Nude Rats (nude + rat)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The influence of sex on the chondrogenic potential of muscle-derived stem cells: Implications for cartilage regeneration and repair

Tomoyuki Matsumoto
Objective To explore possible differences in muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC) chondrogenic differentiation in vitro and articular cartilage regeneration in vivo between murine male MDSCs (M-MDSCs) and female MDSCs (F-MDSCs). Methods Three different populations of M- and F-MDSCs (n = 3 of each sex) obtained via preplate technique, which separates cells based on their variable adhesion characteristics, were compared for their in vitro chondrogenic potential using pellet culture. Cells were assayed with and without retroviral transduction to express bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4). The influence of both expression of stem cell marker Sca1 and in vitro expansion on the chondrogenic potential of M- and F-MDSCs was also determined. Additionally, BMP-4,transduced M- and F-MDSCs were applied to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect (n = 5 each) on the femur of a nude rat, and the quality of the repaired tissue was evaluated by macroscopic and histologic examination. Results With and without BMP-4 gene transduction, M-MDSCs produced significantly larger pellets with a richer extracellular matrix, compared with F-MDSCs. Sca1 purification influenced the chondrogenic potential of MDSCs, especially M-MDSCs. Long-term culture did not affect the chondrogenic potential of M-MDSCs but did influence F-MDSCs. M-MDSCs repaired articular cartilage defects more effectively than did F-MDSCs at all time points tested, as assessed both macroscopically and histologically. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that sex influences the chondrogenic differentiation and articular cartilage regeneration potential of MDSCs. Compared with female MDSCs, male MDSCs display more chondrogenic differentiation and better cartilage regeneration potential. [source]

Sustained delivery and efficacy of polymeric nanoparticles containing osteopontin and bone sialoprotein antisenses in rats with breast cancer bone metastasis

Victoria Elazar
Abstract Poor prognosis in mammary carcinoma is associated with a certain expression profile of a defined set of genes including osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. Efficient and specific delivery of antisenses (AS) and a protection of the sequences from degradation are the crucial conditions for AS therapeutic efficiency. We hypothesized that effective and safe AS delivery direceted against these genes could be achieved by polymeric nanoparticles (NP) fabricated from a biocompatible polymer. Due to their nano-size range and small negative charge, AS-NP can overcome the absorption barrier offering increased resistance to nuclease degradation, sustained duration of AS administration, and consequently, prolonged antisense action. The ASs designed against OPN and BSP-II were successfully encapsulated in NP composed of the biodegradable and biocompatible polylactide- co -glycolide polymer (PLGA), exhibiting sustained release and stability of the ASs. The therapeutic efficacy of the AS-NP delivery system was examined in vitro, and in a breast cancer bone metastasis animal model of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude rats. Treatment with OPN-AS or BSP-AS loaded NP in comparison with osmotic mini-pumps (locoregional injection and SC implants, respectively) resulted in a significant decrease in both, tumor bone metastasis incidence and in the size of the lesions in rats with metastases. Despite its smaller dose, AS-NP exhibited a better therapeutic efficacy than osmotic mini-pumps in terms of lesion ratio at later time periods (8,12 weeks). It may be concluded that AS delivery by NP is a promising therapeutic modality providing stability of the encapsulated AS and a sustained release. [source]

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate marker of tumor response to anti-angiogenic therapy in a xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme

Axel Gossmann MD
Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effects of a neutralizing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody on tumor microvascular permeability, a proposed indicator of angiogenesis, and tumor growth in a rodent malignant glioma model. Materials and Methods A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, permitting noninvasive in vivo and in situ assessment of potential therapeutic effects, was used to measure tumor microvascular characteristics and volumes. U-87, a cell line derived from a human glioblastoma multiforme, was implanted orthotopically into brains of athymic homozygous nude rats. Results Treatment with the monoclonal antibody A4.6.1, specific for VEGF, significantly inhibited tumor microvascular permeability (6.1 ± 3.6 mL min,1100 cc,1), compared to the control, saline-treated tumors (28.6 ± 8.6 mL min,1100 cc,1), and significantly suppressed tumor growth (P < .05). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that tumor vascular permeability and tumor growth can be inhibited by neutralization of endogenous VEGF and suggest that angiogenesis with the maintenance of endothelial hyperpermeability requires the presence of VEGF within the tissue microenvironment. Changes in tumor vessel permeability and tumor volumes as measured by contrast-enhanced MRI provide an assay that could prove useful for clinical monitoring of anti-angiogenic therapies in brain tumors. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2002;15:233,240. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Long-term tracing of adenoviral expression in rat and rabbit using luciferase imaging

Jin Zhong Li
Abstract Background Luciferase optical imaging provides a novel method to monitor transgene expression in small living animals. As the genetic and immunological heritages of particular animals significantly affect the expression of adenovirus-delivered transgenes, it is essential to know the expression patterns specific to athymic nude and Sprague-Dawley rats, two strains commonly used in rodent models. In this study we set out to determine these patterns. At the same time, we tested luciferase optical imaging in a larger animal, the rabbit. Methods A recombinant luciferase adenoviral vector was injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly into athymic nude rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Dutch Belted rabbits. The luciferase expression was assessed using a cooled charge-coupled device. Results The luminescent signal was capable of passing through at least 1.3 cm of muscle tissue and proved to be much stronger when luciferin was delivered via a local injection than by an intraperitoneal injection. Although the types of immune cells differed between immunodeficient and immunocompetent rats, similar amounts and patterns of luciferase expression were observed in the musculature in two rat strains during the 1st month after a viral intramuscular injection. The duration of luciferase expression was longer than 15 months in athymic nude rats, 9 months in Sprague-Dawley rats, and 6 months in rabbits following a direct viral injection. Conclusions Luciferase expression after adenoviral gene delivery can persist for longer than 6 months, even in immunocompetent animals. Live imaging of luciferase expression can be performed not only in small animals, but also in larger animals such as rabbits. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Role of Nitric Oxide in the Development of Distant Metastasis From Squamous Cell Carcinoma,

Richard L. Scher MD
Abstract Background: Metastasis, the dissemination of malignant cells to distant sites, remains one of the most significant factors responsible for death from cancer. Recent studies have shown some improvement in the rate of distant metastasis (DM) with the addition of chemotherapy to surgery and radiation for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, diagnosis and treatment at an early stage ultimately leads to a better prognosis. The prediction of which patients will develop metastasis and the selection of treatment most effective at preventing and treating metastasis remains dependent on an incomplete understanding of prognostic factors and the biological and molecular basis for metastatic development. This study was undertaken using an in vivo model to investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of metastasis from HNSCC. The findings will result in better understanding of the metastatic process for HNSCC, with the potential to develop and implement therapies that could prevent and treat metastasis in patients. Objectives/Hypothesis: 1) To analyze whether in vivo videomicroscopy (IVVM) is useful for the study of DM from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; 2) with use of IVVM, investigate the effect of the biological mediators NO and interleukin (IL)-1 on the adhesion of circulating human HNSCC cells in the hepatic microcirculation. Study Design: Prospective study using an animal model. Methods: Phase 1: athymic nude rats and mice were used for IVVM experiments. The cremaster muscle and liver, used as arterial and venous flow models, were tested to determine whether IVVM was useful for the study of human HNSCC interactions with the microcirculation. A human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu) labeled with the intracytoplasmic fluorescent marker BCECF-am. was used for all experiments. Videomicroscopic images of FaDu cells in the microcirculation were analyzed for cell adhesion, morphology, deformation, circulation, location of adhesion within the microcirculation, and alteration of microvascular circulation. Phase 2: the effect of IL-1, NO, and NO inhibitors on HNSCC cell adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation of nude mice was analyzed by IVVM. This was followed by histologic determination of the ratio of FaDu cells present for liver area analyzed. Nude mice were treated with 1) IL-1; 2) L-arginine (an NO substrate); or 3) L-N-monomethyl-L-arginine (an NO synthase inhibitor) alone or in combination. These data were analyzed statistically to determine the effect on cell adhesion in the liver. Results: IVVM provided a method for the study of circulating HNSCC with the microcirculation in both the cremaster and liver models. FaDu cells were arrested at the inflow side of the circulation, with maintenance of cell integrity. L-arginine and IL-1 both increased FaDu cell arrest in the liver above baseline (P = .00008 and P = .03), and the combination of these agents potentiated the effect (P = .000009). Conclusions: IVVM allows direct assessment of circulating HNSCC with the microcirculation and is a powerful model for the study of DM. NO and IL-1 play a role in increasing the arrest of HNSCC in the liver and are important in the generation of DM in patients with HNSCC. [source]

Osseous Tissue Engineering With Gene Therapy for Facial Bone Reconstruction,

William H. Lindsey MD
Abstract Objective Facial osseous defects remain a major functional and esthetic challenge for the head and neck surgeon. Tissue engineering may provide advantageous alternatives to conventional therapies. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in the repair of osseous facial defects. Study Design Blinded, controlled, prospective animal experiment. Methods Thirty adult athymic nude rats were divided into five groups of six animals. Three groups were used as control subjects. Two groups were treated with 3.75 × 108 viral particles containing recombinant type 5 adenoviral vectors. One group received viruses that coded for ,-galactosidase production, another received viruses that coded for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) production. After 120 days rats were examined at necropsy with precise planimetry, histological analysis of new bone growth, and radio-densitometric analysis of bone thickness. Results Radio-densitometric measurements showed that BMP-2,treated nude athymic rats had significantly enhanced osseous repair compared with control subjects when evaluated by both radio-densitometry and histological examination. Conclusion Gene therapy,treated, immunosuppressed rodents had an enhanced osteoinductive repair of a dorsal osseous nasal defect. [source]

In Vivo Osteogenic Capability of Human Mesenchymal Cells Cultured on Hydroxyapatite and on ,-Tricalcium Phosphate

Asako Matsushima
Abstract The aim of the current study was to examine in vitro osteogenic capability and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on two kinds of calcium phosphate ceramics. MSCs derived from human bone marrow were seeded on either hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic or ,-tricalcium phosphate (,-TCP) ceramic and then cultured in a medium supplemented with a donor's serum, vitamin C, ,-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone. The culture revealed the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity, indicating the osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs on the ceramics (fabrication of tissue-engineered construct). The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into nude rats for 8 weeks. New bone formation was observed in both types of ceramics, and human-specific Alu sequence was detected by in situ hybridization analysis. Quantitative microcomputed tomography showed that the volume of the new bone in the HA ceramic was greater than that in the ,-TCP ceramic in six of seven cases. These results suggest that human MSCs cultured on ceramics could retain their osteogenic capability even after ectopic implantation and provide a rationale for the use of tissue-engineered constructs derived from a patient's MSCs and calcium phosphate ceramics in bone tissue regeneration. [source]

Intra-hepatic arterial administration with miriplatin suspended in an oily lymphographic agent inhibits the growth of human hepatoma cells orthotopically implanted in nude rats

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Mitsuharu Hanada
Miriplatin is a lipophilic platinum complex which contains myristates as leaving groups and diaminocyclohexane as a carrier ligand. In order to examine in vivo the antitumor activities of miriplatin suspended in an oily lymphographic agent (Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide®, LPD) against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after the intra-hepatic arterial administration, we have developed a novel orthotopic model of HCC in which the human hepatoma cell line Li-7 was successively implanted and maintained in the liver of nude rats. Li-7 tumors established in nude rat livers displayed a trabecular structure similar to their original morphology, and were exclusively supplied by the hepatic artery, suggesting that they exhibited in part the conditions of human HCC. Miriplatin suspended in LPD (miriplatin/LPD) administered into the hepatic artery of this model dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Li-7 tumors without markedly enhancing body weight loss and caused a significant reduction in the growth rate at a dose of 400 µg/head compared to LPD alone. In addition, at the therapeutic dose, miriplatin/LPD as well as cisplatin suspended in LPD (400 µg/head) was shown to be more active than zinostatin stimalamer suspended in LPD (20 µg/head) against Li-7 tumors after a single intra-hepatic arterial administration. These results suggest miriplatin to be a suitable candidate for use in transarterial chemoembolization (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 189,194) [source]