Novel Therapeutic Strategies (novel + therapeutic_strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Foot temperature in diabetic polyneuropathy: innocent bystander or unrecognized accomplice?

S. B. Rutkove
Abstract Aim To explore mechanisms by which temperature could influence the pathogenesis and symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a literature review attempting to identify mechanisms by which diabetic polyneuropathy could be affected by temperature. Results Cooling can theoretically hasten the progression of diabetic polyneuropathy through several different mechanisms. Specifically, cooling can enhance neuronal ischaemia, increase formation of reactive oxygen species, slow axonal transport, increase protein kinase C activity, and interfere with immune function. Short-term temperature fluctuations (both warming and cooling) can initiate and exacerbate neuropathic pain by causing neuronal hyperexcitability and functional deafferentation. Although normal fluctuations of distal extremity temperature may be sufficient for these effects, impaired thermoregulation may make the distal extremities more susceptible to temperature extremes. Eventually, a ,vicious cycle' may ensue, resulting in neuronal deterioration with further disruption of temperature regulation. Limited epidemiological data suggest a higher prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy in populations living in colder locations, supporting our hypothesis. Conclusions Variations in foot temperature may play an important but as yet unrecognized role in the development and symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy. Further basic and clinical research exploring this concept could help elucidate the natural history of diabetic polyneuropathy and lead to novel therapeutic strategies. [source]

Molecular Neuropathology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Complementary Approaches in Animal Models and Human Disease Tissue

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2007
Michael Majores
Summary:, Patients with temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) frequently develop pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic treatment. In individuals with drug-refractory TLE, neurosurgical removal of the epileptogenic focus provides a therapy option with high potential for seizure control. Biopsy specimens from TLE patients constitute unique tissue resources to gain insights in neuropathological and molecular alterations involved in human TLE. Compared to human tissue specimens in most neurological diseases, where only autopsy material is available, the bioptic tissue samples from pharmacoresistant TLE patients open rather exceptional preconditions for molecular biological, electrophysiological as well as biochemical experimental approaches in human brain tissue, which cannot be carried out in postmortem material. Pathological changes in human TLE tissue are multiple and relate to structural and cellular reorganization of the hippocampal formation, selective neurodegeneration, and acquired changes of expression and distribution of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, underlying modified neuronal excitability. Nevertheless, human TLE tissue specimens have some limitations. For obvious reasons, human TLE tissue samples are only available from advanced, drug-resistant stages of the disease. However, in many patients, a transient episode of status epilepticus (SE) or febrile seizures in childhood can induce multiple structural and functional alterations that after a latency period result in a chronic epileptic condition. This latency period, also referred to as epileptogenesis, cannot be studied in human TLE specimens. TLE animal models may be particularly helpful in order to shed characterize new molecular pathomechanisms related to epileptogenesis and open novel therapeutic strategies for TLE. Here, we will discuss experimental approaches to unravel molecular,neuropathological aspects of TLE and highlight characteristics and potential of molecular studies in human and/or experimental TLE. [source]

New approaches in the immunotherapy of haematological malignancies

Régis T. Costello
Abstract: Advances in the management of haematological malignancies have allowed to obtain improved remission rates. Nonetheless, relapses impair these results and justify the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Clinical data demonstrate that the immune system plays an important role in the control of haematological malignancies. An increased frequency of haematological malignancies is observed in immunodeficiency states. Reversal of the immunosuppression is sometimes sufficient to induce tumour regression (withdrawal of cyclosporine in post-transplant lymphoproliferations, highly active anti-retroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus related Kaposi's disease). Another line of evidence for the involvement of the immune system in the anti-tumour response comes from the observation of spontaneous anti-tumour responses that parallel the occurrence of paraneoplastic immune-mediated syndromes. Finally, the efficiency of allogeneic transplantation in the haematological field has been clearly demonstrated to depend on the immune-mediated graft vs. leukaemia effect. Nonetheless, tumours develop in immune competent patients because of various tumour escape mechanisms, such as loss of human leucocyte antigen class I antigens, absence of target recognition by deficient adhesion/co-stimulatory molecule expression, tumour cell counterattack against immune effectors, direct (contact-dependent) or indirect (cytokine-mediated) impairment of T-lymphocyte activation. Novel immunotherapy approaches are now orientated in a convergent direction, i.e. the reversal of immune escape mechanisms either via the correction of deficient phases of the immune response or by the amplification of physiological mechanisms. [source]

Polyamines and hair: a couple in search of perfection

Yuval Ramot
Please cite this paper as: Polyamines and hair: a couple in search of perfection. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: 784,790. Abstract:, Polyamines (spermidine, putrescine and spermine) are multifunctional cationic amines that are indispensable for cellular proliferation; of key significance in the growth of rapidly regenerating tissues and tumors. Given that the hair follicle (HF) is one of the most highly proliferative organs in mammalian biology, it is not surprising that polyamines are crucial to HF growth. Indeed, growing (anagen) HFs show the highest activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, while inhibition of ODC, using eflornithine, results in a decreased rate of excessive facial hair growth in vivo and inhibits human scalp hair growth in organ culture. In sheep, manipulation of dietary intake of polyamines also results in altered wool growth. Polyamine-containing nutraceuticals have therefore been proposed as promoters of human hair growth. Recent progress in polyamine research, coupled with renewed interest in the role of polyamines in skin biology, encourages one to revisit their potential roles in HF biology and highlights the need for a systematic evaluation of their mechanisms of action and clinical applications in the treatment of hair disorders. The present viewpoint essay outlines the key frontiers in polyamine-related hair research and defines the major open questions. Moreover, it argues that a renaissance in polyamine research in hair biology, well beyond the inhibition of ODC activity in hirsutism therapy, is important for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the manipulation of human hair growth. Such targets could include the manipulation of polyamine biosynthesis and the topical administration of selected polyamines, such as spermidine. [source]

Pemphigus mouse model as a tool to evaluate various immunosuppressive therapies

Yujiro Takae
Abstract:, Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous disease caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). We have generated an active disease mouse model for PV by adoptive transfer of Dsg3,/, lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the benefits and limitations of this model as a tool to evaluate various immunosuppressive therapeutic strategies. We used the following three measurements to evaluate the effects of the drugs during the time course: Dsg3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay scores that represent the level of production of anti-Dsg3 IgG, body weight loss that reflects the severity of oral erosions and PV score that reflects the extent of skin lesions. We examined various immunosuppressive agents currently used to treat patients with PV model mice in preventive protocol. Cyclophosphamide almost completely suppressed the production of anti-Dsg3 IgG, development of body weight loss and the appearance of the PV phenotype in contrast with the control group without the drug. Azathioprine, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus hydrate also showed suppressive effects to various degrees. However, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone failed to show significant effects in contrast to the findings reported in humans. Knowing the advantages and limitations of this model will provide an important foundation for the future evaluation and development of novel therapeutic strategies. [source]

Microbial interactions and differential protein expression in Staphylococcus aureus ,Candida albicans dual-species biofilms

Brian M. Peters
Abstract The fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for a majority of hospital-acquired infections and often coinfect critically ill patients as complicating polymicrobial biofilms. To investigate biofilm structure during polymicrobial growth, dual-species biofilms were imaged with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Analyses revealed a unique biofilm architecture where S. aureus commonly associated with the hyphal elements of C. albicans. This physical interaction may provide staphylococci with an invasion strategy because candidal hyphae can penetrate through epithelial layers. To further understand the molecular mechanisms possibly responsible for previously demonstrated amplified virulence during coinfection, protein expression studies were undertaken. Differential in-gel electrophoresis identified a total of 27 proteins to be significantly differentially produced by these organisms during coculture biofilm growth. Among the upregulated staphylococcal proteins was l -lactate dehydrogenase 1, which confers resistance to host-derived oxidative stressors. Among the downregulated proteins was the global transcriptional repressor of virulence factors, CodY. These findings demonstrate that the hyphae-mediated enhanced pathogenesis of S. aureus may not only be due to physical interactions but can also be attributed to the differential regulation of specific virulence factors induced during polymicrobial growth. Further characterization of the intricate interaction between these pathogens at the molecular level is warranted, as it may aid in the design of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at combating fungal,bacterial polymicrobial infection. [source]

Artificial Stem Cell Niches,

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 32-33 2009
Matthias P. Lutolf
Abstract Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such "artificial niches" constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. [source]

Transglutaminase 3 as a prognostic biomarker in esophageal cancer revealed by proteomics

Norihisa Uemura
Abstract To develop a prognostic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we examined the proteomic profile of ESCC using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and identified proteins associated with prognosis by mass spectrometry. The prognostic performance of the identified proteins was examined by immunohistochemistry in additional cases. We identified 22 protein spots whose intensity was statistically different between ESCC cases with good (N = 9; survived more than 5 years without evidence of recurrence) and poor (N = 24; died within 2 years postsurgery) prognosis, within the patient group that had two or more lymph node metastases. Mass spectrometric protein identification resulted in 18 distinct gene products from the 22 protein spots. Transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) was inversely correlated with shorter patient survival. The prognostic performance of TGM3 was further examined by immunohistochemistry in 76 ESCC cases. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 64.5% and 32.1% for patients with TGM3-positive and TGM3-negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.0033). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that TGM3 expression was an independent prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables examined. It is noteworthy that the prognostic value of TGM3 was shown to be higher than those of the lymph node metastasis, intramural metastasis and vascular invasion status. These results establish TGM3 as a novel prognostic biomarker for ESCC for the first time. Examination of TGM3 expression may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent recurrence of ESCC. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Tumour-associated macrophages and melanoma tumourigenesis: integrating the complexity

Mahmoud R. Hussein
Summary When the body discovers a tumour cell (foreign antigen), several kinds of mechanisms and cells operate in what is called an immune response. The latter has evolved into two mechanisms: non-specific immunity and specific immunity, which are closely linked to and influence each other. The former represents the first line of defence against neoplastic cells. The adaptive (specific) immunity is orchestrated by antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes. The effector cells of innate immunity include granulocytes, macrophages and natural killer cells. Among these cells, macrophages represent the most important part of innate immunity against tumours. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are important antigen-presenting cells and as such an understanding of their interactions with tumour cells gives insights into novel therapeutic strategies. In tumours, the effect of TAMs is the outcome of their two concomitantly competing interactions: tumour growth reduction and tumour growth promotion. The macrophage (TAMs) content of melanoma ranges from 0 to 30% and their density increases with increasing tumour thickness. The melanoma cells and TAMs seem to interact with each other through the release of soluble factors that either prevent or enhance tumour growth. For instance, syngeneic macrophages from tumour-bearing mice can inhibit melanoma growth in the nude mice more than the control macrophages. Alternatively, metastatic B16 melanoma cells can produce some macrophage cytotoxic substances that help tumour cells not only escape the host immunosurveillance system but also prevent distant metastasis. Together, these observations suggest opposing effects for these soluble factors in melanoma. To date, little is available in the literature about the interactions between TAMs and melanoma cells. This viewpoint not only tries to examine these interactions but also provides relevant speculations. [source]

Latent membrane protein 1 encoded by Epstein,Barr virus induces telomerase activity via p16INK4A/Rb/E2F1 and JNK signaling pathways,

Lin Ding
Abstract Elevated telomerase activity is observed in about 90% of human cancers. This activity correlates strictly with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Previously, it was shown that the Epstein,Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) induced telomerase activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. In this study, it was indicated that LMP1 inhibited p16INK4A expression, promoted phosphorylation of p105 Rb and upregulated E2F1 expression as well as transactivation, and overexpression of E2F1 alone was sufficient to upregulate telomerase activity. The JNK kinase cascade could also promote telomerase activity modulated by LMP1, that inhibition of JNK by JIP and TAM 67 dominant negative mutant abrogated telomerase activity. The data show that p16INK4A/Rb/E2F1 and JNK signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of telomerase activity via LMP1. The present study provides new perspectives on carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma that may be exploited for novel therapeutic strategies. J. Med. Virol. 79: 1153,1163, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Novel targets for valproic acid: up-regulation of melatonin receptors and neurotrophic factors in C6 glioma cells

Lyda M. Rincón Castro
Abstract Valproic acid (VPA) is a potent anti-epileptic and effective mood stabilizer. It is known that VPA enhances central GABAergic activity and activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase,extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK,ERK) pathway. It can also inhibit various isoforms of the enzyme, histone deacetylase (HDAC), which is associated with modulation of gene transcription. Recent in vivo studies indicate a neuroprotective role for VPA, which has been found to up-regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat brain. Given the interaction between the pineal hormone, melatonin, and GABAergic systems in the central nervous system, the effects of VPA on the expression of the mammalian melatonin receptor subtypes, MT1 and MT2, were examined in rat C6 glioma cells. The effects of VPA on the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and BDNF were also examined. RT-PCR studies revealed a significant induction of melatonin MT1 receptor mRNA in C6 cells following treatment with 3 or 5 mm VPA for 24 h or 5 mm VPA for 48 h. Western analysis and immunocytochemical detection confirmed that the VPA-induced increase in MT1 mRNA results in up-regulation of MT1 protein expression. Blockade of the MAPK,ERK pathway by PD98059 enhanced the effect of VPA on MT1 expression, suggesting a negative role for this pathway in MT1 receptor regulation. In addition, significant increases in BDNF, GDNF and HDAC mRNA expression were observed after treatment with VPA for 24 or 48 h. Taken together, the present findings suggest that the neuroprotective properties of VPA involve modulation of neurotrophic factors and receptors for melatonin, which is also thought to play a role in neuroprotection. Moreover, the foregoing suggests that combinations of VPA and melatonin could provide novel therapeutic strategies in neurological and psychiatric disorders. [source]

Bioenergetics in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration

M. Flint Beal
Evidence implicating both mitochondria and bioenergetics as playing a crucial role in necrotic and apoptotic cell death is rapidly accumulating. Mitochondria are essential in controlling specific apoptosis cell death pathways and they are the major source of free radicals in the cell. Direct evidence for a role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases comes from studies in Friedreich's Ataxia. Mutations in frataxin lead to an accumulation of iron within mitochondria. We found a three-fold increase in a marker of oxidative damage to DNA in the urine of patients with Friedreich's Ataxia. There is evidence for mitochondrial defects in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). There are mitochondrial abnormalities in liver biopsies and muscle biopsies from individuals with sporadic ALS. Muscle biopsies have shown reduced complex I activity in patients with sporadic ALS. A study of ALS cybrids showed a significant decrease in complex I activity as well as trends towards reduced complex 3 and 4 activities. We found increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative damage to DNA in the plasma, urine and CSF of sporadic ALS patients and increased numbers of point mutations in mtDNA of ALS spinal cord tissue. There is mitochondrial vacuolization in transgenic mouse models of ALS. We found substantial evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in Huntington's Disease (HD). In HD postmortem brain tissue, there are significant reductions in complex 2, 3 activity. We also demonstrated increased brain lactate concentrations as well as reduced phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate ratio in the resting muscle of patients with HD. More recent studies have demonstrated that there is abnormal depolarization of mitochondria of HD lymphoblasts, which directly correlates with CAG repeat length. There are reductions in ATP production in muscle are both presymptomatic and symptomatic HD patients. Transgenic mouse models of HD show significant reductions in N-acetylaspartate concentrations, which precede the onset of neuronal degeneration. We investigated a number of therapeutic interventions in both transgenic mouse models of ALS and HD. In transgenic ALS mice we found that oral administration of creatine dose-dependently extends survival and reduces the neuronal degeneration in the spinal cord. We found modest protection with ginkgo biloba and lipoic acid. In the HD mice we found significant improvement with oral administration of creatine in two different transgenic mouse models. Creatine not only extended survival but it also improved motor performance, delayed weight loss and attenuated striatal atrophy. Creatine significantly attenuated reductions in N-acetylaspartate concentrations as assessed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We also found significant neuroprotective effects with dichloroacetate, which stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase. These findings implicate bioenergetic dysfunction in transgenic mouse models of both ALS and HD, and they suggest several novel therapeutic strategies aimed at energy replenishment. [source]

ASARM-truncated MEPE and AC-100 enhance osteogenesis by promoting osteoprogenitor adhesion

Andrew P. Sprowson
Abstract Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) is a member of the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding Ligand, N-linked Glycoprotein) family of secreted glycophosphoproteins. Several previous studies have demonstrated that MEPE and its peptide motif, AC-100, may regulate bone mass and influence osteoblast activity, suggesting its potential for inclusion in novel therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing osteogenesis. Our study uses in vitro approaches to assess how adhesion of nonadherent cells is influenced by MEPE and whether response to MEPE is dependent on the maturity of osteoblastic cells. Truncated MEPE (ASARM removed) or AC-100 enhanced the adhesion, spreading, and focal complex formation of unadhered osteoblastic cells leading to increased differentiation and bone formation after 28 days of culture. Furthermore, addition of truncated MEPE or AC-100 to mature osteoblasts had no significant effect on bone formation. Our data supports an action for truncated MEPE and AC-100 in altering the physiology of immature poorly adherent cells which subsequently influences the way in which these cells interact with a substrate to facilitate their survival and/or commitment to the osteoblast lineage. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1256,1262, 2008 [source]

Hyperlipidemia: a new therapeutic target for diabetic neuropathy

Andrea M. Vincent
Abstract Emerging data establish dyslipidemia as a significant contributor to the development of diabetic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss how separate metabolic imbalances, including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, converge on mechanisms leading to oxidative stress in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. We conclude with suggestions for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse diabetes-induced nerve degeneration. [source]

Substitutes and alternatives to platelet transfusions in thrombocytopenic patients

M. A. Blajchman
Summary., Over the past decade, there have been many improvements in both the safety profile and quality of liquid-stored allogeneic platelet concentrates. However, significant problems with the clinical use of such products remain. Efforts to overcome some of these have resulted in the development of an array of novel therapeutic strategies for the manufacture of platelet products and platelet substitutes, as well as other approaches using alternatives to platelet concentrates. These various products or procedures are at various stages of clinical development. This review summarizes some recent advancements in the preparation of liquid and frozen stored platelets, as well as approaches used for the pathogen inactivation of platelets. Thus, the status of lyophilized platelets, infusible platelet membranes, red blood cells (RBCs) bearing RGD ligands, fibrinogen-coated albumin microcapsules, and liposome-based agents are discussed. Pre-clinical studies and phase 1,3 clinical trials have been encouraging for several of these; however, to date, very few have been licensed for clinical use. Potential alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusions including correction of anemia by RBC transfusions, recombinant activated factor VII and HLA-reduced platelets are also reviewed. With the ongoing technical and scientific development of such diverse products, those properties that may be necessary for such agents to have hemostatic efficacy will become apparent. However, safety and efficacy must be demonstrable in preclinical studies and clinical trials, before novel platelet concentrates, platelet substitutes and alternatives to platelets can be used in patients with thrombocytopenia. [source]

Nod1, Nod2 and Nalp3 receptors, new potential targets in treatment of allergic rhinitis?

ALLERGY, Issue 10 2010
J. Bogefors
To cite this article: Bogefors J, Rydberg C, Uddman R, Fransson M, Månsson A, Benson M, Adner M, Cardell LO. Nod1, Nod2 and Nalp3 receptors, new potential targets in treatment of allergic rhinitis? Allergy 2010; 65: 1222,1226. Abstract Background:, Recently, a new set of pattern-recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptors (NLRs), have emerged. Their activation, either by allergens or microbes, triggers an inflammatory response. The knowledge about NLRs in human airways is limited. Aim of the study:, To investigate presence of NLRs in the human nose of healthy individuals and patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis outside and during pollen season. Methods:, The expression of Nod1, Nod2, and Nalp3 in nasal biopsies was determined with real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cultured primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry to further verify the presence of NLRs in the epithelium. Results:, Immunohistochemical analysis revealed presence of Nod1, Nod2, and Nalp3 in the nasal epithelium. This was corroborated in cultured HNECs. Patients suffering from symptomatic allergic rhinitis exhibited lower Nod1 and Nalp3 mRNA levels than both controls and patients during pollen season. Nod2 expression was found in all specimens tested, but no differences were seen between the three groups. Conclusion:, Nod1, Nod2, and Nalp3 receptors were found to be present in the human nose. The expression of Nod1 and Nalp3 were down-regulated during pollen season among patients with allergic rhinitis. This opens up for new insights and novel therapeutic strategies in inflammatory airway disease. [source]

Trafficking of Murine Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Health and Vascular Disease

ABSTRACT Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess the unique capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into various hematopoietic cell lineages. Here we summarize the processes that underlie their mobilization and directed migration from bone marrow into peripheral tissues and back to the bone marrow compartment. We specifically focus on the potential role of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration in vascular diseases and review data from recent studies on mice. A better understanding of the mechanisms that guide HSPCs to vascular tissues will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse cardiovascular diseases. [source]

Novel renoprotective actions of erythropoietin: New uses for an old hormone (Review Article)

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 4 2006
SUMMARY: Erythropoietin (EPO) has been used widely for the treatment of anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease and cancer chemotherapy for nearly 20 years. More recently, EPO has been found to interact with its receptor (EPO-R) expressed in a large variety of non-haematopoietic tissues to induce a range of cytoprotective cellular responses, including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis and promotion of vascular repair through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow. Administration of EPO or its analogue, darbepoetin, promotes impressive renoprotection in experimental ischaemic and toxic acute renal failure, as evidenced by suppressed tubular epithelial apoptosis, enhanced tubular epithelial proliferation and hastened functional recovery. This effect is still apparent when administration is delayed up to 6 h after the onset of injury and can be dissociated from its haematological effects. Based on these highly encouraging results, at least one large randomized controlled trial of EPO therapy in ischaemic acute renal failure is currently underway. Preliminary experimental and clinical evidence also indicates that EPO may be renoprotective in chronic kidney disease. The purpose of the present article is to review the renoprotective benefits of different protocols of EPO therapy in the settings of acute and chronic kidney failure and the potential mechanisms underpinning these renoprotective actions. Gaining further insight into the pleiotropic actions of EPO will hopefully eventuate in much-needed, novel therapeutic strategies for patients with kidney disease. [source]

Altered intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome

K. J. Lee
Abstract, Recent studies have suggested that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. However, an association between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and IBS symptoms has not been clearly demonstrated. In the current issue of the Journal, Tana et al. suggest that altered intestinal microbiota contributes to the symptoms of IBS through increased levels of organic acids. In fecal samples, IBS patients had significantly higher numbers of Veillonella and Lactobacillus than healthy controls. They also showed significantly higher levels of acetic acid and propionic acid. Furthermore, IBS patients with high acetic acid or propionic acid levels presented more severe symptoms, impaired quality of life and negative emotions. These results are in accordance with the concept that the gut microbiota influences the sensory, motor and immune system of the gut and interacts with higher brain centers. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth observed in a subset of IBS patients describes quantitative changes in the small intestinal microbiota. Data on qualitative changes in the gut microbiota in IBS patients are lacking. Different members of gut bacteria may have different influence on gut function. The concepts identified here may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for IBS using manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. [source]

Cytokines in temporomandibular joint arthritis

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 6 2000
P Alstergren
As the article in the current issue by Shinoda and colleagues shows, during the last two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the understanding of basic biology behind chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, inflammation and destruction. The involvement and contribution of cytokines to TMJ pain and inflammation must now be considered as established, evident and fundamental. Based on the present knowledge, it is now possible to design and investigate novel therapeutic strategies. These new and very encouraging approaches include manipulation of cytokine function, immune reactivity and the behaviour of inflammatory cells while maintaining the integrity of the affected tissue. [source]

Proteomic insights into cardiac cell death and survival

W. Robb MacLellan
Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the developed world. To design novel therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent this disease, better understanding of cardiac cell function is necessary. In addition to (and, indeed, in combination with) genetics, physiology and molecular biology, proteomics plays a critical role in our understanding of cardiovascular systems at multiple scales. The purpose of this review is to examine recent developments in the field of myocardial injury and protection, examining how proteomics has informed investigations into organelles, signaling complexes, and cardiac phenotype. [source]

Psychogeriatric Research: A Conceptual Introduction to Aging and Geriatric Neuroscience

Ramón Cacabelos
Abstract: Psychogeriatrics (PG) is a multidisciplinary specialty in clinical neuroscience dealing with brain disorders in the elderly population. As any other biomedical field PG has to establish an educational and practical framework in epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and social, ethical, and legal issues associated with brain aging and age-related central nervous system disorders. Understanding the molecular basis of aging will help to characterize and differentiate the fundamentals of pathological aging and psychogeriatric ailments. Modern epidemiology of age-related brain disorders have to incorporate novel diagnostic criteria, biological markers, and genetic epidemiology to its methodological armamentarium to avoid bias. Molecular genetics will help to conceptually redefine many psychogeriatric disorders depending upon its genetic component and those interacting environmental factors leading to the phenotypic expression of given diseases. Genetic testing for monogenic and complex/polygenic/multifactorials disorders has to be included in diagnostic protocols since approximately 60 to 80% of major psychogeriatric disorders are genetically driven. It is also important to distinguish mutational genetics from susceptibility genetics in order to establish novel therapeutic strategies and preventive programmes. Genomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics are novel fields from which PG can benefit in the areas of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Drug development in PG requires updated regulations in developed countries. New pharmacological treatments for aging brain disorders are needed. Pharmacogenomics will become an optimal strategy for drug development, contributing to design a molecular psychopharmacology for the elderly, individualizing drug therapy, optimizing efficacy and safety, and reducing unnecessary costs. [source]

Neuropeptide Y stabilizes body temperature and prevents hypotension in endotoxaemic rats

Melanie Felies
The on-going high mortality from sepsis motivates continuous research for novel therapeutic strategies. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic neurotransmitter, has been shown to increase survival in experimental septic shock in rats. This protective effect might be due to immunological, cardiovascular or thermoregulatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effect of peripherally administered NPY on body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate in endotoxaemic animals. In order to obtain clinically relevant data, various physiological parameters were monitored in parallel via radio-telemetry in chronically intravenously cannulated, freely behaving rats. Rats received a sublethal bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ,g kg,1i.v.) and the three parameters were continuously recorded for 72 h. Endotoxaemic rats showed a long-lasting hypotension, an initial hypothermia (,0.5°C), followed by a prolonged febrile phase (+1.6°C 6 h after endotoxin challenge) associated with a decrease of the circadian rhythm amplitude of temperature. Pretreatment with NPY (160 pmol kg,1i.v. over 75 min) prevented hypotension and significantly stabilized body temperature immediately following the application. The febrile phase was effectively reduced for at least 72 h. These telemetrically obtained findings clearly demonstrate that pretreatment with NPY positively influences two life-threatening symptoms in endotoxaemia and might be a future option for a successful clinical treatment regimen. [source]

Medullary pain facilitating neurons mediate allodynia in headache-related pain,

Rebecca M. Edelmayer BS
Objective To develop and validate a model of cutaneous allodynia triggered by dural inflammation for pain associated with headaches. To explore neural mechanisms underlying cephalic and extracephalic allodynia. Methods Inflammatory mediators (IM) were applied to the dura of unanesthetized rats via previously implanted cannulas, and sensory thresholds of the face and hind-paws were characterized. Results IM elicited robust facial and hind-paw allodynia, which peaked within 3 hours. These effects were reminiscent of cutaneous allodynia seen in patients with migraine or other primary headache conditions, and were reversed by agents used clinically in the treatment of migraine, including sumatriptan, naproxen, and a calcitonin gene,related peptide antagonist. Consistent with clinical observations, the allodynia was unaffected by a neurokinin-1 antagonist. Having established facial and hind-paw allodynia as a useful animal surrogate of headache-associated allodynia, we next showed that blocking pain-facilitating processes in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) interfered with its expression. Bupivacaine, destruction of putative pain-facilitating neurons, or block of cholecystokinin receptors prevented or significantly attenuated IM-induced allodynia. Electrophysiological studies confirmed activation of pain-facilitating RVM "on" cells and transient suppression of RVM "off" cells after IM. Interpretation Facial and hind-paw allodynia associated with dural stimulation is a useful surrogate of pain associated with primary headache including migraine and may be exploited mechanistically for development of novel therapeutic strategies for headache pain. The data also demonstrate the requirement for activation of descending facilitation from the RVM for the expression of cranial and extracranial cutaneous allodynia, and are consistent with a brainstem generator of allodynia associated with headache disorders. Ann Neurol 2009;65:184,193 [source]

Interactions of T helper cells with fibroblast-like synoviocytes: Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases by macrophage migration inhibitory factor from both Th1 and Th2 cells

Uta Schurigt
Objective Interactions of immune cells, such as activated T helper cells, with fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a crucial role in the joint destruction during human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by T helper cells, and to assess the role of MIF in overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cocultures of FLS from arthritic mice with either Th1 or Th2 cells. Methods MIF expression by in vitro,polarized murine Th1 and Th2 cells was determined using 2 different generation protocols. FLS were isolated from the inflamed joints of mice with antigen-induced arthritis. MMP expression was analyzed in cocultures of the FLS with T helper cell subsets. Effects of MIF were blocked by a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody. In addition, analyses were performed on cocultures of either Th1 or Th2 cells with FLS from MIF-deficient mice. Results Both Th1 and Th2 cells expressed high quantities of MIF. MMPs were overexpressed by FLS after coculture with both Th1 and Th2 cells. Activated T helper cells were more effective than resting cells. Neutralization of MIF by an anti-MIF antibody led to a marked reduction in MMP expression in Th1- and Th2-stimulated FLS. T helper cells generated from MIF-deficient mice exhibited a T helper cell,specific cytokine profile comparable with that in wild-type cells, except in the expression of MIF, but showed an impaired ability to stimulate MMP expression in FLS. Conclusion MIF is an important Th1 and Th2 cell,derived proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates MMP expression in FLS from arthritic mice, and therefore inhibition of MIF might be a promising target for novel therapeutic strategies in human RA. [source]

Pluripotent plasticity of stem cells and liver repopulation

Luisa Gennero
Abstract Different types of stem cells have a role in liver regeneration or fibrous repair during and after several liver diseases. Otherwise, the origin of hepatic and/or extra-hepatic stem cells in reactive liver repopulation is under controversy. The ability of the human body to self-repair and replace the cells and tissues of some organs is often evident. It has been estimated that complete renewal of liver tissue takes place in about a year. Replacement of lost liver tissues is accomplished by proliferation of mature hepatocytes, hepatic oval stem cells differentiation, and sinusoidal cells as support. Hepatic oval cells display a distinct phenotype and have been shown to be a bipotential progenitor of two types of epithelial cells found in the liver, hepatocytes, and bile ductular cells. In gastroenterology and hepatology, the first attempts to translate stem cell basic research into novel therapeutic strategies have been made for the treatment of several disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes mellitus, celiachy, and acute or chronic hepatopaties. In the future, pluripotent plasticity of stem cells will open a variety of clinical application strategies for the treatment of tissue injuries, degenerated organs. The promise of liver stem cells lie in their potential to provide a continuous and readily available source of liver cells that can be used for gene therapy, cell transplant, bio-artificial liver-assisted devices, drug toxicology testing, and use as an in vitro model to understand the developmental biology of the liver. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

2163: Identification of novel disease gene for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) through homozygosity mapping and next-generation sequencing strategies in a large consanguineous pedigree

Purpose Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is caused by developmental anomalies of the trabecular meshwork and the anterior chamber angle resulting in an increased ocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve damage. In general PCG displays an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and is genetically heterogeneous. To date, three PCG loci are known, namely GLC3A, GLC3B and GLC3C, and two causal genes have been identified, CYP1B1 located in the GLC3A locus and LTPB2 located at 1.3 MB proximal to the GLC3C locus. The purpose of the current study is to identify the causal disease gene in a large consanguineous family with PCG, originating from Jordany. CYP1B1 mutations and linkage to the LTBP2, GLCB3 and GLCC3 locus were previously excluded. Methods In a first step, DNA from members from the consanguineous family will be genotyped by 250K GeneChip Mapping Affymetrix arrays. Homozygosity mapping will be applied to identify potential disease loci, using a homemade Perl script. Next, microsatellite analysis will be performed in order to confirm findings and to narrow down candidate regions. Subsequently, candidate regions of interest will be captured (Agilent) and sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyser IIx (GAIIx). Gene and variant prioritization will be done using in-house developed software, followed by segregation analysis and screening in control individuals. At last, a cohort of 30 molecularly unsolved PCG patients will be screened for mutations in the newly identified disease. Conclusion The identification of a new disease gene for PCG may lead to better insights into the molecular pathogenesis of glaucoma, and might uncover novel therapeutic strategies. [source]

Correlation of fundus autofluorescence with photoreceptor morphology and functional changes in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa

Taku Wakabayashi
Abstract. Purpose:, To assess and correlate fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics with photoreceptor morphology and functional features in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods:, Thirty-four eyes of 17 patients with RP were examined. We compared FAF images obtained by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and retinal function assessed by microperimetry. Results:, Normal FAF surrounded by a ring of increased FAF at the macular area was detected in 32 (94%) eyes. The diameter of the normal FAF was correlated significantly with the preserved area of the photoreceptor inner segment and outer segment (IS/OS) junction on SD-OCT (R = 0.939, p < 0.001). The area outside the ring was associated with loss of IS/OS junction and external limiting membrane (ELM). The ring of increased FAF demarcated the border between the central retina with preservation of the IS/OS junction and ELM, and the adjacent eccentric retina with loss of these bands. In two eyes of one patient, there was no preservation of normal FAF at the macula and the photoreceptor IS/OS junction was not detected on SD-OCT. The mean retinal sensitivity derived from microperimetry was correlated significantly with the area of normal FAF (R = 0.929, p = 0.007) and the preserved area of the IS/OS junction (R = 0.851, p = 0.032). Ten eyes had progressive reduction in size of the normal FAF inside the ring accompanied by decreased area of preserved IS/OS during 3.1 years. Conclusion:, FAF appears to reflect the integrity of the photoreceptor layer. It may serve as a secondary outcome measure for novel therapeutic strategies for RP. [source]

Insights into the molecular basis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Purpose Factors that determine the likelihood of developing posterior vitreous detachment and subsequent rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) include (i) the degree of vitreous liquefaction (ii) the strength of post-basal vitreoretinal adhesion and (iii) the topology of the posterior border of the vitreous base. The purpose of these studies was to investigate each of these using a combination of ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Methods Ultrastructural studies of the human vitreous and vitreoretinal interface were performed in combination with various antibodies and cationic dyes. Biochemical studies were performed on extracted vitreous components. Results The resultant data suggest that: (i) vitreous liquefaction is caused by the aggregation of vitreous collagen fibrils and this is due to a loss of type IX collagen proteoglycan from the fibril surfaces; (ii) interactions between heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the inner limiting lamina and components on the surface of cortical vitreous collagen fibrils contribute to postbasal vitreoretinal adhesion; (iii) the posterior border of the vitreous base migrates posteriorly with aging due to the synthesis of new vitreous collagen by the peripheral retina. Conclusion The molecular basis of RRD is starting to be unravelled. Furthering our understanding of the underlying molecular processes may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat RRD and other vitreoretinal disorders. [source]

Molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory lung diseases in the elderly: Development of a novel therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis,

Takahide Nagase
In the elderly, inflammatory lung diseases, including acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, are significant in terms of both mortality and difficulty in management. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute lung injury and the mortality rate for ARDS ranges from 40 to 70% despite intensive care. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disorder of the lung parenchyma. No useful drugs are currently available to treat IPF. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these lung diseases are little understood and the development of a novel therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and metabolites of arachidonic acid, i.e. eicosanoids, are lipid mediators that have various biological effects. A key enzyme for the production of these inflammatory mediators, including eicosanoids and PAF, is phospholipase A2. In particular, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) is especially important. The purpose of this article is to report novel findings regarding the role of PAF and cPLA2 in lung inflammatory diseases, especially, acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. To address this question, we used mutant mice, i.e. PAFR transgenic mice, PAFR gene-disrupted mice and cPLA2 gene-disrupted mice. We have shown that PAF and eicosanoids, downstream mediators of cPLA2, may be involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS and IPF, which are important diseases in the elderly. Although there exist extreme differences in clinical features between ARDS and IPF, both diseases are fatal disorders for which no useful drugs are currently available. On the basis of recent reports using mutant mice, cPLA2 might be a potential target to intervene in the development of pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury in the elderly. [source]