Novo Methylation (novo + methylation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Novo Methylation

  • de novo methylation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Genetic evidence for Dnmt3a-dependent imprinting during oocyte growth obtained by conditional knockout with Zp3 -Cre and complete exclusion of Dnmt3b by chimera formation

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 3 2010
    Masahiro Kaneda
    In the male and female germ-lines of mice, both of the two de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are expressed. By the conditional knockout experiments using the Tnap -Cre gene, we previously showed that deletion of Dnmt3a in primordial germ cells disrupts paternal and maternal imprinting, however, Dnmt3b mutants did not show any defect. Here, we have knocked out Dnmt3a after birth in growing oocytes by using the Zp3 -Cre gene and obtained genetic evidence that de novo methylation by Dnmt3a during the oocyte growth stage is indispensable for maternal imprinting. We also carried out DNA methylation analysis in the mutant oocytes and embryos and found that hypomethylation of imprinted genes in Dnmt3a -deficient oocytes was directly inherited to the embryos, but repetitive elements were re-methylated during development. Furthermore, we show that Dnmt3b -deficient cells can contribute to the male and female germ-lines in chimeric mice and can produce normal progeny, establishing that Dnmt3b is dispensable for mouse gametogenesis and imprinting. Finally, Dnmt3-related protein Dnmt3L is not only essential for methylation of imprinted genes but also enhances de novo methylation of repetitive elements in growing oocytes. [source]

    Hypermethylation of gene promoters in hematological neoplasia

    C. S. Chim
    Abstract Cancer cells are associated with global hypomethylation but with focal hypermethylation of specific gene promoters organized as CpG island. DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and 3 (3a and 3b), have been implicated in mediating maintenance and de novo methylation. Hypermethylation of gene promoters results in the inactivation of the corresponding genes, by preclusion of the formation of the transcription complex, due to the recruitment of MBP, MeCPs and histone deacetylase. This results in the deacetylation of histone and thus a compact chromatin complex unfavourable for the initiation of transcription. This methylation-associated gene silencing has been demonstrated in various genes including tumour suppressor genes (p15, p16, p73, VHL). Therefore, gene promoter hypermethylation collaborates with other mechanisms of gene inactivation such as deletion and intragenic mutations to fulfil Knudson's hypothesis. Hypermethylation may serve as a molecular disease marker for the detection of minimal residual disease. Emerging evidence suggests a possible prognostic value of gene promoter hypermethylation. Moreover, gene hypermethylation may also serve as a target for therapeutic invention by hypomethylating agents. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    DNA methylation: an epigenetic pathway to cancer and a promising target for anticancer therapy

    Jesper Worm
    Abstract The unique properties of a cancer cell are acquired through a stepwise accumulation of heritable changes in the information content of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. While gain, loss, and mutation of genetic information have long been known to contribute to tumorigenesis, it has been increasingly recognized over the past 5 years that ,epigenetic' mechanisms may play an equally important role. The main epigenetic modification of the human genome is methylation of cytosine residues within the context of the CpG dinucleotide. De novo methylation of ,CpG islands' in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes may lead to transcriptional silencing through a complex process involving histone deacetylation and chromatin condensation, and thus represents a tumorigenic event that is functionally equivalent to genetic changes like mutation and deletion. DNA methylation is interesting from a diagnostic viewpoint because it may be easily detected in DNA released from neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions into serum, urine or sputum, and from a therapeutic viewpoint because epigenetically silenced genes may be reactivated by inhibitors of DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylase. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms leading to tumor formation and chemoresistance may eventually improve current cancer treatment regimens and be instructive for a more rational use of anticancer agents. [source]

    Methylation-Associated Silencing of Death-Associated Protein Kinase Gene in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Cancer,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2005
    Wei-Jia Kong MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated Ser/Thr kinase that functions as a positive mediator of programmed cell death. It has been found that DAPK gene is frequently inactivated by its promoter hypermethylation in some cancers and tumor cell lines. However, it is not clear whether promoter hypermethylation of DAPK gene exists in laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter methylation status of the DAPK gene in LSCC and the effect of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a demethylating agent, on Hep-2 cells, a human laryngeal cancer cell line, and on xenografts of Hep-2. Methods: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription PCR techniques were used to determine the promoter methylation status and mRNA expression of DAPK gene in LSCC. Furthermore, Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo were treated by 5-Aza-CdR to explore the effect of demethylating agents on DAPK mRNA expression and tumor growth. Results: Hypermethylation of DAPK gene promoter was found in 39 (67.2%) of 58 LSCC samples. There was no significant difference in the promoter hypermethylation rate among the samples of different histologic grades or samples from patients with different T stages. However, there was significant difference in methylation status of DAPK gene between the samples from patients in N0 stages and those from patients in N1 stages. No promoter hypermethylation of DAPK gene was found in any of the five normal laryngeal tissue samples. DAPK mRNA expression was not detected in tumor specimens with promoter hypermethylation. On the contrary, DAPK mRNA expression was observed in the unmethylated tumor specimens, specimens from tissues adjacent to the tumor, and normal laryngeal tissues samples. Promoter hypermethylation of DAPK gene was found, and no DAPK mRNA expression was detected in Hep-2 cells. DAPK mRNA expression in Hep-2 cells and xenografts could be restored by treating cells and xenografts with 5-Aza-CdR. The tumors' xenografts, induced by way of Hep-2 cell injection in nude mice treated with 5-Aza-CdR, were obviously smaller than those in nude mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Conclusions: Abnormal loss of DAPK expression could be associated with aberrant promoter region methylation in the LSCC. 5-Aza-CdR may slow the growth of Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo by reactivating tumor suppressor gene DAPK silenced by de novo methylation. [source]

    The role of DNA methylation, nucleosome occupancy and histone modifications in paramutation

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2010
    Max Haring
    Summary Paramutation is the transfer of epigenetic information between alleles that leads to a heritable change in expression of one of these alleles. Paramutation at the tissue-specifically expressed maize (Zea mays) b1 locus involves the low-expressing B, and high-expressing B-I allele. Combined in the same nucleus, B, heritably changes B-I into B,. A hepta-repeat located 100-kb upstream of the b1 coding region is required for paramutation and for high b1 expression. The role of epigenetic modifications in paramutation is currently not well understood. In this study, we show that the B, hepta-repeat is DNA-hypermethylated in all tissues analyzed. Importantly, combining B, and B-I in one nucleus results in de novo methylation of the B-I repeats early in plant development. These findings indicate a role for hepta-repeat DNA methylation in the establishment and maintenance of the silenced B, state. In contrast, nucleosome occupancy, H3 acetylation, and H3K9 and H3K27 methylation are mainly involved in tissue-specific regulation of the hepta-repeat. Nucleosome depletion and H3 acetylation are tissue-specifically regulated at the B-I hepta-repeat and associated with enhancement of b1 expression. H3K9 and H3K27 methylation are tissue-specifically localized at the B, hepta-repeat and reinforce the silenced B, chromatin state. The B, coding region is H3K27 dimethylated in all tissues analyzed, indicating a role in the maintenance of the silenced B, state. Taken together, these findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying paramutation and tissue-specific regulation of b1 at the level of chromatin structure. [source]

    Viroid-induced RNA silencing of GFP-viroid fusion transgenes does not induce extensive spreading of methylation or transitive silencing

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Ulrike Vogt
    Summary Viroid infection is associated with the production of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), a hallmark of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). However, viroid RNAs autonomously replicating in the nucleus have not been shown to trigger the degradation of homologous RNA in the cytoplasm. To investigate the potential of viroids for the induction of gene silencing, non-infectious fragments of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) cDNA were transcriptionally fused to the 3, end of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-coding region. Introduction of such constructs into tobacco plants resulted in stable transgene expression. Upon PSTVd infection, transgene expression was suppressed and partial de novo methylation of the transgene was observed. PSTVd-specific siRNA was detected but none was found corresponding to the gfp gene. Methylation was restricted almost entirely to the PSTVd-specific part of the transgene. Neither a gfp transgene construct lacking viroid-specific elements was silenced nor was de novo methylation detected, when it was introduced into the genetic background of the PSTVd-infected plant lines containing silenced GFP:PSTVd transgenes. The absence of gfp -specific siRNAs and of significant methylation within the gfp -coding region demonstrated that neither silencing nor DNA methylation spread from the initiator region into adjacent 5, regions. [source]