Novel Use (novel + use)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Novel Use of a Magnetic Coupling Device to Repair Damage of the Internal Thoracic Artery

Alexandros Charitou M.D., F.R.C.S.
The device has been primarily used to perform distal coronary anastomoses. We report for the first time the novel use of this magnetic coupling device as a technique to repair iatrogenic injury of the left internal thoracic artery conduit. Technical issues, advantages, disadvantages, and the use of computer tomography angiogram for assessment of the anastomosis are discussed. [source]

Novel Use of N-Benzoyl-N,O-acetals as N-Acylimine Equivalents in Asymmetric Heterocycloaddition: An Extended Enantioselective Pathway to ,-Benzamido Aldehydes.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 39 2003
Patricia Gizecki
Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

ChemInform Abstract: Novel Use of Ring Strain to Control Regioselectivity: Alkene-Directed, Palladium-Catalyzed Allylation.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 4 2002
Marie E. Krafft
Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

Direct Visualization of Deformation in Volumes

Stef Busking
Abstract Deformation is a topic of interest in many disciplines. In particular in medical research, deformations of surfaces and even entire volumetric structures are of interest. Clear visualization of such deformations can lead to important insight into growth processes and progression of disease. We present new techniques for direct focus+context visualization of deformation fields representing transformations between pairs of volumetric datasets. Typically, such fields are computed by performing a non-rigid registration between two data volumes. Our visualization is based on direct volume rendering and uses the GPU to compute and interactively visualize features of these deformation fields in real-time. We integrate visualization of the deformation field with visualization of the scalar volume affected by the deformations. Furthermore, we present a novel use of texturing in volume rendered visualizations to show additional properties of the vector field on surfaces in the volume. [source]

Opposite shell-coiling morphs of the tropical land snail Amphidromus martensi show no spatial-scale effects

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2006
Paul G. Craze
Much can be learned about evolution from the identification of those factors maintaining polymorphisms in natural populations. One polymorphism that is only partially understood occurs in land snail species where individuals may coil clockwise or anti-clockwise. Theory shows that polymorphism in coiling direction should not persist yet species in several unrelated groups of land snails occur in stably polymorphic populations. A solution to this paradox may advance our understanding of evolution in general. Here, we examine two possible explanations: firstly, negative frequency-dependent selection due to predation; secondly, random fixation of alternative coiling morphs in tree-sized demes, giving the impression of wider polymorphism. We test these hypotheses by investigating morph-clustering of empty shells at two spatial scales in Amphidromus martensi populations in northern Borneo: the spatial structure of snail populations is relatively easy to estimate and this information may support one or other of the hypotheses under test. For the smaller scale we make novel use of a statistic previously used in botanical studies (the K-function statistic), which allows clustering of more than one morph to be simultaneously investigated at a range of scales and which we have corrected for anisotropy. We believe this method could be of more general use to ecologists. The results show that consistent clustering or separation of morphs cannot be clearly detected at any spatial scale and that predation is not frequency-dependent. Alternative explanations that do not require strong spatial structuring of the population may be needed, for instance ones involving a mechanism of selection actively maintaining the polymorphism. [source]

Topical use of tranexamic acid to control perioperative local bleeding in gynaecology patients with clotting disorders: two cases

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2007
Summary., Operating on patients with abnormal coagulation is a challenge frequently faced by surgeons. Achieving haemostasis perioperatively can involve bleeding points that would not ordinarily present a problem with intact clotting function. Here we present two women with localised wound bleeding following a gynaecological surgery in the presence of a clotting disorder. Haemostasis was successfully achieved with tropical use of tranexamic acid. These two cases illustrate a novel use for this antifibrinolytic agent. We suggest that there is a role for topical use of tranexamic acid in perioperative haemostasis in patients with clotting disorders. [source]

Siloxane Copolymers for Nanoimprint Lithography,

P. Choi
Abstract Presented here is the novel use of thermoplastic siloxane copolymers as nanoimprint lithography (NIL) resists for 60,nm features. Two of the most critical steps of NIL are mold release and pattern transfer through dry etching. These require that the NIL resist have low surface energy and excellent dry-etching resistance. Homopolymers traditionally used in NIL, such as polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), generally cannot satisfy all these requirements as they exhibit polymer fracture and delamination during mold release and have poor etch resistance. A number of siloxane copolymers have been investigated for use as NIL resists, including poly(dimethylsiloxane)- block -polystyrene (PDMS- b -PS), poly(dimethylsiloxane)- graft -poly(methyl acrylate)- co -poly(isobornyl acrylate) (PDMS- g -PMA- co -PIA), and PDMS- g -PMMA. The presence of PDMS imparts the materials with many properties that are favorable for NIL, including low surface energy for easy mold release and high silicon content for chemical-etch resistance,in particular, extremely low etch rates (comparable to PDMS) in oxygen plasma, to which organic polymers are quite susceptible. These properties give improved NIL results. [source]

Hippocampal contribution to the novel use of relational information in declarative memory

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2004
Alison R. Preston
First page of article [source]

Novel Use of a Magnetic Coupling Device to Repair Damage of the Internal Thoracic Artery

Alexandros Charitou M.D., F.R.C.S.
The device has been primarily used to perform distal coronary anastomoses. We report for the first time the novel use of this magnetic coupling device as a technique to repair iatrogenic injury of the left internal thoracic artery conduit. Technical issues, advantages, disadvantages, and the use of computer tomography angiogram for assessment of the anastomosis are discussed. [source]

Novel Imaging Techniques of the Esophagus Enhancing Safety of Left Atrial Ablation

This report describes different imaging techniques of the esophagus in four patients during radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in the left atrium. A novel use of a mixture of barium cream and gadolinium diglutamate allowed esophageal imaging during magnetic resonance angiography of the left atrium and pulmonary veins. Barium cream used during computer tomography angiographic imaging of the left atrium and pulmonary veins allowed esophageal imaging. The esophagus was also imaged with an electroanatomic mapping system. Esophageal and left atrial imaging helped to avoid catheter ablation in left atrial tissue overlapping the esophagus. [source]

Esophageal cancer: Outcomes of surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and three-dimension conformal radiotherapy

FRCS(C), Éric Fréchette MD
Abstract Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are being utilized with increasing frequency in the multimodal treatment of esophageal cancer, although their effects on morbidity, mortality, and survival remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of multimodal treatment in patients with localized esophageal cancer treated at a single institution. Between 1995 and 2002, 118 patients underwent treatment for localized esophageal cancer, utilizing surgery alone, chemoradiation alone, or surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity, mortality, or length of stay between the patients who received multimodal therapy when compared to surgery alone. A surgical resection after down-staging was possible in 9 out of 28 patients (32%) with a clinically non-resectable tumor (T4 or M1a). Forty-seven percent of the patients who received neoadjuvant therapy had a complete pathologic response with a 3-year survival of 59% as compared to only 20 months in those patients who did not achieve a complete response (P,=,0.037). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered concomitantly with conformal radiotherapy can be performed safely in the treatment of esophageal cancer, without increasing the operative morbidity, mortality, or length of stay. The higher complete response rates to neoadjuvant treatment (as compared to other reports) may be due to the use of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or the novel use of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. J. Surg. Oncol. 2004;87:68,74. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Depth-Resolved Porosity Investigation of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Using High-Energy X-rays

Anand A. Kulkarni
Demands for designing prime reliant, energy-efficient, and high-performance thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbines have led to a growing interest toward comprehensive microstructural characterization. Here we investigate the novel use of high-energy X-rays for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), together with wide-angle scattering and radiography, for the depth-resolved characterization of TBCs grown by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coating microstructure is found to consist of columns perpendicular to the substrate, extending through the thickness, with a [001] growth texture and significant intercolumnar porosity. In addition, overshadowing effects during deposition together with gas entrapment give rise to nanoscale intracolumnar porosity consisting of featherlike and globular pores. Radiography showed an increase in the total porosity, from 15% near the substrate to 25% near the coating surface, which is ascribed to an increase in the intercolumnar spacing at the top of the coating. By contrast, the small-angle scattering studies, which are sensitive to fine features, showed the pore internal surface area to be greatest near the substrate. [source]

Voltage-induced morphological modifications in oocyte membranes containing exogenous K+ channels studied by electrochemical scanning force microscopy

Andrea Alessandrini
Abstract We report on a novel use of electrochemical scanning force microscopy (SFM) for the investigation of morphological modifications occurring in plasma membranes containing voltage-gated ion channels, on membrane potential variation. Membrane patches of Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with exogenous KAT1 cRNA, deposited by a stripping method at the surface of a derivatized gold film in inside-out configuration, have been imaged by SFM in an electrochemical cell. A potentiostat was used to maintain a desired potential drop across the membrane. Performing imaging at potential values corresponding to open (,120 mV) and closed (+20 mV) states for KAT1, morphological differences in localized sample zones were observed. Particularly, cross-shaped features involving a significant membrane portion appear around putative channel locations. The reported approach constitutes the first demonstration of an SPM-based experimental technique suitable to investigate the rearrangements occurring to the plasma membrane containing voltage-gated channels on transmembrane potential variation. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Phage display selection of efficient glutamine-donor substrate peptides for transglutaminase 2

PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 11 2006
Zsolt Keresztessy
Abstract Understanding substrate specificity and identification of natural targets of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), the ubiquitous multifunctional cross-linking enzyme, which forms isopeptide bonds between protein-linked glutamine and lysine residues, is crucial in the elucidation of its physiological role. As a novel means of specificity analysis, we adapted the phage display technique to select glutamine-donor substrates from a random heptapeptide library via binding to recombinant TG2 and elution with a synthetic amine-donor substrate. Twenty-six Gln-containing sequences from the second and third biopanning rounds were susceptible for TG2-mediated incorporation of 5-(biotinamido)penthylamine, and the peptides GQQQTPY, GLQQASV, and WQTPMNS were modified most efficiently. A consensus around glutamines was established as pQX(P,T,S)l, which is consistent with identified substrates listed in the TRANSDAB database. Database searches showed that several proteins contain peptides similar to the phage-selected sequences, and the N-terminal glutamine-rich domain of SWI1/SNF1-related chromatin remodeling proteins was chosen for detailed analysis. MALDI/TOF and tandem mass spectrometry-based studies of a representative part of the domain, SGYGQQGQTPYYNQQSPHPQQQQPPYS (SnQ1), revealed that Q6, Q8, and Q22 are modified by TG2. Kinetic parameters of SnQ1 transamidation (KMapp = 250 ,M, kcat = 18.3 sec,1, and kcat/KMapp = 73,200) classify it as an efficient TG2 substrate. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that SnQ1 has a random coil conformation, supporting its accessibility in the full-length parental protein. Added together, here we report a novel use of the phage display technology with great potential in transglutaminase research. [source]

Some notes on poisson limits for empirical point processes

André Dabrowski
Abstract The authors define the scaled empirical point process. They obtain the weak limit of these point processes through a novel use of a dimension-free method based on the convergence of compensators of multiparameter martingales. The method extends previous results in several directions. They obtain limits at points where the density may be zero, but has regular variation. The joint limit of the empirical process evaluated at distinct points is given by independent Poisson processes. They provide applications both to nearest-neighbour density estimation in high dimensions, and to the asymptotic behaviour of multivariate extremes such as those arising from bivariate normal copulas. The Canadian Journal of Statistics 37: 347,360; 2009 © 2009 Statistical Society of Canada Les auteurs définissent un processus ponctuel empirique normalisé. Ils obtiennent une limite faible de ces processus ponctuels grâce à l'utilisation novatrice d'une méthode indépendante de la dimension basée sur la convergence des compensateurs de martingales à plusieurs paramètres. La méthode généralise des résultats précédents de différentes façons. Ils obtiennent des limites à des points où la densité peut être égale à 0, mais qui est à variation régulière. La limite conjointe du processus empirique évalué à des points distincts est représentée par des processus de Poisson indépendants. Les auteurs présentent deux applications, l'une sur l'estimation de densité de dimension élevée basée sur le plus proche voisin et l'autre sur le comportement asymptotique des extrêmes multidimensionnels provenant de copules normales bidimensionnelles. La revue canadienne de statistique 37: 347,360; 2009 © 2009 Société statistique du Canada [source]

Closed-loop feedback computer-controlled infusion of phenylephrine for maintaining blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: a preliminary descriptive study,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2007
W. D. Ngan Kee
Summary We describe the novel use of a closed-loop feedback computer-controlled infusion of phenylephrine for maintaining blood pressure in 53 patients having spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. A simple on,off algorithm was used that activated an intravenous phenylephrine infusion at 100 ,g.min,1 when systolic blood pressure was less than or equal to baseline and stopped the infusion when systolic blood pressure exceeded baseline. Up to uterine incision, 94.6% of all systolic blood pressure measurements were within the range (baseline ± 20%). Seven patients (13.2%) had one or more episodes of hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 80% of baseline) and 23 patients (37.7%) had one or more episodes of hypertension (systolic blood pressure >,120% of baseline). No patient had nausea or vomiting and in no case was umbilical arterial blood pH < 7.2. Calculated system performance parameters were comparable with those of previously published closed-loop systems and provide a reference for the potential development and comparison of more advanced algorithms. [source]

Order,disorder transition in monoclinic sulfur: a precise structural study by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction

W. I. F. David
High-resolution neutron powder diffraction has been used in order to characterize the order,disorder transition in monoclinic cyclo-octasulphur. Rapid data collection and the novel use of geometrically constrained refinements has enabled a direct and precise determination of the order parameter, based on molecular site occupancies, to be made. The transition is critical and continuous; with a transition temperature, Tc = 198.4,(3),K, and a critical exponent, , = 0.28,(3), which is indicative of three-dimensional ordering. Difficulties encountered as a consequence of the low thermal conductivity of the sample are discussed. [source]

A novel use for the ProSeal laryngeal mask

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2003
S Green
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

William T. Watson
Acyl-homoserine- l -lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S -­adenosyl- l -methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P43, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33,Å. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5,Å and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified. [source]

A novel use of the testis after radical inguinal lymphadenectomy

J.J. Elkabir
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Tetramer-blocking assay for defining antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using peptide-MHC tetramer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
Hiroshi Yokouchi
Peptide-MHC tetramers have been engineered to allow accurate detection of antigen-specific cytotoxic C lymphocytes (CTL) by flow cytometry. Here, we propose a novel use for peptide-MHC tetramers in the specific and sensitive analysis of the cytotoxic function of antigen-specific CTL by blocking MHC-restricted antigen-specific cytotoxicity. We found that pretreatment of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+ CTL (OT-1 CTL), derived from OT-1 T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mice, with OVA257,264 peptide-H-2Kb tetramer caused a marked inhibition of the cytotoxicity against OVA-expressing EG-7 tumor cells. OVA257,264 peptide-H-2Kb tetramer did not block the cytotoxicity mediated by 2C mouse (H-2b)-derived CD8+ CTL, which recognize allo (H-2Ld) antigens. Moreover, OT-I CTL activity was not inhibited by an irrelevant HBV208,216 peptide-H-2Kb tetramer. These results indicate that the blocking of CTL activity with peptide-MHC tetramer was caused by interference with the interaction between the TCR and H-2Kb -OVA257,264 peptide complex, but not with the CD8-MHC class I interaction. The blocking activity of OVA257,264 peptide-H-2Kb tetramer was reversible because OT-I CTL pretreated with the tetramer recovered their cytotoxicity after culturing with interleukin-2 for 24 h. The same results were also demonstrated in freshly isolated, in vivo -primed OT-1 CTL sorted by the tetramer. These results demonstrate that peptide-MHC tetramer is a useful tool for defining MHC-restricted antigen-specific CTL function. Moreover, our finding implies that the measurement of CTL activity immediately after tetramer-guided sorting is not a suitable method for evaluating the function of in vivo -induced tetramer-positive CTL. We believe that the tetramer-blocking assay presented here will be useful for functionally monitor the induction of MHC-restricted antigen-specific CTL during vaccination therapy against tumor and infectious diseases. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 148 ,154) [source]

Struggling to get a universal meningococcal vaccine and novel uses for bacterial toxins in cancer treatment

Craig Daniels
No abstract is available for this article. [source]