients scheduled for total hip replacement were enrolled. After surgery, patients were randomly allocated to receive a continuous epidural infusion of levobupivacaine (10.5 mg/h) using either 0.125% levobupivacaine infused at 8.4 ml/h (low concentration group, n=35) or 0.75% levobupivacaine infused at 1.4 ml/h (high concentration group, n=35). We blindly recorded the degree of pain relief at rest and during movement every 8 h for the first two post-operative days, as well as hip flexion, motor block, rescue analgesic consumption and adverse events. Results: No difference in pain relief was observed between groups as estimated with the areas under the curve of the verbal Numerical Rating Scale for pain over time, both at rest and during movement. Similarly, there was no difference between groups in hip flexion degree, motor blockade and hemodynamic stability. Conclusions: Continuous lumbar epidural infusion of 0.75% levobupivacaine was as effective as continuous lumbar epidural infusion of 0.125% levobupivacaine, when administered at the same hourly dose of 10.5 mg, in achieving adequate analgesia both at rest and during movement, without differences in the incidence of hypotension and motor blockade. [source]

Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

Summary, This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age ± s.d.: 38·6 ± 10·8 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 11·9 ± 9·9 years) were randomized to four individual 1-hour sessions of either hypnotic intervention or a control condition of simple relaxation. Pain intensity was assessed three times daily on a 0,10 Numerical Rating Scale. Additional outcomes were TMD-associated symptoms assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria examination form and questionnaire, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores from 4·5 ± 2·1 at baseline to 2·9 ± 2·4 after treatment (P < 0·001) compared to the control group where no significant changes were found (4·2 ± 1·4 to 3·9 ± 1·5) (P = 0·733). Number needed to treat for a 50% pain reduction was 4·0. The hypnosis group also increased use of the coping strategy ,reinterpreting pain sensations' from 5·2 ± 6·9 to 10·3 ± 6·8 (P < 0·001). Both groups exhibited significant reductions in the number of painful muscle palpation sites and pain on palpation (P < 0·004), in number of awakenings due to pain (P < 0·006), and in somatization, obsessive compulsive symptoms and anxiety (P < 0·004). Hypnosis thus appears to effectively reduce some aspects of complex TMD pain. [source]

Antero-posterior activity changes in the superficial masseter muscle after exposure to experimental pain

Jens C. Türp
The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to examine how the activation pattern of the masseter muscle changes during natural function when experimental pain is induced in a discrete anterior area of the muscle. In 20 subjects, three bipolar surface electrodes and three intramuscular fine-wire electrodes (antero-posterior mapping) were simultaneously attached above and in the right masseter muscle to record the electromyographic (EMG) activity during unilateral chewing before and after infusion of a 0.9% isotonic and 5% hypertonic saline bolus in the anterior area of the muscle. The activity of the contralateral masseter muscle was registered by surface electrodes. In addition, the development of pain intensity was quantitatively measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS). While both saline concentrations caused pain, the hypertonic solution evoked stronger pain. The experiments also provided evidence of a significant although differential activity reduction of the ipsilateral masseter muscle in the antero-posterior direction. The activity reduction decreased with increasing distance from the location of the infusion. The results support the idea that the strategy of differential activation protects the injured muscle while simultaneously maintaining optimal function. [source]

Sparing the larynx during gynecological laparoscopy: a randomized trial comparing the LMA SupremeÔ and the ETT

Background: We designed a prospective randomized single-blind study to compare efficiency and post-operative upper airway morbidity when the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) SupremeÔ is used as an alternative to the endotracheal tube (ETT). Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight elective pelvic laparoscopic ASA I,II female patients were assigned to receive either the LMA Supreme® or the ETT for airway management. Balanced anesthesia and ventilation techniques were standardized to control end-tidal CO2 and BIS value in the range 4.5,5 kPa and 40,50, respectively, and to maintain adequate hemodynamic stability. A single surgeon blinded to the airway management technique performed all surgical procedures. The ventilation efficiency of each airway was evaluated. Anesthesia- and surgery-related times were calculated and anesthesia details were recorded. Post-operative pain and pharyngolaryngeal morbidity were measured in a blind fashion using a numerical rating scale (NRS) (0,100). Results: Surgery duration was similar in both groups. Airway management duration was shorter with the LMA Supreme®. Post-operative pharyngolaryngeal morbidity incidence and all symptoms' intensity were significantly increased after ETT as compared with LMA Supreme® anesthesia. At the end of the PACU stage, the incidence and mean NRS of post-operative hoarseness were reduced when LMA Supreme® was used as an alternative to the ETT (16% vs. 47%; P<0.01 and 9 vs. 19, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: We demonstrated that choosing an LMA Supreme® was an efficient pharyngolaryngeal morbidity-sparing strategy. Moreover, we showed that the LMA Supreme® and the ETT were equally effective airways for a routine gynecological laparoscopy procedure. [source]

Defining Patient-Centered, Multidimensional Success Criteria for Treatment of Chronic Spine Pain

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
Jennifer L. Brown PhD
ABSTRACT Objective., This study aimed to define patient-determined success criteria for treatment of chronic spine pain across four domains: pain, fatigue, emotional distress, and interference with daily activities. Patients., Seventy chronic spine pain patients were recruited from university-affiliated pain clinics. Design., The study design was longitudinal, with pretreatment and post-treatment assessments. Post-treatment assessment occurred approximately 2 months after treatment initiation. Outcome Measures., Participants completed the Patient-Centered Outcomes Questionnaire and Follow-Up Patient-Centered Outcomes Questionnaire. Results., At pretreatment, patient requirements for success were a 58% reduction in pain, 61% reduction in fatigue, 64% reduction in distress, and 66% reduction in interference. These criteria, derived using a direct-scaling approach, are more stringent than criteria developed using other methods. However, patients adjusted their success criteria over time by becoming less stringent, and they used these less stringent criteria to make global judgments of treatment success. Using a scale comparison approach, success criteria for pain were a raw change of 17.5 points (0,100 numerical rating scale) and percent change of 25%. Other criteria were 7.5 (11%) for fatigue, 5.0 (13%) for distress, and 9.5 (12%) for interference. Conclusions., Future research should validate these success criteria, particularly for the less studied domains of fatigue, distress, and interference, and investigate how these criteria evolve over the course of different treatments. [source]

Use of Spinal Cord Stimulation in the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain: Case Series and Review of the Literature

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 5 2010
Ashwin Viswanathan MD
Abstract Introduction: Despite technical advances in spinal cord stimulation (SCS), there is a paucity of recent literature regarding SCS for phantom limb pain. Methods: Between January 2003 and May 2008, four patients at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center underwent SCS for intractable phantom limb pain. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess outcomes and complications. A PubMed search was performed to review previously published series regarding the efficacy of SCS for phantom limb pain. Results: Postoperatively, all patients subjectively reported excellent pain relief (>80%). Patients were all followed with the Brief Pain Inventory. Patients 1 to 3 each reported a two-point decrease in their usual amount of pain using the numerical rating scale. Patient 4's numerical pain scale was unchanged. When using an 11-point scale to assess other symptomology along 10 dimensions, patients 1 to 3 demonstrated a decrease in their total symptom score by 13, 14, and 4 points, respectively. Patient 4 reported an increase by 5 points in his total symptom score. With regard to complications, patient 2 developed an allergic dermatitis to the generator requiring revision with a polyfluoroethylene (GorTex) pouch. Patient 3 developed a surgical site infection after an implantable pulse generator change. Patients 2 to 4 were very satisfied with their stimulator and would choose to undergo implantation again, with patient 1 having an equivocal response. Conclusions: For selected patients who have not obtained adequate relief with medical management, SCS for phantom limb pain can prove an effective intervention.,, [source]

Productivity loss in the workforce: associations with health, work demands, and individual characteristics

Seyed Mohammad Alavinia MD
Abstract Background Decreased productivity at work is an important consequence of the presence of health problems at work. Methods The study population consisted of 2,252 workers in 24 different companies in The Netherlands in 2005,2006 (response 56%). Self-reported loss of productivity on the previous workday was measured on a 10-point numerical rating scale by the Quantity and Quality method. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between work demands, health problems, individual characteristics, and lifestyle factors with the occurrence of productivity loss. Results About 45% of the workers reported some degree of productivity loss on the previous workday, with an average loss of 11%. Moderate and severe functional limitations due to health problems (OR,=,1.28 and 1.63, respectively) and lack of control at work (OR,=,1.36) were associated with productivity loss at work with population attributable fractions of 7%, 6%, and 16%, respectively. Conclusion Productivity losses at work frequently occur due to health problems and subsequent impairments, and lack of control over the pace and planning of work. This will substantially contribute to indirect costs of health problems among workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:49,56, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Open vs specific questioning during anaesthetic follow-up after Caesarean section

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 2 2009
T. Nguyen
Summary Words with negative emotional content such as pain or itch may enhance perception of these symptoms. We assessed open and direct questioning for symptoms in 100 women following Caesarean section. Of the 65 women reporting pain, 25 (39%) did so only when questioned specifically. Similarly, three women with bothersome pain (5%), and two requesting analgesia (3%), failed to disclose pain until questioned specifically. None of the 46 women with pain scores < 6 on a verbal numerical rating scale requested additional analgesia. Of 31 women with pruritus, two (6%) stated it bothered them and requested treatment and one (3%) failed to disclose pruritus on open questioning. Most women with bothersome pain or who request analgesia reveal this with open questioning. However, specific questioning is required to elicit pain in all patients. Most patients are bothered by pain at pain scores , 6, while those with scores < 6 are unlikely to request additional analgesia. [source]

Impact of topical anaesthesia on pain alleviation and wound healing in lambs after mulesing

S Lomax
Objective To investigate the impact of using the topical anaesthetic preparation Tri-Solfen® on pain alleviation and wound healing in lambs undergoing mulesing. Design Three separate trials, placebo controlled and/or randomised, were carried out over a 5 month period on three mobs of between 60 and 263 merino lambs undergoing routine mulesing. Procedure Wound pain was assessed using 10 and 75 g calibrated Von-Frey monofilaments to determine sensitivity to light touch and pain stimulation over a 4 to 8 h period. Pain-related behaviour was documented by trained, blinded observers using a numerical rating scale. Wound healing rates were determined using scaled digital photography and image analysis software to calculate contraction in wound surface area 2 and 4 weeks after mulesing. Results There was rapid (3 min) and prolonged (up to 8 h) wound analgesia as shown by pain response scores (P , 0.01), with absent or significantly diminished primary and secondary hyperalgesia (P , 0.01) and significant reduction in pain-related behaviour (P < 0.001) in treated versus untreated lambs. In addition there was improved wound healing in the treated lambs (P , 0.05). Conclusion Tri-Solfen® effects rapid and prolonged wound analgesia, reduction in pain-related behaviour and improved wound healing in lambs undergoing routine mulesing, providing effective alleviation of pain associated with routine mulesing in sheep. [source]

Automating Standard Alcohol Use Assessment Instruments Via Interactive Voice Response Technology

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2002
James C. Mundt
Background: Interactive voice response (IVR) technology integrates touch-tone telephones with computer-automated data processing. IVR offers a convenient, efficient method for remote collection of self-report data. Methods: Twenty-six subjects recruited from an outpatient alcohol treatment center completed IVR and paper/pencil versions of a demographic and drinking history questionnaire, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale, Drinker Inventory of Consequences, Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, Alcohol Dependence Scale, and two numerical rating scales of craving and desire to drink during the prior week. Administration of the instruments in both formats was repeated 1 week later. The order of administration method was counterbalanced between subjects and reversed across data collection sessions. Scale and subscale scores from both methods were correlated within sessions. Test-retest correlations were also calculated for each method. A criterion of ,= 0.01 was used to control type I statistical error. Results: Intermethod correlations within each session were significant for all of the instruments administered. Test-retest correlations for both methods were also significant, except for the numerical ratings. Scores on the Alcohol Dependence Scale obtained via IVR were significantly lower than those collected by paper/pencil. Other differences between the data collection methods or across the sessions were inconsistent. The average IVR call length was 34 min and 23 sec. Paper/pencil forms required an average of 18 min and 38 sec to complete and an additional 10 min and 17 sec for data entry. Conclusions: IVR technology provides a convenient alternative to collecting self-report measures of treatment outcomes. Both paper/pencil and IVR assessments provide highly convergent data and demonstrate good test-retest reliability. Alcohol Dependence Scale score differences between methods highlight special considerations for IVR adaptation of existing paper/pencil instruments. Benefits of IVR include procedural standardization, automatic data scoring, direct electronic storage, and remote accessibility from multiple locations. [source]