Null Cells (null + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Novel functions of ribosomal protein S6 in growth and differentiation of Dictyostelium cells

Kazutaka Ishii
We have previously shown that in Dictyostelium cells a 32 kDa protein is rapidly and completely dephosphorylated in response to starvation that is essential for the initiation of differentiation (Akiyama & Maeda 1992). In the present work, this phosphoprotein was identified as a homologue (Dd-RPS6) of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) that is an essential member for protein synthesis. As expected, Dd-RPS6 seems to be absolutely required for cell survival, because we failed to obtain antisense-RNA mediated cells as well as Dd-rps6 -null cells by homologous recombination in spite of many trials. In many kinds of cell lines, RPS6 is known to be located in the nucleus and cytosol, but Dd-RPS6 is predominantly located in the cell cortex with cytoskeletons, and in the contractile ring of just-dividing cells. In this connection, the overexpression of Dd-RPS6 greatly impairs cytokinesis during axenic shake-cultures in growth medium, resulting in the formation of multinucleate cells. Much severe impairment of cytokinesis was observed when Dd-RPS6-overexpressing cells (Dd-RPS6OE cells) were incubated on a living Escherichia coli lawn. The initiation of differentiation triggered by starvation was also delayed in Dd-RPS6OE cells. In addition, Dd-RPS6OE cells exhibit defective differentiation into prespore cells and spores during late development. Thus, it is likely that the proper expression of Dd-RPS6 may be of importance for the normal progression of late differentiation as well as for the initiation of differentiation. [source]

A novel role of differentiation-inducing factor-1 in Dictyostelium development, assessed by the restoration of a developmental defect in a mutant lacking mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2

Hidekazu Kuwayama
It has been previously reported that the differentiating wild-type cells of Dictyostelium discoideum secrete a diffusible factor or factors that are able to rescue the developmental defect in the mutant lacking extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), encoded by the gene erkB. In the present study, it is demonstrated that differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) for stalk cells can mimic the role of the factor(s) and the mechanism of the action of DIF-1 in the erkB null mutant is also discussed. The mutant usually never forms multicellular aggregates, because of its defect in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. In the presence of 100 n M DIF-1, however, the mutant cells formed tiny slugs, which eventually developed into small fruiting bodies. In contrast, DIF-1 never rescued the developmental arrest of other Dictyostelium mutants lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), cAMP receptors cAR1 and cAR3, heterotrimeric G-protein, the cytosolic regulator of ACA, or the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-C). Most importantly, it was found that DIF-1 did not affect the cellular cAMP level, but rather elevated the transcriptional level of pka during the development of erkB null cells. These results suggest that DIF-1 may rescue the developmental defect in erkB null cells via the increase in PKA activity, thus giving the first conclusive evidence that DIF-1 plays a crucial role in the early events of Dictyostelium development as well as in prestalk and stalk cell induction. [source]

Disruption of transport activity in a D93H mutant thiamine transporter 1, from a Rogers Syndrome family

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 22 2003
Dana Baron
Rogers syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness. The gene associated with this disease encodes for thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1), a member of the SLC19 solute carrier family including THTR2 and the reduced folate carrier (RFC). Using transient transfections into NIH3T3 cells of a D93H mutant THTR1derived from a Rogers syndrome family, we determined the expression, post-translational modification, plasma membrane targeting and thiamine transport activity. We also explored the impact on methotrexate (MTX) transport activity of a homologous missense D88H mutation in the human RFC, a close homologue of THTR1. Western blot analysis revealed that the D93H mutant THTR1 was normally expressed and underwent a complete N -glycosylation. However, while this mutant THTR1 was targeted to the plasma membrane, it was completely devoid of thiamine transport activity. Consistently, introduction into MTX transport null cells of a homologous D88H mutation in the hRFC did not result in restoration of MTX transport activity, thereby suggesting that D88 is an essential residue for MTX transport activity. These results suggest that the D93H mutation does not interfere with transporter expression, glycosylation and plasma membrane targeting. However, the substitution of this negatively charged amino acid (Asp93) by a positively charged residue (His) in an extremely conserved region (the border of transmembrane domain 2/intracellular loop 2) in the SLC19 family, presumably inflicts deleterious structural alterations that abolish thiamine binding and/or translocation. Hence, this functional characterization of the D93H mutation provides a molecular basis for Rogers syndrome. [source]

Characterization of GTPase-activating proteins for the function of the Rho-family small GTPases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 12 2001
Kentaro Nakano
Background The small GTPase Rho1 has been shown to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of the cell wall in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Activity of Rho1 must be precisely regulated in vivo, since both increases and decreases in its activity affect cell growth and shape. Thus, it is important to clarify the mechanism by which the activity of Rho1 is regulated in vivo. Results Seven genes encoding putative GAPs, GTPase-activating proteins, for the function of the Rho-family proteins were isolated from S. pombe. After disruption of these genes, rga1+ was found to play important roles in cell growth and morphogenesis. In rga1 null cells, delocalized F-actin patches and extraordinary thickening of the cell wall and the septum were observed. On the other hand, over-expression of Rga1 produced shrunken or dumpy cells. The phenotype of the rga1 null cells or the Rga1-over-expressing cells was similar to that of cells containing abnormally high or low Rho1 activity, respectively. Moreover, direct association of Rga1 with Rho1 was shown. Rga1 was localized to the cell ends and septum where Rho1 is known to function. Conclusions In S. pombe, Rga1 is involved in the F-actin patch localization, cell morphogenesis, regulation of septation, and cell wall synthesis, probably functioning as a GAP for the function of Rho1. [source]

Kin1 is a plasma membrane-associated kinase that regulates the cell surface in fission yeast

Angela Cadou
Summary Cell morphogenesis is a complex process that depends on cytoskeleton and membrane organization, intracellular signalling and vesicular trafficking. The rod shape of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the availability of powerful genetic tools make this species an excellent model to study cell morphology. Here we have investigated the function of the conserved Kin1 kinase. Kin1-GFP associates dynamically with the plasma membrane at sites of active cell surface remodelling and is present in the membrane fraction. Kin1, null cells show severe defects in cell wall structure and are unable to maintain a rod shape. To explore Kin1 primary function, we constructed an ATP analogue-sensitive allele kin1-as1. Kin1 inhibition primarily promotes delocalization of plasma membrane-associated markers of actively growing cell surface regions. Kin1 itself is depolarized and its mobility is strongly reduced. Subsequently, amorphous cell wall material accumulates at the cell surface, a phenotype that is dependent on vesicular trafficking, and the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is activated. Deletion of cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase components reduces kin1, hypersensitivity to stresses such as those induced by Calcofluor white and SDS. We propose that Kin1 is required for a tight link between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. [source]

RNase HI overproduction is required for efficient full-length RNA synthesis in the absence of topoisomerase I in Escherichia coli

Imad Baaklini
Summary It has long been known that Escherichia coli cells deprived of topoisomerase I (topA null mutants) do not grow. Because mutations reducing DNA gyrase activity and, as a consequence, negative supercoiling, occur to compensate for the loss of topA function, it has been assumed that excessive negative supercoiling is somehow involved in the growth inhibition of topA null mutants. However, how excess negative supercoiling inhibits growth is still unknown. We have previously shown that the overproduction of RNase HI, an enzyme that degrades the RNA portion of an R-loop, can partially compensate for the growth defects because of the absence of topoisomerase I. In this article, we have studied the effects of gyrase reactivation on the physiology of actively growing topA null cells. We found that growth immediately and almost completely ceases upon gyrase reactivation, unless RNase HI is overproduced. Northern blot analysis shows that the cells have a significantly reduced ability to accumulate full-length mRNAs when RNase HI is not overproduced. Interestingly, similar phenotypes, although less severe, are also seen when bacterial cells lacking RNase HI activity are grown and treated in the same way. All together, our results suggest that excess negative supercoiling promotes the formation of R-loops, which, in turn, inhibit RNA synthesis. [source]

Hypoxia-inducible factor regulation of ANK expression in nucleus pulposus cells: Possible implications in controlling dystrophic mineralization in the intervertebral disc

Renata Skubutyte
Objective Since nucleus pulposus cells reside under conditions of hypoxia, we determined if the expression of ANK, a pyrophosphate transporter, is regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) proteins. Methods Quantitative reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to measure ANK expression in nucleus pulposus cells from rats and humans. Transfections were performed to determine the effect of HIF-1/2 on ANK promoter activity. Results ANK was expressed in embryonic and mature rat discs. Oxygen-dependent changes in ANK expression in nucleus pulposus cells were minimal. However, silencing of HIF-1, and HIF-2, resulted in increased ANK expression and up-regulation of promoter activity. HIF-mediated suppression of ANK was validated by measuring promoter activity in HIF-1,,null embryonic fibroblasts. Under conditions of hypoxia, there was induction of promoter activity in the null cells as compared with the wild-type cells. Overexpression of HIF-1, and HIF-2, in nucleus pulposus cells resulted in a significant suppression of ANK promoter activity. Since the ANK promoter contains 2 hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs), we performed site-directed mutagenesis and measured promoter activity. We found that HIF-1 can bind to either of the HREs and can suppress promoter activity; in contrast, HIF-2 was required to bind to both HREs in order to suppress activity. Finally, analysis of human nucleus pulposus tissue showed that while ANK was expressed in normal tissue, there was increased expression of ANK along with alkaline phosphatase in the degenerated state. Conclusion Both HIF-1 and HIF-2 serve as negative regulators of ANK expression in the disc. We propose that baseline expression of ANK in the disc serves to prevent mineral formation under physiologic conditions. [source]

Stalled replication forks: Making ends meet for recognition and stabilization

BIOESSAYS, Issue 8 2010
Hisao Masai
Abstract In bacteria, PriA protein, a conserved DEXH-type DNA helicase, plays a central role in replication restart at stalled replication forks. Its unique DNA-binding property allows it to recognize and stabilize stalled forks and the structures derived from them. Cells must cope with fork stalls caused by various replication stresses to complete replication of the entire genome. Failure of the stalled fork stabilization process and eventual restart could lead to various forms of genomic instability. The low viability of priA null cells indicates a frequent occurrence of fork stall during normal growth that needs to be properly processed. PriA specifically recognizes the 3,-terminus of the nascent leading strand or the invading strand in a displacement (D)-loop by the three-prime terminus binding pocket (TT-pocket) present in its unique DNA binding domain. Elucidation of the structural basis for recognition of arrested forks by PriA should provide useful insight into how stalled forks are recognized in eukaryotes. [source]