Novel Therapeutic Interventions (novel + therapeutic_intervention)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Possible role of duration of PKC-induced ERK activation in the effects of agonists and phorbol esters on DNA synthesis in panc-1 cells

Gábor Z. Rácz
Abstract Protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) have been implicated in the effects of regulatory peptides on proliferation. We studied how ERK was activated by PKC following regulatory peptide or phorbol ester stimulation and we also investigated the effect of ERK activation on proliferation in Panc-1 cells. Panc-1 cells transfected with CCK1 receptors were treated with cholecystokinin (CCK), neurotensin (NT), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). DNA synthesis was studied by measuring tritiated thymidine incorporation. PKC isoforms were selectively inhibited with Gö6983 and 200 nM Ro-32-0432, their translocation was detected by confocal microscopy and by subcellular fractionation followed by immunoblotting. ERK cascade activation was detected with phosphoERK immunoblotting and inhibited with 20 µM PD98059. PMA and CCK inhibited, NT stimulated DNA synthesis. These effects were inhibited by Ro-32-0432 but not by Gö6983 suggesting the involvement of PKC, in proliferation control. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation demonstrated that PMA, CCK, and NT caused cytosol to membrane translocation of PKC, and ERK activation that was inhibited by Ro-32-0432 but not by Gö6983. ERK activation was prolonged following PMA and CCK, but transient after NT treatment. PMA, CCK, and NT all activated cyclinD1, while p21CIP1 expression was increased by only PMA and CCK, but not by NT; each of these effects is inhibited by PD98059. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for PKC,-mediated differential ERK activation and growth regulation in Panc-1C cells. Identification of the mechanisms by which these key signaling pathways are modulated could provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic interventions to treat pancreatic cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Paradoxical enhancement of oxidative cell injury by overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 in an anchorage-dependent cell ECV304

Keiko Maruhashi
Abstract There has been increasing evidence suggesting the potent anti-inflammatory roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in protecting renal tubular epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, and circulating monocytes. Based on these findings, novel therapeutic interventions have been proposed to control the expression of endothelial HO-1 levels to ameliorate various vascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of HO-1 gene transfer into an anchorage-dependent cell, ECV304. Effect of HO-1 production on the cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated after hemin stimulation and after HO-1 gene transfection. Morphological changes and the induction of various anti-apoptotic proteins were examined at the same time. Levels of HO-1 expression were variable in different clones of HO-1-transfected ECV304 cells. Among these, the clones with moderate levels of HO-1 expression were significantly more resistant to oxidative stress. In contrast, those with the highest levels of HO-1 exhibited paradoxically enhanced susceptibility to oxidative injury. Interestingly, the cell survival after oxidative stress was in parallel with the levels of Bcl-2 expression and of fibronectin receptor, ,5 integrin. It is suggested from these results, that excessive HO-1 not only leads to enhanced cell injury, but also prolongs the repair process of the injured endothelial tissue. However, HO-1 reduces the oxidative cell injury and protects the endothelial cells, if its expression is appropriately controlled. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Reproducibility of black blood dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in aortic plaques of atherosclerotic rabbits

Claudia Calcagno MD
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the short-term reproducibility of black-blood dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in atherosclerotic rabbits to evaluate the potential of this technique to be a reliable readout of plaque progression and/or regression upon therapeutic intervention. Materials and Methods: Atherosclerotic rabbits were imaged at baseline and 24 hours later with DCE-MRI on a 1.5T MRI system. DCE-MRI images were analyzed by calculating the area under the signal intensity versus time curve (AUC). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate interscan, intraobserver, and interobserver reproducibility. In addition, the test,retest coefficient of variation (CoV) was evaluated. Results: Statistical analyses showed excellent interscan, intraobserver, and interobserver agreement. All ICCs were greater than 0.75, P < 0.01 indicating excellent agreement between measurements. Conclusion: Experimental results show good interscan and excellent intra- and interobserver reproducibility, suggesting that DCE-MRI could be used in preclinical settings as a read-out for novel therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. This preliminary work encourages investigating the reproducibility of DCE-MRI also in clinical settings, where it could be used for monitoring high-risk patients and in longitudinal clinical drug trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:191,198. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Chronic lithium administration to FTDP-17 tau and GSK-3, overexpressing mice prevents tau hyperphosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangle formation, but pre-formed neurofibrillary tangles do not revert

Tobias Engel
Abstract Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been proposed as the main kinase able to aberrantly phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies, raising the possibility of designing novel therapeutic interventions for AD based on GSK-3 inhibition. Lithium, a widely used drug for affective disorders, inhibits GSK-3 at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Therefore, it was of great interest to test the possible protective effects of lithium in an AD animal model based on GSK-3 overexpression. We had previously generated a double transgenic model, overexpressing GSK-3, in a conditional manner, using the Tet-off system and tau protein carrying a triple FTDP-17 (frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17) mutation. This transgenic line shows tau hyperphosphorylation in hippocampal neurones accompanied by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). We used this transgenic model to address two issues: first, whether chronic lithium treatment is able to prevent the formation of aberrant tau aggregates that result from the overexpression of FTDP-17 tau and GSK-3,; second, whether lithium is able to change back already formed NFTs in aged animals. Our data suggest that progression of the tauopathy can be prevented by administration of lithium when the first signs of neuropathology appear. Furthermore, it is still possible to partially reverse tau pathology in advanced stages of the disease, although NFT-like structures cannot be changed. The same results were obtained after shut-down of GSK-3, overexpression, supporting the possibility that GSK-3 inhibition is not sufficient to reverse NFT-like aggregates. [source]

Motivation for Alcohol Becomes Resistant to Quinine Adulteration After 3 to 4 Months of Intermittent Alcohol Self-Administration

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
Frederic W. Hopf
Background:, Continued consumption of alcohol despite deleterious consequences is a hallmark of alcoholism and represents a critical challenge to therapeutic intervention. Previous rat studies showed that enduring alcohol self-administration despite pairing alcohol with normally aversive stimuli was only observed after very long-term intake (>8 months). Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been previously interpreted to indicate pathological or compulsive motivation to consume alcohol. However, given the time required to model compulsive alcohol seeking in previous studies, there is considerable interest in developing more efficient and quantitative rodent models of aversion-resistant alcohol self-administration. Methods:, Outbred Wistar rats underwent 3 to 4 months or approximately 1.5 months of intermittent, home-cage, two-bottle access (IAA) to 20% alcohol (v/v) or water. Then, after brief operant training, the effect of the bitter-tasting quinine (0.1 g/l) on the motivation to seek alcohol was quantified via progressive ratio (PR). Motivation for quinine-adulterated 2% sucrose under PR was assayed in a separate cohort of 3 to 4 months IAA rats. The effects of quinine on home-cage alcohol consumption in IAA rats and rats with continuous access to alcohol were also examined. Finally, a dose,response for quinine taste preference in IAA and continuous-access animals was determined. Results:, Motivation for alcohol after 3 to 4 months IAA, measured using an operant PR procedure, was not altered by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/l quinine. In contrast, after 3 to 4 months of IAA, motivation for sucrose under PR was significantly reduced by adulteration of sucrose with 0.1 g/l quinine. In addition, motivation for alcohol after only approximately 1.5 months IAA was significantly reduced by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/l quinine. Furthermore, home-cage alcohol intake by IAA rats was insensitive to quinine at concentrations (0.01, 0.03 g/l) that significantly reduced alcohol drinking in animals with continuous access to alcohol. Finally, no changes in quinine taste preference after 3 to 4 months IAA or continuous access to alcohol were observed. Conclusions:, We have developed a novel and technically simple hybrid operant/IAA model in which quinine-resistant motivation for alcohol is evident after an experimentally tractable period of time (3 to 4 months vs. 8 months). Quinine dramatically reduced sucrose and water intake by IAA rats, indicating that continued responding for alcohol in IAA rats despite adulteration with the normally aversive quinine might reflect maladaptive or compulsive motivation for alcohol. This model could facilitate identification of novel therapeutic interventions for pathological alcohol seeking in humans. [source]

Is There a Role for Statins in Atrial Fibrillation?

3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are some of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world. While lipid modification remains the primary function of statins, there has been increasing interest in its potential pleiotropic effects, particularly as an anti-inflammatory agent in its role as an antiarrhythmic. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and carries with it a significant burden in both morbidity and mortality. Treatment for AF currently involves either rate or rhythm control where both have demonstrable associated risks. Rate control necessitates anticoagulation, which can cause life-threatening bleeding, while rhythm control has a poor side-effect profile that may lead to greater mortality and may not completely eliminate the need for anticoagulation. Considering this pressing need for novel therapeutic interventions in AF, this long overdue systematic review explores the potential role of statins in the treatment and prevention of AF. Physicians, especially cardiologists, need to be aware of the host of currently available literature and, more importantly, need to be stimulated to generate discussion and formulate studies that will help debate the issues under the most erudite standards. [source]