Numerical Changes (numerical + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Human monocyte CD163 expression inversely correlates with soluble CD163 plasma levels

CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
Bruce H. Davis
Abstract Background CD163 is a monocyte/macrophage-restricted receptor involved in the clearance of hemoglobin,haptoglobin complexes and regulation of inflammatory processes. CD163 is shed from the cell surface and exists as a soluble form in plasma (sCD163). Monocyte CD163 and sCD163 are potential diagnostic tools in variety of disease states. Methods We determined the relation between plasma sCD163 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane expressions of CD163, CD64, and CD14 on blood monocytes by flow cytometry, and monocyte counts in 129 random blood samples. Results A strong inverse correlation was found between membrane CD163 expression and sCD163 levels (r = ,0.65, P < 0.001). Monocyte CD163 expression and SCD163 levels did not correlate with the monocyte absolute count. Conclusions The inverse relation between monocyte surface CD163 expression and sCD163 levels in human blood suggests that plasma sCD163 is derived from circulating monocytes, in addition to an unknown component from tissue macrophages. The lack of correlation with the absolute monocyte number suggests that such a balance is driven by the functional state of monocytes, rather than simply by numerical changes in circulating cells. We propose that further clinical evaluations of CD163 as a diagnostic parameter should include simultaneous measurements of soluble and cell-bound forms of this antigen. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone.

A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, array-CGH analysis, relocalization FISH
Genetic instability in relation to clinical behavior was studied in 52 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). Ploidy was determined in the mononuclear cell population by using native cell smears and image cytometry. A relocalization technique allowed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of CD68-negative neoplastic cells for numerical changes of chromosomes X, 3, 4, 6, 11, and telomeric association on 11p. Genome-wide alterations were tested using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) on magnetically separated CD68-negative tumor cells. CTNNB1, TP53, and BCL2 protein expression was also analyzed in formol-paraffin sections to see if their pathways are involved in the development of chromosomal instability. CD68-positive histiocytes showed no significant numerical chromosome and telomeric alterations. Based on ploidy values and clinical outcome, we could distinguish five groups as follows: diploid nonrecurrent (n = 20), tetraploid nonrecurrent (n = 6), diploid recurrent (n = 5), tetraploid and/or aneuploid recurrent (n = 14), and malignant cases (n = 7). Random individual-cell aneusomy was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in the recurrent groups (36.01 11.94%) than in the benign nonrecurrent cases (10.65 3.66%). The diploid recurrent group showed significantly (P < 0.001) increased balanced aneusomy compared with the diploid nonrecurrent group and the tetraploid nonrecurrent group represented eusomic polysomy. Array-CGH and FISH showed clonal aberrations almost exclusively in the malignant group. None of the protein markers tested showed significant correlation with elevated aneuploidy/polysomy (P = 0.56). Our results show that ploidy determination combined with FISH analysis may help predicting recurrence potential of GCTB and suggest that chromosomal abnormalities superimposed on telomeric associations could be responsible for an aggressive clinical course. 2009 Wiley-Liss,Inc. [source]

The role of genetic testing in soft tissue sarcoma

C R Antonescu
Soft tissue tumours represent a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal lesions and their classification continues to evolve as a result of incorporating advances in cytogenetic and molecular techniques. In the last decade traditional diagnostic approaches were supplemented with a significant number of reliable molecular diagnostic tools, detecting tumour type-specific genetic alterations. In addition, the successful application of some of these techniques to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue made it possible to subject a broader range of clinical material to molecular analysis. Thus, molecular genetics has already become an integral part of the work-up in some tumours, such as paediatric small blue round cell tumours, which demonstrate characteristic translocations. Several lines of evidence suggest that sarcomas can be divided into two major genetic groups: (i) sarcomas with specific genetic alterations and usually simple karyotypes, such as reciprocal chromosomal translocations (e.g. FUS-DDIT3 in myxoid liposarcoma) and specific oncogenic mutations (e.g. KIT mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumours); and (i) sarcomas with non-specific genetic alterations and complex unbalanced karyotypes. Some of these genetic abnormalities, including chromosomal numerical changes, translocations, gene amplifications or large deletions can be apparent at the cytogenetic level (karyotyping, fluoresence in situ hybridization), while others, such as small deletions, insertions or point mutations, require molecular genetic techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis). This review focuses on the applicability of genetic testing in the diagnosis and prognosis of soft tissue sarcomas, and gives a realistic appraisal of the ancillary role of molecular techniques, including its advantages and limitations. [source]

Depigmenting Action of Phenylhydroquinone, an o -Phenylphenol Metabolite, on the Skin of JY-4 Black Guinea-Pigs

Kuniaki Tayama
The effects of o -phenylphenol (OPP) and its metabolite, phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) on the skin of JY-4 black guinea-pigs were studied. Topical application of 1 or 5% PHQ on the black skin of the back caused marked depigmentation and hypopigmentation of the skin after 5 weeks, whereas OPP applied at the same concentrations had little effect. Depigmented skin had an increased L* (lightness) value in the CIE-L*a*b* color system. This corresponded with a decreased number of melanocytes and melanosomes in the melanocytes and keratinocytes, the disruption of melanosomes in the melanocytes, and destruction of the membranous organelles of the melanocytes. These morphological and numerical changes in epidermal melanocytes indicate that selective melanocyte toxicity occurred. Furthermore, application of PHQ to the skin of white guinea-pigs caused skin irritation, as shown by a colorimetric increase in a* value (redness) and by histological observation of inflammation. This study confirmed that OPP, which is a reported depigmenter, has little depigmenting action, while its metabolite, PHQ, is a potent depigmenter preferentially affecting melanocytes. [source]