Novel Therapeutics (novel + therapeutics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Novel therapeutics with enhanced biological activity generated by the strategic introduction of silicon isosteres into known drug scaffolds

Stephen Gately
Abstract The strategic replacement of carbon with silicon within biologically prevalidated drug scaffolds can generate focused libraries of pharmaceutically relevant agents with novel, durable and marketable intellectual property. This approach can be cost-effective and of lower developmental risk because known drugs have recognized pharmacology and toxicity profiles, proven safety in humans, and established manufacturing and formulation methods. The change in shape, charge, and lipophilicity that can result from the addition of silicon can favorably alter the biological activity and toxicology of the parent drug. Silicon-containing derivatives of indomethacin are COX-2 selective, suggesting they will not be associated with the classical toxicities associated with nonselective inhibition of the cyclooxygenases. The silicon-indomethacin derivatives also demonstrated superior anti-cancer activity at clinically achievable concentrations when tested in vitro against a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MiaPaCa-2, and a panel of 14 human multiple myeloma cell lines. Bioorganosilicon chemistry represents an attractive approach for emerging biopharmaceutical organizations seeking to rapidly develop a portfolio of novel pharmacological agents that have the potential for enhanced therapeutic and pharmacological benefit. Drug Dev Res 68:156,163, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

AMPK activators , potential therapeutics for metabolic and other diseases

G. Zhou
Abstract AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated cellular metabolic responses to tissue-specific and whole-body stimuli play a vital role in the control of energy homeostasis. As a cellular energy-sensing mechanism, AMPK activation stimulates glucose uptake and fat oxidation, while it suppresses lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. The cumulative effects of AMPK activation lead to beneficial metabolic states in liver, muscle and other peripheral tissues that are critical in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Activators of AMPK that target selected tissues hold potential as novel therapeutics for diseases in which altered energy metabolism contributes to aetiology. [source]

Monogenic migraine syndromes highlight novel drug targets

J. Jay Gargus
Abstract In the post-genomic era, the paradigm for drug discovery has changed, as every gene may become a potential target. Genetic diseases provide a special window into gene target selection. This approach is being applied to migraine making use of the genes and mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). FHM is caused by missense mutations in CACNA1A, altering a neuronal P/Q Ca2+ channel, in ATP1A2, altering ,2 Na,K-ATPase, and in SCN1A, altering a neuronal sodium channel. These genes provide insights into migraine pathogenesis that likely extend to other forms of migraine as well. Since the three FHM genes are only co-expressed in neurons, FHM is a neuronal, not a vascular, disease and because they all encode ion transport proteins, FHM is a neuronal channelopathy,meaning meta-stable neuronal hyperexcitability is the substrate of migraine, much as it is for genetic epilepsy syndromes. This similarity is reinforced, since different mutations of all three FHM genes can produce seizure syndromes. This has implications for drug discovery in that seizure medications already known to modulate the FHM channel mechanisms warrant more targeted development, and that drugs targeted to vascular headaches, such as the historically effective triptans, or experimental botulinum toxin, may well work by similar nonvascular mechanisms. Finally, in model neurogenetic systems such as Caenorhabditis elegans, the FHM genes also provide both a comprehensive means to discover all genes involved in their signaling pathway,genes potentially involved in common forms of the disease, and an in vivo whole animal means to screen rapidly for novel therapeutics. Drug Dev Res 68:432,440, 2007. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Equine clinical genomics: A clinician's primer

Summary The objective of this review is to introduce equine clinicians to the rapidly evolving field of clinical genomics with a vision of improving the health and welfare of the domestic horse. For 15 years a consortium of veterinary geneticists and clinicians has worked together under the umbrella of The Horse Genome Project. This group, encompassing 22 laboratories in 12 countries, has made rapid progress, developing several iterations of linkage, physical and comparative gene maps of the horse with increasing levels of detail. In early 2006, the research was greatly facilitated when the US National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health added the horse to the list of mammalian species scheduled for whole genome sequencing. The genome of the domestic horse has now been sequenced and is available to researchers worldwide in publicly accessible databases. This achievement creates the potential for transformative change within the horse industry, particularly in the fields of internal medicine, sports medicine and reproduction. The genome sequence has enabled the development of new genome-wide tools and resources for studying inherited diseases of the horse. To date, researchers have identified 11 mutations causing 10 clinical syndromes in the horse. Testing is commercially available for all but one of these diseases. Future research will probably identify the genetic bases for other equine diseases, produce new diagnostic tests and generate novel therapeutics for some of these conditions. This will enable equine clinicians to play a critical role in ensuring the thoughtful and appropriate application of this knowledge as they assist clients with breeding and clinical decision-making. [source]

Adenosine receptors: promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics for asthma

Cristina Russo
Abstract Interest in the role of adenosine in asthma has escalated considerably since the early observation of its powerful bronchoconstrictor effects in asthmatic but not normal airways. A growing body of evidence has emerged in support of a proinflammatory and immunomodulatory role for the purine nucleoside adenosine in the pathogenic mechanisms of chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways such as asthma. The fact that adenosine enhances mast cell allergen-dependent activation, that elevated levels of adenosine are present in chronically inflamed airways, and that adenosine given by inhalation cause dose-dependent bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma emphasizes the importance of adenosine in the initiation, persistence and progression of these common inflammatory disorders of the airways. These distinctive features of adenosine have been recently exploited in the clinical and research setting to identify innovative diagnostic applications for asthma. In addition, because adenosine exerts its multiple biological activities by interacting with four adenosine receptor subtypes, selective activation or blockade of these receptors may lead to the development of novel therapies for asthma. [source]

Functional roles of the factor VIII B domain

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2009
Summary., Unravelling the structure, function and molecular interactions of factor VIII (FVIII) throughout its life cycle from biosynthesis to clearance has advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of haemophilia and the development of effective treatment strategies including recombinant replacement therapy. These insights are now influencing bioengineering strategies toward novel therapeutics. Whereas available molecular models and crystal structures have helped elucidate the structure and function of the A and C domains of FVIII, these models have not included detailed structural information of the B domain. Therefore, insights into the role of the FVIII B domain have come primarily from expression studies in heterologous systems, biochemical studies on bioengineered FVIII variants and clinical studies with B domain-deleted FVIII. This manuscript reviews the available data on the potential functional roles of the FVIII B domain. A detailed literature search was performed, and the data extracted were qualitatively summarized. Intriguing emerging evidence suggests that the FVIII B domain is involved in intracellular interactions that regulate quality control and secretion, as well as potential regulatory roles within plasma during activation, platelet binding, inactivation and clearance. [source]

Intracellular Enzymatic Formation of Nanofibers Results in Hydrogelation and Regulated Cell Death,

M. Yang
Enzymatic formation of supramolecular nanofibers is demonstrated as a novel approach to induce intracellular hydrogelation and control the fate of cells or cellular functions, which can lead to a new paradigm for developing biomaterials to manage cellular artificial nanostructures (CAN), understand cellular functions beyond the molecular level, and create novel therapeutics. [source]

Protein folding in the post-genomic era

Jeannine M. Yon
Abstract Protein folding is a topic of fundamental interest since it concerns the mechanisms by which the genetic message is translated into the three-dimensional and functional structure of proteins. In these post-genomic times, the knowledge of the fundamental principles are required in the exploitation of the information contained in the increasing number of sequenced genomes. Protein folding also has practical applications in the understanding of different pathologies and the development of novel therapeutics to prevent diseases associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Significant advances have been made ranging from the Anfinsen postulate to the "new view" which describes the folding process in terms of an energy landscape. These new insights arise from both theoretical and experimental studies. The problem of folding in the cellular environment is briefly discussed. The modern view of misfolding and aggregation processes that are involved in several pathologies such as prion and Alzheimer diseases. Several approaches of structure prediction, which is a very active field of research, are described. [source]

Paradoxical roles for lysyl oxidases in cancer,A prospect

Stacey L. Payne
Abstract Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastin in the extracellular compartment, thereby regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, recent reports have demonstrated novel roles for LOX, including the ability to regulate gene transcription, motility/migration, and cell adhesion. These diverse functions have led researchers to hypothesize that LOX may have multiple roles affecting both extra- and intracellular cell function(s). Particularly noteworthy is aberrant LOX expression and activity that have been observed in various cancerous tissues and neoplastic cell lines. Both down and upregulation of LOX in tumor tissues and cancer cell lines have been described, suggesting a dual role for LOX as a tumor suppressor, as well as a metastasis promoter gene,creating a conundrum within the LOX research field. Here, we review the body of evidence on LOX gene expression, regulation, and function(s) in various cancer cell types and tissues, as well as stromal,tumor cell interactions. Lastly, we will examine putative mechanisms in which LOX facilitates breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Taken together, the literature demonstrates the increasingly important role(s) that LOX may play in regulating tumor progression and the necessity to elucidate its myriad mechanisms of action in order to identify potentially novel therapeutics. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 1338,1354, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Guanosine improves motor behavior, reduces apoptosis, and stimulates neurogenesis in rats with parkinsonism

Caixin Su
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) caused by an abnormal rate of apoptosis. Endogenous stem cells in the adult mammalian brain indicate an innate potential for regeneration and possible resource for neuroregeneration in PD. We previously showed that guanosine prevents apoptosis even when administered 48 hr after the toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Here, we induced parkinsonism in rats with a proteasome inhibitor. Guanosine treatment reduced apoptosis, increased tyrosine hydroxylase,positive dopaminergic neurons and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the SNc, increased cellular proliferation in the SNc and subventricular zone, and ameliorated symptoms. Proliferating cells in the subventricular zone were nestin-positive adult neural progenitor/stem cells. Fibroblast growth factor-2-expressing cells were also increased by guanosine. Thus, guanosine protected cells from apoptosis and stimulated "intrinsic" adult progenitor/stem cells to become dopaminergic neurons in rats with proteasome inhibitor,induced PD. The cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying these effects may open new avenues for development of novel therapeutics for PD. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Function and therapeutic potential of host defence peptides,

Joseph B. Mcphee
Abstract Cationic host defence (antimicrobial) peptides are an important component of the innate immune systems of a wide variety of plants, animals, and bacteria. Although most of these compounds have direct antimicrobial activities under specific conditions, a greater appreciation for the diversity of functions of these molecules is beginning to develop in the field. In addition to their directly antimicrobial activities, they also have a broad spectrum of activity on the host immune system, with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects being invoked. Increasingly sophisticated approaches to understand the role of host defence peptides in modulating innate immunity are already serving to guide the development of novel therapeutics. Copyright 2005 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Bipolar disorder: candidate drug targets,

Carlos A. Zarate Jr
Abstract Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment, and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for bipolar disorder worthy of further study include both systems and intracellular pathways and targets. Specifically, the purinergic system, the dynorphin opioid neuropeptide system, the cholinergic system (muscarinic and nicotinic systems), the melatonin and serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C] system, the glutamatergic system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, and the arachidonic acid cascade. Mt Sinai J Med 75:225,246, 2008. 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]

Pharmacological characterization of psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease

Naomi P. Visanji PhD
Abstract Investigation of the pathophysiology of psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as the assessment of potential novel therapeutics, has been limited by the lack of a well-validated animal model. MPTP-lesioned primates exhibit abnormal behaviors that are distinct from dyskinesia and parkinsonism and may represent behavioral correlates of neural processes related to psychosis in PD. Here we assess four types of behavior,agitation, hallucinatory-like responses to nonapparent stimuli, obsessive grooming, and stereotypies that are termed "psychosis-like",and define their pharmacology using a psychosis-like behavior rating scale. By assessing the actions of drugs known to enhance or attenuate psychosis in PD patients, we find that the pharmacology of these behaviors recapitulates, in several respects, the pharmacology of psychosis in PD. Thus, levodopa and apomorphine elicited psychosis-like behaviors. Amantadine significantly decreased levodopa-induced dyskinesia but exacerbated psychosis-like behaviors. Haloperidol reduced psychosis-like behaviors but at the expense of increased parkinsonian disability while the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and quetiapine reduced psychosis-like behaviors without significant effect on parkinsonian disability. The response of different components of the psychotomimetic behavior suggested the involvement of both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic mechanisms in their expression. 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Recent advances in the neurobiology of anxiety disorders: Implications for novel therapeutics,

Sanjay J. Mathew
Abstract Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on new directions in neurobiological research and implications for the development of novel psychopharmacological treatments. Neuroanatomical and neuroimaging research in anxiety disorders has centered on the role of the amygdala, reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, and, most recently, alterations in interoceptive processing by the anterior insula. Anxiety disorders are characterized by alterations in a diverse range of neurochemical systems, suggesting ample novel targets for drug therapies. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations are elevated in a subset of anxiety disorders, which suggests the potential utility of CRF receptor antagonists. Pharmacological blockade of the memory-enhancing effects of stress hormones such as glucocorticoids and noradrenaline holds promise as a preventative approach for trauma-related anxiety. The glutamatergic system has been largely overlooked as a potential pharmacological target, although convergent preclinical, neuroimaging, and early clinical findings suggest that glutamate receptor antagonists may have potent anxiolytic effects. Glutamatergic receptor agonists (e.g., D -cycloserine) also have an emerging role in the treatment of anxiety as facilitators of fear extinction during concurrent behavioral interventions. The neuropeptides substance P, neuropeptide Y, oxytocin, orexin, and galanin are each implicated in anxiety pathways, and neuropeptide analogs or antagonists show early promise as anxiolytics in preclinical and/or clinical research. Each of these active areas of research holds promise for expanding and improving evidence-based treatment options for individuals suffering with clinical anxiety. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Increased number and function of FoxP3 regulatory T cells during experimental arthritis

Kristen Monte
Objective CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical regulators of autoimmunity. Yet the number of Treg cells is paradoxically increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and Treg cells show variable activity in human studies. The objective of this study was to characterize the expansion and function of Treg cells during the initiation and progression of experimental arthritis. Methods To unequivocally identify Treg cells, we crossed FoxP3gfp mice with K/BxN mice to generate arthritic mice in which Treg cells express green fluorescence protein. We examined the expansion and function of Treg cells and effector T (Teff) cells during different stages of arthritis, using flow cytometry and cell proliferation analyses. Results In K/BxN mice, thymic selection of KRN T cells resulted in an enrichment of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3),positive Treg cells. Treg cell numbers increased during arthritis, with significant increases in spleens and draining lymph nodes, indicating selective tropism to sites of disease. In contrast to the in vitro unresponsiveness of Treg cells when cultured alone, substantial proportions of Treg cells proliferated in both nonarthritic and arthritic mice. However, they also underwent greater apoptosis, thereby maintaining equilibrium with Teff cells. Similarly, enhanced Treg cell,suppressive activity during arthritis was offset by greater resistance by their Teff cell counterparts and antigen-presenting cells. Conclusion In this well-established model of RA, the interplay of Teff cells and Treg cells in K/BxN mice recapitulated many features of the human disease. We demonstrated an ordered expansion of Treg cells during arthritis and dynamic changes in Treg cell and Teff cell functions. By elucidating factors that govern Treg cell and Teff cell development in K/BxNgfp mice, we will gain insight into the pathophysiology of and develop novel therapeutics for human RA. [source]

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the aspartate aminotransferase of Plasmodium falciparum

Rishabh Jain
Aspartate aminotransferases (EC catalyse the conversion of aspartate and ,-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate in a reversible manner. Thus, the aspartate aminotransferase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAspAT) plays a central role in the transamination of amino acids. Recent findings suggest that PfAspAT may also play a pivotal role in energy metabolism and the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. While therapeutics based upon the inhibition of other proteins in these pathways are already used in the treatment of malaria, the advent of multidrug-resistant strains has limited their efficacy. The presence of PfAspAT in these pathways may offer additional opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the function and role of PfAspAT, it has been expressed and purified to homogeneity. The successful crystallization of PfAspAT, the collection of a 2.8, diffraction data set and initial attempts to solve the structure using molecular replacement are reported. [source]

Receptor activator of NF-,B ligand, macrophage inflammatory protein-1,, and the proteasome

CANCER, Issue S3 2003
Novel therapeutic targets in myeloma
Abstract BACKGROUND The bone destruction in myeloma patients is largely responsible for the clinical features of the disease. However, only recently has attention focused on identifying and developing drugs targeted specifically at the osteolysis. Receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1,, and proteasomal function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloma and associated bone disease. We provide "proof of principle" in preclinical myeloma models that these are indeed valid molecular targets in development of novel therapeutics. METHODS The efficacy of antagonists of RANKL and MIP-1, bioactivities (RANK.Fc and neutralizing monoclonal anti-MIP-1, antibody) in ameliorating osteolysis and reducing tumor burden was evaluated in a mouse model in which murine myeloma 5TGM1 cells are injected intravenously into syngeneic mice. In addition, the activity of a petidyl aldehyde proteasome inhibitor (proteasome inhibitor-1 [PSI]) on tumor growth was tested in a murine 5TGM1 plasmacytoma model and in mice intravenously inoculated with 5TGM1 cells. RESULTS RANK.Fc and anti-MIP-1, antibody inhibited the development and progression of osteolytic lesions and significantly reduced tumor load assessed by serum monoclonal paraprotein titers. Intratumoral injections of PSI inhibited growth of 5TGM1 plasmacytomas and induced tumor regression in some cases. In addition, systemic administration of PSI significantly prolonged time to onset of paraplegia in tumor-bearing mice. CONCLUSIONS The results highlight the critical roles of RANKL and MIP-1, in the development and progression of myeloma and provide a basis for future evaluation in myeloma patients of novel therapeutics that disrupt interactions of RANKL and MIP-1, with their cognate receptors. The data also suggest that further studies in preclincal myeloma models aimed at identifying other proteasome inhibitors with antitumor efficacy would be worthwhile. Cancer 2003;97(3 Suppl):813,7. 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11133 [source]

Transforming growth factor-, signaling at the tumor,bone interface promotes mammary tumor growth and osteoclast activation

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Mitsuru Futakuchi
Understanding the cellular and molecular changes in the bone microenvironment is important for developing novel therapeutics to control breast cancer bone metastasis. Although the underlying mechanism(s) of bone metastasis has been the focus of intense investigation, relatively little is known about complex molecular interactions between malignant cells and bone stroma. Using a murine syngeneic model that mimics osteolytic changes associated with human breast cancer, we examined the role of tumor,bone interaction in tumor-induced osteolysis and malignant growth in the bone microenvironment. We identified transforming growth factor-, receptor 1 (TGF-,RI) as a commonly upregulated gene at the tumor-bone (TB) interface. Moreover, TGF-,RI expression and activation, analyzed by nuclear localization of phospho-Smad2, was higher in tumor cells and osteoclasts at the TB interface as compared to the tumor-alone area. Furthermore, attenuation of TGF-, activity by neutralizing antibody to TGF-, or TGF-,RI kinase inhibitor reduced mammary tumor-induced osteolysis, TGF-,RI expression and its activation. In addition, we demonstrate a potential role of TGF-, as an important modifier of receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast activation and osteolysis. Together, these studies demonstrate that inhibition of TGF-,RI signaling at the TB interface will be a therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer-induced osteolysis. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 71,81) [source]

Research Article: pso@autodock: A Fast Flexible Molecular Docking Program Based on Swarm Intelligence

Vigneshwaran Namasivayam
On the quest of novel therapeutics, molecular docking methods have proven to be valuable tools for screening large libraries of compounds determining the interactions of potential drugs with the target proteins. A widely used docking approach is the simulation of the docking process guided by a binding energy function. On the basis of the molecular docking program autodock, we present pso@autodock as a tool for fast flexible molecular docking. Our novel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms varCPSO and varCPSO-ls are suited for rapid docking of highly flexible ligands. Thus, a ligand with 23 rotatable bonds was successfully docked within as few as 100 000 computing steps (rmsd = 0.87 ), which corresponds to only 10% of the computing time demanded by autodock. In comparison to other docking techniques as gold 3.0, dock 6.0, flexx 2.2.0, autodock 3.05, and sodock, pso@autodock provides the smallest rmsd values for 12 in 37 protein,ligand complexes. The average rmsd value of 1.4 is significantly lower then those obtained with the other docking programs, which are all above 2.0 . Thus, pso@autodock is suggested as a highly efficient docking program in terms of speed and quality for flexible peptide,protein docking and virtual screening studies. [source]