Novel Way (novel + way)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts


V Sung
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Novel Way to Synthesize Nanocrystalline Aluminum Nitride from Coarse Aluminum Powder

Yu Qiu
A new process has been developed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline AlN powder by the nitridation of coarse aluminum powder in flowing NH3 gas, using NH4Cl and KCl as additives. The resulting powders have been characterized using XRD, TEM, and XRF techniques. XRD-pure AlN nanoparticles with a diameter of 10,20 nm can be obtained by nitridation at 1273 K for 5 h. NH3 is proved to eliminate the effect of water impurity. The effects of the additives on the conversion of aluminum are also discussed. [source]

Novel way of measuring the fracture toughness of leaves and other thin films using a single inclined razor blade

Kai Yang Ang
Summary ,,A new test for measuring leaf fracture toughness by cutting with a single inclined razor blade is described here, this having been developed to overcome some of the inadequacies of conventional double-bladed cutting tests, such as scissoring and shearing. ,,The accuracy and precision of this test were determined by measuring the fracture toughness of various leaf types and homogeneous films, and comparing the results with those obtained by scissoring. ,,The new test was found to display a low friction of cutting with great precision in measurements. Fracture toughness measurements of the specimens were considerably lower for the new test than those obtained by scissoring, owing to greater blade sharpness and reduced damage to the specimens during cutting. Despite this, the rankings of fracture toughness measurements for the specimens are similar for both the new test and scissoring, thus demonstrating the test's consistency with scissoring. ,,The new test was found to be successful in measuring the fracture toughness of leaf blades and other thin, film-like materials. It was also able to overcome some of the difficulties of conventional double-bladed cutting tests, especially the estimation of energy expenditure that is extraneous to the work of cutting. [source]

On the atmospheric limitations of ground-based submillimetre astronomy using array receivers

E. N. Archibald
Abstract The calibration of ground-based submillimetre observations has always been a difficult process. We discuss how to overcome the limitations imposed by the submillimetre atmosphere. Novel ways to improve line-of-sight opacity estimates are presented, resulting in tight relations between opacities at different wavelengths. The submillimetre camera SCUBA, mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), is the first large-scale submillimetre array, and as such is ideal for combating the effects of the atmosphere. For example, we find that the off-source pixels are crucial for removing sky noise. Benefiting from several years of SCUBA operation, a data base of deep SCUBA observations has been constructed to help us understand better the nature of sky noise and the effects of the atmosphere on instrument sensitivity. This has revealed several results. First, there is evidence for positive correlations between sky noise and seeing and sky noise and sky opacity. Furthermore, 850-,m and 450-,m sky noise are clearly correlated, suggesting that 450-,m data may be used to correct 850-,m observations for sky noise. Perhaps most important of all: if off-source bolometers are used for sky noise removal, there is no correlation between instrument sensitivity and chop throw, for chop throws out to 180 arcsec. Understanding the effects of submillimetre seeing is also important, and we find that the JCMT beam is not significantly broadened by seeing, nor is there an obvious correlation between seeing and pointing excursions. [source]

Fuzzy Monte Carlo Simulation and Risk Assessment in Construction

N. Sadeghi
However, subjective and linguistically expressed information results in added non-probabilistic uncertainty in construction management. Fuzzy logic has been used successfully for representing such uncertainties in construction projects. In practice, an approach that can handle both random and fuzzy uncertainties in a risk assessment model is necessary. This article discusses the deficiencies of the available methods and proposes a Fuzzy Monte Carlo Simulation (FMCS) framework for risk analysis of construction projects. In this framework, we construct a fuzzy cumulative distribution function as a novel way to represent uncertainty. To verify the feasibility of the FMCS framework and demonstrate its main features, the authors have developed a special purpose simulation template for cost range estimating. This template is employed to estimate the cost of a highway overpass project. [source]

Semantic knowledge facilities for a web-based recipe database system supporting personalization

Liping Wang
Abstract The recent explosive proliferation of interesting and useful data over the Web such as various recipes, while providing people with readily available information, brings out a challenging issue on how to manage such non-conventional data effectively. To respond to the challenge, we have been developing a Web-based recipe database system called Dish_Master to manage recipes in a novel way, which not only covers the static recipe attributes but also elucidates the dynamic cooking behaviors. In this paper, we present several semantic knowledge facilities devised in Dish_Master, including a set of semantic modeling and knowledge constructs to effectively represent recipe data, rules and constraints, and user profile aspects. With such a rich set of semantic knowledge facilities, Dish_Master lays down a solid foundation of providing users with personalized services such as adaptation and recommendation. Users can benefit from the system's real-time consultation and automatic summarization of cuisine knowledge. The usefulness and elegance of Dish_Master are demonstrated through an experimental prototype system. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluating transformative practice in the U.S. Postal Service REDRESS program

Tina Nabatchi
Interest in transformative mediation is growing, yet there are few tools with which to assess mediators' use of the transformative model. This study presents a novel way of examining transformative mediation in practice. It triangulates data from training and screening processes and surveys of both mediators and participants to determine whether mediators in the U.S. Postal Service REDRESS program were correctly using transformative mediation. The results indicate that during the period of the study REDRESS mediators were in fact engaged in transformative practice. Such triangulation of data may be a useful approach to assessing transformative practice in other organizations. [source]

A novel method of generating neuronal cell lines from gene-knockout mice to study prion protein membrane orientation

Andrea Holme
Abstract The technology of gene knockout and transgenic mice has allowed the study of the role of genes and their proteins in animal physiology and metabolism. However, these techniques have often been found to be limited in that some genetic manipulations of mice led either to a fatal phenotype or to compensations that mask the loss of function of the target protein. The experimentation on neurons from transgenic mice is particularly critical in the study of key proteins that may be involved in neurodegeneration. The cell fusion technique has been implemented as a novel way to generate cell lines from prion protein knockout mice. Fusion between neonatal mouse neurons and a neuroblastoma cell line have led to a Prnp/ cell line that facilitates the study of the knockout phenotype. These cells are readily transfectable and allowed us to study the expression of prion protein mutants on a PrP-knockout background. Using this cell line we have examined the effect of PrP mutations reported to alter PrPc to a transmembrane form. Our results suggest that these mutations do not create transmembrane forms of the protein, but block normal transport of PrP to the cell membrane. [source]

Metabolic profiling as a tool for revealing Saccharomyces interactions during wine fermentation

Kate S. Howell
Abstract The multi-yeast strain composition of wine fermentations has been well established. However, the effect of multiple strains of Saccharomyces spp. on wine flavour is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that multiple strains of Saccharomyces grown together in grape juice can affect the profile of aroma compounds that accumulate during fermentation. A metabolic footprint of each yeast in monoculture, mixed cultures or blended wines was derived by gas chromatography , mass spectrometry measurement of volatiles accumulated during fermentation. The resultant ion spectrograms were transformed and compared by principal-component analysis. The principal-component analysis showed that the profiles of compounds present in wines made by mixed-culture fermentation were different from those where yeasts were grown in monoculture fermentation, and these differences could not be produced by blending wines. Blending of monoculture wines to mimic the population composition of mixed-culture wines showed that yeast metabolic interactions could account for these differences. Additionally, the yeast strain contribution of volatiles to a mixed fermentation cannot be predicted by the population of that yeast. This study provides a novel way to measure the population status of wine fermentations by metabolic footprinting. [source]

The recellularized liver matrix: A novel way of transplantation?,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Christer Baeck M.D
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Implicit enthalpy formulation of phase-change problems on unstructured grid

J. Caldwell
Abstract This paper presents an implicit finite-volume enthalpy formulation of the multidimensional phase-change problems involving a unique phase-change temperature. The derived formulation provides a simple method for local tracking of interface using the enthalpy variable on both structured as well as unstructured grids in a novel way. Results of economic computations of previously published problems are presented. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

GPU-accelerated boundary element method for Helmholtz' equation in three dimensions

Toru Takahashi
Abstract Recently, the application of graphics processing units (GPUs) to scientific computations is attracting a great deal of attention, because GPUs are getting faster and more programmable. In particular, NVIDIA's GPUs called compute unified device architecture enable highly mutlithreaded parallel computing for non-graphic applications. This paper proposes a novel way to accelerate the boundary element method (BEM) for three-dimensional Helmholtz' equation using CUDA. Adopting the techniques for the data caching and the double,single precision floating-point arithmetic, we implemented a GPU-accelerated BEM program for GeForce 8-series GPUs. The program performed 6,23 times faster than a normal BEM program, which was optimized for an Intel's quad-core CPU, for a series of boundary value problems with 8000,128000 unknowns, and it sustained a performance of 167,Gflop/s for the largest problem (1 058 000 unknowns). The accuracy of our BEM program was almost the same as that of the regular BEM program using the double precision floating-point arithmetic. In addition, our BEM was applicable to solve realistic problems. In conclusion, the present GPU-accelerated BEM works rapidly and precisely for solving large-scale boundary value problems for Helmholtz' equation. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Curcumin-induced fibroblast apoptosis and in vitro wound contraction are regulated by antioxidants and heme oxygenase: implications for scar formation

A. Scharstuhl
Abstract Fibroblast apoptosis plays a crucial role in normal and pathological scar formation and therefore we studied whether the putative apoptosis-inducing factor curcumin affects fibroblast apoptosis and may function as a novel therapeutic. We show that 25-,M curcumin causes fibroblast apoptosis and that this could be inhibited by co-administration of antioxidants N -acetyl- l -cysteine (NAC), biliverdin or bilirubin, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved. This is supported by our observation that 25-,M curcumin caused the generation of ROS, which could be completely blocked by addition of NAC or bilirubin. Since biliverdin and bilirubin are downstream products of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO), it has been suggested that HO-activity protects against curcumin-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, exposure to curcumin maximally induced HO-1 protein and HO-activity at 10,15 ,M, whereas, at a concentration of >20-,M curcumin HO-1-expression and HO-activity was negligible. NAC-mediated inhibition of 25-,M curcumin-induced apoptosis was demonstrated to act in part via restored HO-1-induction, since the rescuing effect of NAC could be reduced by inhibiting HO-activity. Moreover pre-induction of HO-1 using 5-,M curcumin protected fibroblasts against 25-,M curcumin-induced apoptosis. On a functional level, fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction, an in vitro wound contraction model, was completely prevented by 25-,M curcumin, while this could be reversed by co-incubation with NAC, an effect that was also partially HO-mediated. In conclusion, curcumin treatment in high doses (>25 ,M) may provide a novel way to modulate pathological scar formation through the induction of fibroblast apoptosis, while antioxidants, HO-activity and its effector molecules act as a possible fine-tuning regulator. [source]

A Novel Method for Air Drying Aloe Leaf Slices by Covering with Filter Papers as a Shrink-Proof Layer

S.A. Kim
ABSTRACT:, To prevent the shrinkage of aloe vera slices during air drying, a method utilizing a shrink-proof layer was developed. The sample was configured of whole leaf aloe slices, where 1 side or both sides were covered with filter papers as shrink-proof layers. After air drying by varying the air temperature and the slice thickness, the drying characteristics, as well as several quality factors of the dried aloe vera leaf slices, were analyzed. In the simulation of the drying curves, the modified Page model showed the best fitness, representing a diffusion-controlled drying mechanism. Nonetheless, there was a trace of a constant-rate drying period in the samples dried by the method. Shrinkage was greatly reduced, and the rehydration ratios increased by approximately 50%. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the surface structure of original fibrous form was well sustained. FT-IR characteristics showed that the dried samples could sustain aloe polysaccharide acetylation. Furthermore, the functional properties of the dried slices including water holding capacity, swelling, and fat absorption capability were improved, and polysaccharide retention levels increased by 20% to 30%. Therefore, we concluded that application of shrink-proof layers on aloe slices provides a novel way to overcome the shrinkage problems commonly found in air drying, thereby improving their functional properties with less cost. Practical Application: This research article demonstrates a novel air drying method using shrink-proof layers to prevent the shrinkage of aloe slices. We analyzed extensively the characteristics of shrinkage mechanism and physical properties of aloe flesh gels in this drying system. We concluded that this method can be a beneficial means to retain the functional properties of dried aloe, and a potential alternative to freeze drying, which is still costly. [source]

On the volume of distribution at steady state and its relationship with two-compartmental models

James W.T. Yates
Abstract The volume of distribution at steady state is considered to be one of the primary pharmacokinetic measurements obtained from in vivo experiments. This quantity is quite commonly calculated using moments of the observed concentration curve, the process being referred to as noncompartmental analysis. In this paper the underlying assumptions of noncompartmental analysis are analysed with regard to the observed behaviour of models with two compartments: one of which has elimination from the central compartment, the other from the peripheral tissue compartment. This is in order to clarify the relationship between volume of distribution and clearance. It is shown that these two models are indistinguishable from measurements in blood. Furthermore relationships between the parameter values for the two models are given so that they produce the same observed profile. Expressions are derived in a novel way that relates the volume of distribution to these model rate constants. The definitions of clearance and volume of distribution at steady state are investigated using several different mathematical techniques, demonstrating the consistency of the derived expressions. It is shown, in a manner that the authors believe is a new approach, that when the assumption of central elimination does not apply, noncompartmental analysis will under estimate the volume of distribution, whereas clearance remains unchanged. This is compared quantitatively with respect to the volume predicted where central elimination holds, and is a result of an extended mean residence time. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97:111,122, 2008 [source]

Characterization of ring-opening polymerization of genipin and pH-dependent cross-linking reactions between chitosan and genipin

Fwu-Long Mi
Abstract In this study, a novel chitosan-based polymeric network was synthesized by crosslinking with a naturally occurring crosslinking agent,genipin. The results showed that the crosslinking reactions were pH-dependent. Under basic conditions, genipin underwent a ring-opening polymerization prior to crosslinking with chitosan. The crosslink bridges consisted of polymerized genipin macromers or oligomers (7 , 88 monomer units). This ring-opening polymerization of genipin was initiated by extracting proton from the hydroxyl groups at C-1 of deoxyloganin aglycone, followed by opening the dihydropyran ring to conduct an aldol condensation. At neutral and acidic conditions, genipin reacted with primary amino groups on chitosan to form heterocyclic amines. The heterocyclic amines were further associated to form crosslinked networks with short chains of dimmer, trimer, and tetramer bridges. An accompanied reaction of nucleophilic substitution of the ester group on genipin by the primary amine group on chitosan would occur in the presence of an acid catalysis. The extent in which chitosan gels crosslinked with genipin was significantly dependent on the crosslinking pH values: 39.9 3.8% at pH 5.0, 96.0 1.9% at pH 7.4, 45.4 1.8% at pH 9.0, and 1.4 1.0% at pH 13.6 (n = 5, p < 0.05). Owing to the different crosslinking extents and different chain lengths of crosslink bridges, the genipin-crosslinked chitosan gels showed significant difference in their swelling capability and their resistance against enzymatic hydrolysis, depending on the pH conditions for crosslinking. These results indicated a direct relationship between the mode of crosslinking reaction, and the swelling and enzymatic hydrolysis properties of the genipin-crosslinked chitosan gels. The ring-opening polymerization of genipin and the pH-dependent crosslinking reactions may provide a novel way for the preparation and exploitation of chitosan-based gels for biomedical applications. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1985,2000, 2005 [source]

Modelling price paths in on-line auctions: smoothing sparse and unevenly sampled curves by using semiparametric mixed models

Florian Reithinger
Summary., On-line auctions pose many challenges for the empirical researcher, one of which is the effective and reliable modelling of price paths. We propose a novel way of modelling price paths in eBay's on-line auctions by using functional data analysis. One of the practical challenges is that the functional objects are sampled only very sparsely and unevenly. Most approaches rely on smoothing to recover the underlying functional object from the data, which can be difficult if the data are irregularly distributed. We present a new approach that can overcome this challenge. The approach is based on the ideas of mixed models. Specifically, we propose a semiparametric mixed model with boosting to recover the functional object. As well as being able to handle sparse and unevenly distributed data, the model also results in conceptually more meaningful functional objects. In particular, we motivate our method within the framework of eBay's on-line auctions. On-line auctions produce monotonic increasing price curves that are often correlated across auctions. The semiparametric mixed model accounts for this correlation in a parsimonious way. It also manages to capture the underlying monotonic trend in the data without imposing model constraints. Our application shows that the resulting functional objects are conceptually more appealing. Moreover, when used to forecast the outcome of an on-line auction, our approach also results in more accurate price predictions compared with standard approaches. We illustrate our model on a set of 183 closed auctions for Palm M515 personal digital assistants. [source]

Magnitude image CSPAMM reconstruction (MICSR)

Moriel NessAiver
Abstract Image reconstruction of tagged cardiac MR images using complementary spatial modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM) requires the subtraction of two complex datasets to remove the untagged signal. Although the resultant images typically have sharper and more persistent tags than images formed without complementary tagging pulses, handling the complex data is problematic and tag contrast still degrades significantly during diastole. This article presents a magnitude image CSPAMM reconstruction (MICSR) method that is simple to implement and produces images with improved contrast and tag persistence. The MICSR method uses only magnitude images , i.e., no complex data , but yields tags with zero mean, sinusoidal profiles. A trinary display of MICSR images emphasizes their long tag persistence and demonstrates a novel way to visualize myocardial deformation. MICSR contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were evaluated using simulations, a phantom, and two normal volunteers. Tag contrast 1000 msec after the R wave trigger was 3.0 times better with MICSR than with traditional CSPAMM reconstruction techniques, while CNRs were 2.0 times better. Magn Reson Med 50:331,342, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Detection and climatology of fronts in a high-resolution model reanalysis over the Alps

J. Jenkner
Abstract The identification of low-level thermal fronts is particularly challenging in high-resolution model fields over complex terrain. Firstly, direct model output often contains numerical noise which spuriously influences the high-frequency variability of thermal parameters. Secondly, the boundary layer interferes via convection and consequently leaves its thermal marks on low levels. Here, an automated objective method for the detection of frontal lines is introduced which is designed to be insusceptible to consequences of small grid spacings. To this end, existing algorithms are readopted and combined in a novel way. The overall technique subdivides into a basic detection of fronts and a supplemental division into local fronts and synoptic fronts. The fundamental parts of the detection are: (1) a smoothing of the initial fields, (2) a definition of the frontal strength, and, (3) a localisation with the thermal front parameter. The local fronts are identified by means of a classification of open and closed thermal contours. The resulting data comprise the spatial outline of the frontal structures in a binary field as well as their type and movement. The novel methodology is applied to a 3 year high-resolution reanalysis over central Europe computed with the COSMO model using a grid spacing of 7 km. Grid-point based climatologies are derived for the Alpine region. Frequencies of occurrence and characteristics of motion are analysed for different frontal types. The novel climatology also provides quantitative evidence of dynamical properties such as the retardation of cold fronts ahead of mountains and the dissolution of warm fronts over mountains. Copyright 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Active measurements of a mimo WiMAX-OFDM based system in reverberation chambers

Adil Belhouji
Abstract Electromagnetic reverberation chambers can be used for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems testing.Currently, the tests focus on parameters such as correlation, diversity gain, efficiency, etc., by using a vector network analyzer. In contrast with these passive tests, a novel way of MIMO systems characterization is described in this article. It consists on evaluating bit error rate (BER) levels of a MIMO WiMAX-OFDM system according to the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) by establishing an active link between the transmitter and the receiver. The measurement process is set up in a reverberation chamber, where multipath frequency selective channels are emulated. The obtained results are compared to a reference case with single-input single-output (SISO) to evaluate the real improvements made by the studied system. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52:2347,2352, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.25465 [source]

Generic cuts in models of arithmetic

Richard Kaye
Abstract We present some general results concerning the topological space of cuts of a countable model of arithmetic given by a particular indicator Y. The notion of "indicator" is de.ned in a novel way, without initially specifying what property is indicated and is used to a topological space of cuts of the model. Various familiar properties of cuts (strength, regularity, saturation, coding properties) are investigated in this sense, and several results are given stating whether or not the set of cuts having the property is comeagre. A new notion of "generic cut" is introduced and investigated and it is shown in the case of countable arithmetically saturated models M , PA that generic cuts exist, indeed the set of generic cuts is comeagre in the sense of Baire, and furthermore that two generic cuts within the same "small interval" of the model are conjugate by an automorphism of the model. The paper concludes by outlining some applications to constructions of cuts satisfying properties incompatible with genericity, and discussing in model-theoretic terms those properties for which there is an indicator Y. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Risk of drug-related problems for various antibiotics in hospital: assessment by use of a novel method,

Hege Salvesen Blix MSc
Abstract Purpose To investigate the use of antibiotics in hospitals, to explore drug-related problems (DRPs) linked to antibiotics and to introduce a novel way of expressing the risks accompanying use of various antibiotics. Methods Patients from internal medicine departments in four Norwegian hospitals were prospectively included in 2002. Demographics, drugs used, medical history, laboratory data and clinical/pharmacological risk factors were recorded. DRPs were identified by clinical pharmacists and assessed in multidisciplinary hospital teams. A new term, the drug risk ratio, was established and defined as the number of times the antibiotic was associated with DRPs in relation to the number of times it was used. Results Out of the 668 patients included, 283 patients (42%) used antibiotics (AB users). AB users were older (76.2 vs. 73.9), used more drugs on admission (5.1 vs. 4.4) and had more DRPs (3.0 vs. 2.2) than non-users. The DRP categories no further need for drug, non-optimal drug and non-optimal dose were most frequently observed. The drug risk ratio, calculated for 12 antibiotic groups, was highest for aminoglycosides (0.77), , -lactamase-resistant penicillins (0.56), macrolides (0.54) and quinolones (0.48) and lowest for first- and third-generation cephalosporins, 0.17 and 0.13, respectively. Conclusions Nearly half of the hospitalised patients were prescribed antibiotics and antibiotic associated DRPs occurred frequently. The drug risk ratio for the different antibiotic groups varied with a factor of six from the lowest to the highest. A high drug risk ratio would alert of antibiotics which require heightened awareness when going to be used in clinical practice. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Efficiency enhancement of 400 nm violet LEDs utilizing island-like GaN thick film by HVPE technology

Jenq-Dar Tsay
Abstract In this study, we develop a novel way to fabricate InGaN/GaN LED chips with special shape for improving the output power. Crack-free shaped GaN islands were first prepared on c-axis sapphire substrate by using HVPE selective area growth. By doing so, GaN islands with flat top surface and inclined side faces are obtained. Then, the InGaN/GaN LED structure was grown on the top surface of the GaN island subsequently. The output powers of the p-side up and the p-side down shaped LED chip are 1.4 and 2.2 times the output power of the cubic chip, respectively. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

An integrated serum proteomic approach capable of monitoring the low molecular weight proteome with sequencing of intermediate to large peptides

Karen Merrell
The low-abundance, low molecular weight serum proteome has high potential for the discovery of new biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS). Because the serum proteome is large and complex, defining relative quantitative differences for a molecular species between comparison groups requires an approach with robust separation capability, high sensitivity, as well as high mass resolution. Capillary liquid chromatography (cLC)/MS provides both the necessary separation technique and the sensitivity to observe many low-abundance peptides. Subsequent identification of potential serum peptide biomarkers observed in the cLC/MS step can in principle be accomplished by in series cLC/MS/MS without further sample preparation or additional instrumentation. In this report a novel cLC/MS/MS method for peptide sequencing is described that surpasses previously reported size limits for amino acid sequencing accomplished by collisional fragmentation using a tandem time-of-flight MS instrument. As a demonstration of the approach, two low-abundance peptides with masses of ,4000,5000,Da were selected for MS/MS sequencing. The multi-channel analyzer (MCA) was used in a novel way that allowed for summation of 120 fragmentation spectra for each of several customized collision energies, providing more thorough fragmentation coverage of each peptide with improved signal to noise. The peak list from this composite analysis was submitted to Mascot for identification. The two index peptides, 4279,Da and 5061,Da, were successfully identified. The peptides were a 39 amino acid immunoglobulin G heavy chain variable region fragment and a 47 amino acid fibrin alpha isoform C-terminal fragment. The method described here provides the ability both to survey thousands of serum molecules and to couple that with markedly enhanced cLC/MS/MS peptide sequencing capabilities, providing a promising technique for serum biomarker discovery. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Explaining The Shakeout Process: A ,Successive Submarkets' Model,

Jian Tong
This article explains contemporaneous exit and entry in a new industry with a diffusion process across submarkets. It allows a re-interpretation of the shakeout process in some industries in a novel way. The industry is a collection of initially inactive independent submarkets; the timing of their activation is determined by an exogenous aggregate diffusion process. New submarket opening attracts new entry. However, the post-entry endogenous sunk investment requirement induced by innovations also forces much exit to follow entry. The aggregate market thus has overlapping exit and entry; and has a shakeout if the aggregate diffusion process follows a typical S-shape. [source]

A Fourier optics approach to the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction , continuously deformed crystals

Giovanni Mana
X-ray diffraction in continuously deformed crystals is considered by application of Fourier optics and from the viewpoint of the analogy between X-ray dynamics and the motion of two-level systems in quantum mechanics. Different forms of Takagi's equations are traced back to a common framework and it is shown that they are different ways to represent the same propagation equation. A novel way to solve Takagi's equations in the presence of a constant strain gradient is presented and approximation methods derived from quantum mechanics are considered. Crystal deformation in X-ray interferometry and two-crystal spectrometry are discussed and it is demonstrated that Si lattice-parameter measurements depend on the diffracting plane spacing on the crystal surface. [source]

Measuring attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities

Lisa Ishii MD
Abstract Objectives: Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention. Methods: The SMI eye-tracker system (SensoMotoric Inc., Boston, MA) was used to record the eye movement patterns, called scanpaths, of eight nave observers gazing at pictures of faces with or without peripheral surgical deformities. The scanpaths of observers gazing on those novel faces were compared, and the fixation durations for different facial regions were compared between faces. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean fixation times between the faces considered normal and those considered abnormal (those with an obvious defect). When multivariate analysis of variance was performed with dependent variables total fixation time, fixation time in central triangle, and fixation time in the defect region and the independent variable face, all four tests were highly statistically significant. When univariate analysis of variance was performed to test the hypothesis that defect fixation times varied by face, the results were highly statistically significant (F = 8.79, P = .0003). Conclusions: Observers gazing on faces typically focus their attention on discriminating features, such as eyes, nose, and mouth. The well-established method of eye movement recordings was applied in a novel way to provide quantitative data showing changes in observer gaze patterns to focus on deformities. These gaze patterns are a direct reflection of observer attention. This is the first objective method to quantify the amount of distraction caused by peripheral facial deformities and may provide insight into the perception of facial deformity. Laryngoscope, 119:459,465, 2009 [source]

A-Legality: Postnationalism and the Question of Legal Boundaries

Hans Lindahl
This paper critically examines the prevailing assumption that legal boundaries are becoming irrelevant in postnationalism. While the boundaries of the nation-state are forfeiting some of their hold on human behaviour, postnational legal orders are simply not legal orders unless they can in some way draw the spatial, temporal, material and subjective boundaries that make it possible to qualify human behaviour as legal or illegal. This implies that reflexively constituted legal orders , whether national or postnational , must be presented as legal unities. To the extent that boundaries are the necessary condition of national and postnational legal orders, and therewith of legal unity, they also spawn the possibility of political plurality, manifested in behaviour that resists the very distinction between legality and illegality, as drawn by an order of positive law: a-legality. Rather than signalling the demise of legal boundaries, postnationalism ushers in a novel way of dealing therewith , and with a-legality. [source]

Fluoride catalyzed rearrangements of polysilsesquioxanes, mixed Me, vinyl T8, Me, vinyl T10 and T12 cages

M. Ronchi
Abstract Insoluble mixtures of polyvinylsilsesquioxane, -(vinylSiO1.5)n - PVS, and polymethylsilsesquioxanes, -(MeSiO1.5)n - PMS, in THF at ambient when treated with catalytic amounts (1,5 mol%) of fluoride ion introduced as tBu4 NF will depolymerize and dissolve. The resulting soluble species consist of [vinylxMe8,x(SiO1.5)]8, [vinylxMe8,x(SiO1.5)]10 and [vinylxMe8,x(SiO1.5)]12. Ratios of 1:1 of PVS:PMS greatly favor formation of vinyl rich cages. Only at ratios of 1:5 are the proportions of vinyl:Me in the cages approximately equal. Of the T8, T10 and T12 species produced, all conditions tried, including changing the solvent to EtOH or toluene or at reflux (THF), favor the formation of the larger cages sometimes completely excluding formation of the T8 materials. Efforts to isolate the cage compounds by removal of solvent regenerates polysilsesquioxanes, albeit those containing mixtures of Me and vinyl groups. Introduction of CaCl2 sufficient to form CaF2 prior to workup prevents repolymerization, allowing recovery of the mixed cage systems. The approach developed here provides a novel way to form mixed functional group silsesquioxane cages. The fact that T10 and T12 cage formation is favored appears to suggest that these cages are more stable than the traditionally produced T8 cages. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction in the Tazhong District, Tarim Basin, Northeast China: Evidence from Formation Water and Natural Gas Geochemistry

Abstract: Systematic analyses of the formation water and natural gas geochemistry in the Central Uplift of the Tarim Basin (CUTB) show that gas invasion at the late stage is accompanied by an increase of the contents of H2S and CO2 in natural gas, by the forming of the high total dissolved solids formation water, by an increase of the content of HCO,3, relative to Cl,, by an increase of the 2nd family ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+) and by a decrease of the content of SO2,4, relative to Cl,. The above phenomena can be explained only by way of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). TSR often occurs in the transition zone of oil and water and is often described in the following reaction formula: ,CH+CaSO4+H- 2O,H2S+CO2+CaCO3. (1) Dissolved SO2,4 in the formation water is consumed in the above reaction, when H2S and CO2 are generated, resulting in a decrease of SO2,4 in the formation water and an increase of both H2S and CO2 in the natural gas. If formation water exists, the generated CO2 will go on reacting with the carbonate to form bicarbonate, which can be dissolved in the formation water, thus resulting in the enrichment of Ca2+ and HCO,3. The above reaction can be described by the following equation: CO2+H2O+CaCO3,Ca2++2HCO,3. The stratigraphic temperatures of the Cambrian and lower Ordovician in CUTB exceeded 120C, which is the minimum for TSR to occur. At the same time, dolomitization, which might be a direct result of TSR, has been found in both the Cambrian and the lower Ordovician. The above evidence indicates that TSR is in an active reaction, providing a novel way to reevaluate the exploration potentials of natural gas in this district. [source]