Nucleotide-binding Site (nucleotide-binding + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Crystal structures of thymidylate synthase mutant R166Q: Structural basis for the nearly complete loss of catalytic activity,

Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo
Abstract Thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the folate-dependent methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to form thymidine monophosphate (dTMP). We have investigated the role of invariant arginine 166, one of four arginines that contact the dUMP phosphate, using site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, and TS from Escherichia coli. The R166Q mutant was crystallized in the presence of dUMP and a structure determined to 2.9 ┼ resolution, but neither the ligand nor the sulfate from the crystallization buffer was found in the active site. A second structure determined with crystals prepared in the presence of dUMP and the antifolate 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate revealed that the inhibitor was bound in an extended, nonproductive conformation, partially occupying the nucleotide-binding site. A sulfate ion, rather than dUMP, was found in the nucleotide phosphate-binding site. Previous studies have shown that the substitution at three of the four arginines of the dUMP phosphate-binding site is permissive; however; for Arg166, all the mutations lead to a near-inactive mutant. The present structures of TS R166Q reveal that the phosphate-binding site is largely intact, but with a substantially reduced affinity for phosphate, despite the presence of the three remaining arginines. The position of Cys146, which initiates catalysis, is shifted in the mutant and resides in a position that interferes with the binding of the dUMP pyrimidine moiety. ę 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 20:88,92, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/jbt.20122 [source]

The N-terminal region of Pseudomonas type III effector AvrPtoB elicits Pto-dependent immunity and has two distinct virulence determinants

Fangming Xiao
Summary Resistance to bacterial speck disease in tomato is activated by the physical interaction of the host Pto kinase with either of the sequence-dissimilar type III effector proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB (HopAB2) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Pto-mediated immunity requires Prf, a protein with a nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats. The N-terminal 307 amino acids of AvrPtoB were previously reported to interact with the Pto kinase, and we show here that this region (AvrPtoB1-307) is sufficient for eliciting Pto/Prf-dependent immunity against P. s. pv. tomato. AvrPtoB1-307 was also found to be sufficient for a virulence activity that enhances ethylene production and increases growth of P. s. pv. tomato and severity of speck disease on susceptible tomato lines lacking either Pto or Prf. Moreover, we found that residues 308,387 of AvrPtoB are required for the previously reported ability of AvrPtoB to suppress pathogen-associated molecular patterns-induced basal defenses in Arabidopsis. Thus, the N-terminal region of AvrPtoB has two structurally distinct domains involved in different virulence-promoting mechanisms. Random and targeted mutagenesis identified five tightly clustered residues in AvrPtoB1-307 that are required for interaction with Pto and for elicitation of immunity to P. s. pv. tomato. Mutation of one of the five clustered residues abolished the ethylene-associated virulence activity of AvrPtoB1-307. However, individual mutations of the other four residues, despite abolishing interaction with Pto and avirulence activity, had no effect on AvrPtoB1-307 virulence activity. None of these mutations affected the basal defense-suppressing activity of AvrPtoB1-387. Based on sequence alignments, estimates of helical propensity, and the previously reported structure of AvrPto, we hypothesize that the Pto-interacting domains of AvrPto and AvrPtoB1-307 have structural similarity. Together, these data support a model in which AvrPtoB1-307 promotes ethylene-associated virulence by interaction not with Pto but with another unknown host protein. [source]

Structures of human MST3 kinase in complex with adenine, ADP and Mn2+

Tzu-Ping Ko
The MST family is a subclass of mammalian serine/threonine kinases that are related to the yeast sterile-20 protein and are implicated in regulating cell growth and transformation. The MST3 protein contains a 300-residue catalytic domain and a 130-residue regulatory domain, which can be cleaved by caspase and activated by autophosphorylation, promoting apoptosis. Here, five crystal structures of the catalytic domain of MST3 are presented, including a complex with ADP and manganese, a unique cofactor preferred by the enzyme, and a complex with adenine. Similar to other protein kinases, the catalytic domain of MST3 folds into two lobes: the smaller N lobe forms the nucleotide-binding site and the larger C lobe recognizes the polypeptide substrate. The bound ADP and Mn2+ ions are covered by a glycine-rich loop and held in place by Asn149 and Asp162. A different orientation was observed for the ligand in the MST3,adenine complex. In the activation loop, the side chain of Thr178 is phosphorylated and is sandwiched by Arg143 and Arg176. Comparison of this structure with other similar kinase structures shows a 180░ rotation of the loop, leading to activation of the enzyme. The well defined protein,ligand interactions also provide useful information for the design of potent inhibitors. [source]

The structure of Mg-ATPase nucleotide-binding domain at 1.6,┼ resolution reveals a unique ATP-binding motif

Kjell O. Hňkansson
The structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of the Mg-ATPase MgtA from Escherichia coli has been solved and refined to 1.6,┼ resolution. The structure is made up of a six-stranded ,-sheet and a bundle of three ,-helices, with the nucleotide-binding site sandwiched in between. The MgtA nucleotide-binding domain is shorter and more compact compared with that of the related Ca-ATPase and lacks one of the ,-strands at the edge of the ,-sheet. The ATP-binding pocket is surrounded by three sequence and structural motifs known from other P-type ATPases and a fourth unique motif that is found only in Mg-ATPases. This motif consists of a short polypeptide stretch running very close to the ATP-binding site, while in Ca-ATPase the binding site is more open, with the corresponding polypeptide segment folded away from the active site. [source]

Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate

Anil Kumar
A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei G÷1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5,┼ resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B,ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7,┼ resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13,┼ distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central ,,-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. [source]

Structure of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the archaeal hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

Ali D. Malay
The X-ray crystal structure of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj-GAPDH) was determined to 1.81,┼ resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.4, b = 152.0, c = 118.6,┼. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and was refined to a final R factor of 17.1% (Rfree = 19.8%). The final structure included the cofactor NADP+ at the nucleotide-binding site and featured unoccupied inorganic and substrate phosphate-binding sites. A comparison with GAPDH structures from mesophilic sources suggested that Mj-GAPDH is stabilized by extensive electrostatic interactions between the C-terminal ,-helices and various distal loop regions, which are likely to contribute to thermal stability. The key phosphate-binding residues in the active site of Mj-GAPDH are conserved in other archaeal GAPDH proteins. These residues undergo a conformational shift in response to occupancy of the inorganic phosphate site. [source]

Use of thallium to identify monovalent cation binding sites in GroEL

Philip D. Kiser
GroEL is a bacterial chaperone protein that assembles into a homotetradecameric complex exhibiting D7 symmetry and utilizes the co-chaperone protein GroES and ATP hydrolysis to assist in the proper folding of a variety of cytosolic proteins. GroEL utilizes two metal cofactors, Mg2+ and K+, to bind and hydrolyze ATP. A K+ -binding site has been proposed to be located next to the nucleotide-binding site, but the available structural data do not firmly support this conclusion. Moreover, more than one functionally significant K+ -binding site may exist within GroEL. Because K+ has important and complex effects on GroEL activity and is involved in both positive (intra-ring) and negative (inter-ring) cooperativity for ATP hydrolysis, it is important to determine the exact location of these cation-binding site(s) within GroEL. In this study, the K+ mimetic Tl+ was incorporated into GroEL crystals, a moderately redundant 3.94,┼ resolution X-ray diffraction data set was collected from a single crystal and the strong anomalous scattering signal from the thallium ion was used to identify monovalent cation-binding sites. The results confirmed the previously proposed placement of K+ next to the nucleotide-binding site and also identified additional binding sites that may be important for GroEL function and cooperativity. These findings also demonstrate the general usefulness of Tl+ for the identification of monovalent cation-binding sites in protein crystal structures, even when the quality and resolution of the diffraction data are relatively low. [source]