Novelty Seeking (novelty + seeking)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Something old, something new: a developmental transition from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
Jeanne L. Shinskey
Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations perspective on object knowledge, infants gradually develop stronger object representations through experience, such that representations of familiar objects can be better maintained, supporting greater search than with novel objects. Object representations should strengthen with further development to allow older infants to shift from familiarity to novelty preferences with hidden objects. The current study tested this prediction by presenting 24 11-month-olds with novel and familiar objects that were sometimes visible and sometimes hidden. Unlike 7-month-olds, 11-month-olds showed novelty preferences with both visible and hidden objects. This developmental shift from familiarity to novelty preference with hidden objects parallels one that infants show months earlier with perceptible stimuli, but the two transitions may reflect different underlying mechanisms. The current findings suggest both change and continuity in the adaptive development of object representations and associated cognitive processes. [source]


Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: Comparison study of eating disorder subgroups

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 1 2009
Isabel Krug phd
Aim:, To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa,restrictive; anorexia nervosa,binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). Method:, A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory,Revised. Results:, Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa,restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa,binge eating/ purging patients (P < 0.01). For family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P < 0.001). But family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Conclusion:, Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over. [source]


Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community

ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2010
M. J. A. Tijssen
Tijssen MJA, Van Os J, Wittchen HU, Lieb R, Beesdo K, Wichers M. Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community Objective:, To examine factors increasing the risk for onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. Method:, In a prospective cohort community study, the association between risk factors [a family history of mood disorders, trauma, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and temperamental/personality traits] and onset of manic/depressive symptoms was determined in 705 adolescents. The interaction between baseline risk factors and baseline symptoms in predicting 8-year follow-up symptoms was used to model the impact of risk factors on persistence. Results:, Onset of manic symptoms was associated with cannabis use and novelty seeking (NS), but NS predicted a transitory course. Onset of depressive symptoms was associated with a family history of depression. ADHD and harm avoidance (HA) were associated with persistence of depressive symptoms, while trauma and a family history of depression predicted a transitory course. Conclusion:, Different risk factors may operate during onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. The differential associations found for mania and depression dimensions suggest partly different underlying mechanisms. [source]


Early predictors of antisocial developmental pathways among boys and girls

ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2010
M. Pitzer
Objective:, We investigated in a high-risk sample the differential impact of biological and psychosocial risk factors on antisocial behaviour pathways. Method:, One hundred and thirty-eight boys and 155 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were examined from birth until adolescence. Childhood temperament was assessed by a highly-structured parent-interview and standardized behavioural observations, adolescent temperament was measured by self-report. Neurodevelopmental variables were assessed by age-specific developmental tests. Emotional and behaviour problems were measured at the ages of 8 and 15 by the Achenbach scales. Results:, In both genders, psychosocial adversity and early self-control temperament were strongly associated with early-onset persistent (EOP) antisocial behaviour. Psychosocial adversity and more severe externalizing problems differentiated the EOP from childhood-limited (CL) pathway. In girls, adolescent-onset (AO) antisocial behaviour was strongly associated with novelty seeking at 15 years. Conclusion:, Our findings emphasize the need for early support and intervention in psychosocially disadvantaged families. [source]


Longitudinal patterns of gambling activities and associated risk factors in college students

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
Anna E. Goudriaan
ABSTRACT Aims To investigate which clusters of gambling activities exist within a longitudinal study of college health, how membership in gambling clusters change over time and whether particular clusters of gambling are associated with unhealthy risk behaviour. Design Four-year longitudinal study (2002,2006). Setting Large, public university. Participants Undergraduate college students. Measurements Ten common gambling activities were measured during 4 consecutive college years (years 1,4). Clusters of gambling activities were examined using latent class analyses. Relations between gambling clusters and gender, Greek membership, alcohol use, drug use, personality indicators of behavioural undercontrol and psychological distress were examined. Findings Four latent gambling classes were identified: (1) a low-gambling class, (2) a card gambling class, (3) a casino/slots gambling class and (4) an extensive gambling class. Over the first college years a high probability of transitioning from the low-gambling class and the card gambling class into the casino/slots gambling class was present. Membership in the card, casino/slots and extensive gambling classes were associated with higher scores on alcohol/drug use, novelty seeking and self-identified gambling problems compared to the low-gambling class. The extensive gambling class scored higher than the other gambling classes on risk factors. Conclusions Extensive gamblers and card gamblers are at higher risk for problem gambling and other risky health behaviours. Prospective examinations of class membership suggested that being in the extensive and the low gambling classes was highly stable across the 4 years of college. [source]


Cognitive and behavioural characteristics are associated with personality dimensions in patients with eating disorders

EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 5 2003
M. Vervaet
DSM-IV categorizes eating disorders according to behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Based on personality-related and biological research, hypotheses have been formulated to explain differences in the symptomatology between the various types of eating disorders. Therefore, the study of the association between personality-related characteristics and behavioural and cognitive characteristics may contribute to our understanding of the causes and course of eating disorders. This study aimed, first, at describing personality characteristics (using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory) in a group of eating disordered patients (n,=,272) according to the type of eating disorder. Three groups were compared: restricting anorexics (n,=,71), purging anorexics (n,=,84) and bulimics (n,=,118). Secondly, the association between personality characteristics and cognitive and behavioural aspects, using the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, was measured. In bulimics, positive correlations were found between novelty seeking on the one hand and external and emotional eating and bulimia on the other. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant correlation between novelty seeking and body dissatisfaction in bulimics. The significant difference between the restricting and purging type of anorexics regarding self-directedness, and restrained and emotional eating and drive for thinness corresponded with the significant negative correlation between these characteristics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


GENETIC STUDY: Do genetic and individual risk factors moderate the efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy?

ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Drinking outcomes with an emerging adult sample
ABSTRACT Research indicates that motivational enhancement therapy (MET) helps catalyze reductions in problem drinking among emerging adults. However, moderators of this intervention remain relatively unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to test whether a single session of MET increased motivation to reduce drinking and drinking outcomes; and (2) to examine whether genetic dopamine D4 receptor L (DRD4 L) and individual personality risk factors (impulsivity and novelty seeking) moderated the effects of the MET. These hypotheses were evaluated by randomly assigning a sample of emerging adult problem drinkers (n = 67) to receive a single session of MET or alcohol education. Follow-up data indicated that only individuals who were low in impulsivity, novelty seeking and/or who had the short DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats genotype evidenced differentially increased behavior change (taking steps toward reducing drinking) following the MET. [source]


GENETIC STUDY: The dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4) gene exon III polymorphism, problematic alcohol use and novelty seeking: direct and mediated genetic effects

ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Lara A. Ray
ABSTRACT The present study sought to integrate convergent lines of research on the associations among the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, novelty seeking and drinking behaviors with the overall goal of elucidating genetic influences on problematic drinking in young adulthood. Specifically, this study tested a model in which novelty seeking mediated the relationship between DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype and problematic alcohol use. Participants (n = 90, 40 females) were heavy-drinking college students. Analyses using a structural equation modeling framework suggested that the significant direct path between DRD4 VNTR genotype and problematic alcohol use was reduced to a trend level in the context of a model that included novelty seeking as a mediator, thereby suggesting that the effects of DRD4 VNTR genotype on problematic alcohol use among heavy-drinking young adults were partially mediated by novelty seeking. Cross-group comparisons indicated that the relationships among the model variables were not significantly different in models for men versus women. These results extend recent findings of the association between this polymorphism of the DRD4 receptor gene, problematic alcohol use and novelty seeking. These findings may also help elucidate the specific pathways of risk associated with genetic influences on alcohol use and abuse phenotypes. [source]


Temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with dental anxiety

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 2 2003
Maud Bergdahl
The aim of the present study was to investigate character and temperament dimensions of personality in six men and 31 women (aged 20,57 yr) with severe dental anxiety, and to evaluate whether these dimensions were associated with the level of dental anxiety. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were used. High ratings in novelty seeking and female gender predicted high DAS scores. Compared with controls, the patients scored significantly higher on the temperament dimension, novelty seeking. For character dimensions, the patients scored lower on cooperativeness and higher on self-transcendence than controls. Our results indicated that patients with dental anxiety are neurotic extravert (i.e. novelty seekers who experience brief dissociative periods and magical thinking). Furthermore, the combination of the inherited temperament dimension novelty seeking and the social learned character dimension cooperativeness and self-transcendence seem to form a vulnerable personality to develop dental anxiety. [source]


High-throughput behavioral phenotyping in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 2 2010
V. M. Philip
Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; "ecstasy" (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits. [source]


Investigation of 17 candidate genes for personality traits confirms effects of the HTR2A gene on novelty seeking

GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2009
A. Heck
Genes involved in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission have been hypothesized to affect different aspects of personality, but findings from genetic association studies did not provide conclusive results so far. In previous studies, however, only one or a few polymorphisms within single genes were investigated neglecting the possibility that the genetic associations might be more complex comprising several genes or gene regions. To overcome this limitation, we performed an extended genetic association study analyzing 17 serotonergic (SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR3A, HTR6, MAOA, TPH1, TPH2) and dopaminergic genes (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, COMT, MAOA, TH, DBH), which have been previously reported to be implicated with personality traits. One hundred and ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes were genotyped with the Illumina BeadChip technology (HumanHap300, Human-1) in a sample of 366 mentally healthy Caucasians. Additionally, we tried to replicate our results in an independent sample of further 335 Caucasians. Personality traits in both samples were assessed with the German version of Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. From 30 SNPs showing associations at a nominal level of significance, two intronic SNPs, rs2770296 and rs927544, both located in the HTR2A gene, withstood correction for multiple testing. These SNPs were associated with the personality trait novelty seeking. The effect of rs927544 could be replicated for the novelty seeking subscale extravagance, and the same SNP was also associated with extravagance inthe combined samples. Our results show that HTR2A polymorphisms modulate facets of novelty seeking behaviour in healthy adults suggesting that serotonergic neurotransmission is involved in this phenotype. [source]


Cloninger's temperament dimensions and epidermal growth factor A61G polymorphism in Finnish adults

GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2006
L. Keltikangas-Järvinen
This study examines a link between human temperament and epidermal growth factor (EGF). There is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system has a role in temperament, especially in novelty seeking. Functional polymorphism in EGF gene has an impact on EGF production, and EGF, in turn, appears to affect the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Epidermal growth factor gene A61G polymorphisms were studied in a randomly selected sample of 292 Finnish adults. Their temperaments were assessed twice (with a 4-year test,retest interval) with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory consisting of four dimensions, i.e. novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (P). The findings on men showed a significant association between a presence of the G/G polymorphism and scoring in the highest tertile on NS in both test and retest. The same was true with men who scored high on RD, especially on sensitivity, in both tests. Among women, G/G polymorphism was associated with a stable high level of P. Importantly, temperament dimensions, as assessed with one test only, did not provide replicable associations with EGF polymorphism across the two measurements. Our results demonstrate the importance of reliable phenotype assessment and lend support to the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity is one factor underlying stable temperament. [source]


Dopamine challenge tests as an indicator of psychological traits

HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 2 2006
P. Netter
Abstract After discussing some introductory considerations about the value of challenge tests in general for discriminating personality dimensions which are considered extrapolations of psychopathological diseases, the present paper outlines the matter of responsivity to agonistic and antagonistic dopaminergic drugs or drugs of different mechanisms of action in the dopaminergic system, and elucidates that different hormones elicited by dopaminergic substances (prolactin, growth hormone) may indicate personality related differences in susceptibility of different brain areas. A further point was to demonstrate not only the well known relationship of dopaminergic hyperactivity with reward seeking and motivational factors associated with extraversion and novelty seeking, but also the relationship of dopaminergic hypofunction with the personality dimension of depression which had already been reported in studies on animals and psychiatric patients. A final point was to demonstrate that besides size of hormone responses additional parameters like time of response onset and initial prolactin increase can be used as biochemical indicators for identifying certain personality types, like highly depressive neurotic persons characterized by lower and later dopamine responses as compared to low depressives, and extraverted sensation-seeking types responding by an initial prolactin peak as opposed to low sensation seekers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Relationships between features associated with vomiting in purging-type eating disorders

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 4 2005
Lauren Reba BA
Abstract Objective Vomiting is a pernicious symptom of eating disorders. We explored the relation between the symptom of vomiting and features of eating disorder course and severity, personality traits, and Axis I and II comorbidity in individuals with purging-type eating disorders. Method The sample included participants from the multisite, international Price Foundation Genetic Studies, who had an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified) and had data available for the frequency of purging behaviors (n = 1,048). Axis I disorders, personality disorders, trait anxiety, perfectionism, and temperament and character dimensions were included as possible correlates. Results The presence of vomiting was associated with less regular laxative use, lower self-directedness, organization, personal standards, and higher novelty seeking. Conclusion Vomiting remains a prevalent and potentially destructive symptom of eating disorders, with significant dental and medical morbidity. Our findings suggest that certain clinical and personality variables distinguish individuals with purging-type eating disorders who vomit from those who do not, although there were no marked differences in Axis I or II comorbidity. Specifically targeting treatment to decrease duration of exposure to this dangerous symptom continues to be an important clinical objective. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Personality dimensions measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO-FFI on a Polish sample

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2008
ajczyk, bieta Miko
Abstract The results of two self-administered, paper-and-pencil tests based on biosocial theory of personality have been compared simultanously: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The stability of the personality dimensions was assessed across age, sex and education level samples in a group of 406 Polish adults with major mental diseases excluded by use of PRIME-MD questionnaire. Significant effects of age, sex, and education have been found while comparing personality dimensions in both temperamental (novelty seeking, NS; harm avoidance, HA; reward dependence, RD; persistence, P) and character scales (cooperativeness, C; self-transcendence, ST) in TCI. Among subscales of temperament only NS1, RD4 were stable according to concerning factors. All converted to their age and sex norms NEO-FFI dimensions were stable according to sex. Extraversion scale was changeable depending on age (p = 0.04). Neuroticism dimension was a little higher in lower educated group (p = 0.035). To sum up, it was concluded that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Polish version of TCI are necessary considering the established significant differences. Particular personality genetic studies should account for age, sex and also educational differences in their methods of associative studies. Conclusions: In the exploration of personality dimensions on healthy volunteers the Polish version of NEO-FFI corresponds better than TCI to theory of stability and genetic determinants of human personality. As the study included persons with excluded major mental diseases, the sample is appropriate to provide a control group in the reaserch of psychiatric patients using both TCI and NEO-FFI. Significant Outcomes: TCI scores for persons with excluded mental disease are highly changeable depending on age, sex and education. Adjusted to sex and age scores NEO-FFI corresponded better than TCI to stability and genetic determinants of human personality. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Temperament, character, and dissociation among detoxified male inpatients with alcohol dependency

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Cuneyt Evren
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships of pathological dissociation with temperament, character, and concurrent psychopathological features in a consecutive series of male alcohol-dependent patients. Fifty-eight patients with pathological dissociation were compared with 118 nondissociative patients classified by dissociative taxon membership. Beside higher scores on anxiety, depression, and alcoholism scales, a larger proportion of dissociative group reported childhood abuse, suicide attempts, and self-mutilation than did the nondissociative group. They also had higher scores of novelty seeking and harm avoidance, but lower scores of persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Trait anxiety, depression, and severity of alcoholism predicted dissociative experiences; however, none of the temperament or character measures did. Rather than being a derivative of temperament or character features, dissociative experiences of male alcohol-dependent patients are associated with overall concurrent psychopathology. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 64:717,727, 2008. [source]


Personality traits and endocrine response as possible asymmetry factors of agonistic outcome in karate athletes

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2009
Stefano Parmigiani
Abstract Individual variations of plasma levels of hormones testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), before (pre) and after (post) Kumite (real fight) and Kata (ritualized fight) were measured in male karate athletes and analyzed in relation with the agonistic outcome (i.e. winning or losing the fight) and personality trait measures. T and C increased only during Kumite contest and pre- and post-competition C levels were higher in losers than winners. Losers showed higher levels of harm avoidance and anxiety as well as lower level of novelty seeking than winners. Importantly, novelty seeking negatively correlates with pre C and the higher the level of risk assessment, emotionality and insecurity indexes the higher the pre C level. In conclusion, personality traits might be an important factor asymmetry between athletes influencing both the probability of winning or losing an agonistic interaction and the different anticipatory endocrine response to the incipient fight. Aggr. Behav. 35:324,333, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Effects of superstitious beliefs on consumer novelty seeking and independent judgment making: Evidence from China

JOURNAL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR, Issue 6 2008
Monica D. Hernandez
Cultural content has been examined in consumer adoption of new products, whereas the relationship between enduring cultural beliefs and adoption remains unexplored. In this study, proactive superstitious behaviors (e.g., carrying a lucky charm) and passive superstitious beliefs (e.g., belief in fate) were empirically tested as antecedents of consumer novelty seeking (CNS) and consumer independent judgment making (CIJM). The results suggest that proactive superstitious beliefs positively influence CNS, whereas passive beliefs negatively influence CNS. Only passive superstitious beliefs positively influence CIJM. Results also suggest that previous superstition scales are incomplete and fail to reflect contemporary thinking about superstitious beliefs. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Genetics of personalities: no simple answers for complex traits

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
BARBARA TSCHIRREN
Identifying the genes that underlie phenotypic variation in natural populations, and assessing the consequences of polymorphisms at these loci for individual fitness are major objectives in evolutionary biology. Yet, with the exception of a few success stories, little progress has been made, and our understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype is still in its infancy. For example, although body length in humans is largely genetically determined, with heritability estimates greater than 0.8, massive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have only been able to account for a very small proportion of this variation (Gudbjartsson et al. 2008). If it is so difficult to explain the genetics behind relatively ,simple' traits, can we envision that it will at all be possible to find genes underlying complex behavioural traits in wild non-model organisms? Some notable examples suggest that this can indeed be a worthwhile endeavour. Recently, the circadian rhythm gene Clock has been associated with timing of breeding in a wild blue tit population (Johnsen et al. 2007; Liedvogel et al. 2009) and the Pgi gene to variation in dispersal and flight endurance in Glanville fritillary butterflies (Niitepold et al. 2009). A promising candidate gene for influencing complex animal personality traits, also known as behavioural syndromes (Sih et al. 2004), is the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Within the last decade, polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in novelty seeking and exploration behaviour in a range of species, from humans to great tits (Schinka et al. 2002; Fidler et al. 2007). In this issue, Korsten et al. (2010) attempt to replicate this previously observed association in wild-living birds, and test for the generality of the association between DRD4 and personality across a number of European great tit populations. [source]


The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Dana R. Carney
Although skeptics continue to doubt that most people are "ideological," evidence suggests that meaningful left-right differences do exist and that they may be rooted in basic personality dispositions, that is, relatively stable individual differences in psychological needs, motives, and orientations toward the world. Seventy-five years of theory and research on personality and political orientation has produced a long list of dispositions, traits, and behaviors. Applying a theory of ideology as motivated social cognition and a "Big Five" framework, we find that two traits, Openness to New Experiences and Conscientiousness, parsimoniously capture many of the ways in which individual differences underlying political orientation have been conceptualized. In three studies we investigate the relationship between personality and political orientation using multiple domains and measurement techniques, including: self-reported personality assessment; nonverbal behavior in the context of social interaction; and personal possessions and the characteristics of living and working spaces. We obtained consistent and converging evidence that personality differences between liberals and conservatives are robust, replicable, and behaviorally significant, especially with respect to social (vs. economic) dimensions of ideology. In general, liberals are more open-minded, creative, curious, and novelty seeking, whereas conservatives are more orderly, conventional, and better organized. [source]


DRD4 and novelty seeking: Results of meta-analyses

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2002
J.A. Schinka
Abstract Studies of the association between polymorphisms within and near the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and novelty seeking (NS) have produced inconsistent results, raising questions about the strength of the relationship and the methodological conditions under which the relationship holds. We conducted three meta-analyses of existing studies to provide formal statistical measures of the strength of the DRD4-NS relationship. Results provided no support for a relationship between NS and the presence of the 7-repeat allele of the VNTR polymorphism. A small positive effect, however, was found for long repeats of the same polymorphism. The most promising findings were obtained for the relationship with the ,521 C/T promoter polymorphism, for which the analysis showed an effect size of 0.32. The positive findings are consistent with a polygenic model of influence on fundamental personality dimensions. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: Comparison study of eating disorder subgroups

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 1 2009
Isabel Krug phd
Aim:, To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa,restrictive; anorexia nervosa,binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). Method:, A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory,Revised. Results:, Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa,restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa,binge eating/ purging patients (P < 0.01). For family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P < 0.001). But family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Conclusion:, Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over. [source]